Apple patent involves encoding video data
TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Apple patent involves encoding video data

An Apple patent (number 8018994) for selecting encoding types and predictive mode for encoding types and predictive modes for encoding video data. It's directed towards selecting encoding types and predictive modes for encoding video data.

In some embodiments, a method of determining encoding type and predictive mode(s) selections for a macroblock of a video frame is provided. In some embodiments, a general method 1) selects the encoding type (16.times.16 or 4.times.4) that is initially considered for a macroblock using an encoding type selection algorithm (based on an attribute of the macroblock that is easy to compute), 2) if the 16.times.16 encoding type is selected in step 1, consider the four 16.times.16 prediction modes that may be used on the macroblock using conventional methods or an improved 16.times.16 predictive mode search algorithm based on distortion thresholds, and 3) if the 4.times.4 encoding type is selected in step 1, select the 4.times.4 prediction mode to be used for each of the sixteen 4.times.4 blocks of the macroblock using conventional methods or an improved 4.times.4 predictive mode search algorithm based on the positional relationships between predictive modes. The inventors ate Xin Tong and Xiaocun Nie.

Here's Apple's background and summary of the invention: "A video stream is comprised of a sequence of video frames where each frame is comprised of multiple macroblocks. Each macroblock is typically a 16.times.16 array of pixels, although other sizes of macroblocks are also possible. Video codecs (COmpressor-DECompressor) are software, hardware, or combined software and hardware implementations of compression algorithms designed to encode/compress and decode/decompress video data streams to reduce the size of the streams for faster transmission and smaller storage space. While lossy, video codecs attempt to maintain video quality while compressing the binary data of a video stream. Examples of popular video codecs include WMV, RealVideo, as well as implementations of compression standards such as MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.261, H.263, and H.264.

"Under H.264 compression standards, a macroblock of a video frame can be intra encoded as a 16.times.16 pixel array, the pixel values of the array being predicted using values calculated from previously encoded macroblocks. A 16.times.16 macroblock can also be intra encoded as sixteen 4.times.4 pixel arrays, where pixel values in each 4.times.4 array are predicted using values calculated from previously encoded 4.times.4 arrays. There are 4 possible intra prediction modes for 16.times.16 arrays (luma blocks) and 9 possible intra prediction modes for 4.times.4 arrays (luma blocks).

"As such, in encoding a macroblock, two determinations (selections) must be made: 1) whether the macroblock is to be encoded as a 16.times.16 array (referred to herein as 16.times.16 encoding) or as sixteen 4.times.4 arrays (referred to herein as 4.times.4 encoding), and 2) the predictive mode(s) to be used to encode the macroblock. For example, if it is determined that the macroblock is to be encoded as a 16.times.16 array, it must also be determined which of the four predictive modes for the 16.times.16 array is to be used.

"If it is determined that the macroblock is to be encoded as a sixteen 4.times.4 arrays, it must also be determined, for each of the sixteen 4.times.4 arrays, which of the nine predictive modes for the 4.times.4 array is to be used. Step 1 is referred to herein as encoding type selection and step 2 is referred to herein as predictive mode selection.

"Encoding type selection and predictive mode selection are made using cost functions. For example, cost functions are typically used to determine whether a macroblock is to be encoded as a 16.times.16 array or as sixteen 4.times.4 arrays where the type of encoding (16.times.16 or 4.times.4 encoding) having the lower cost is chosen. Cost is typically equal to the distortion or the weighted average of distortion plus an estimate of the number of bits produced by the prediction mode, where an increase in distortion and/or number of bits increases the cost.

"Distortion reflects the difference between original pixel values and predicted (or encoded) values and can be measured in various ways. For example, distortion can be measured as the sum of the absolute differences between the original pixel values and predicted (or encoded) values.

"An exhaustive search approach to selecting an optimal encoding type (16.times.16 or 4.times.4 encoding) and optimal predictive mode(s) for a macroblock involves determining costs of all four 16.times.16 prediction modes and all combinations of nine 4.times.4 prediction modes for sixteen 4.times.4 blocks in the macroblock, where a 16.times.16 prediction mode or a particular combination of 4.times.4 prediction modes that gives the lowest cost is selected. For each macroblock, the exhaustive search approach requires consideration of 9^16 different combinations of 4.times.4 prediction modes, rendering the exhaustive search approach practically infeasible.

"As such, the following operations are typically performed to determine the encoding type and predictive mode(s) for a macroblock: 1) Compute the cost of all four possible 16.times.16 predictive modes. 2) For each of the sixteen 4.times.4 blocks, select the predictive mode (among the 9 predictive modes) having the lowest cost, and then compute the total cost of the resulting combination (i.e., the sum cost of the sixteen determined costs). 3) Compare the cost determined at step 1 with the cost determined at step 2 and select the lowest one. This selection provides both the encoding type selection and the predictive mode(s) selection.

"The conventional approach, however, still involves determining costs for 9.times.16 different combinations of the 4.times.4 predictive modes plus the costs for the four 16.times.16 predictive modes."

-- Dennis Sellers

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

NetShade 6.3.1 - Browse privately using...
NetShade is an anonymous proxy and VPN app+service for Mac. Unblock your Internet through NetShade's high-speed proxy and VPN servers spanning seven countries. NetShade masks your IP address as you... Read more
Dragon Dictate 4.0.7 - Premium voice-rec...
With Dragon Dictate speech recognition software, you can use your voice to create and edit text or interact with your favorite Mac applications. Far more than just speech-to-text, Dragon Dictate lets... Read more
Persecond 1.0.2 - Timelapse video made e...
Persecond is the easy, fun way to create a beautiful timelapse video. Import an image sequence from any camera, trim the length of your video, adjust the speed and playback direction, and you’re done... Read more
GIMP 2.8.14p2 - Powerful, free image edi...
GIMP is a multi-platform photo manipulation tool. GIMP is an acronym for GNU Image Manipulation Program. The GIMP is suitable for a variety of image manipulation tasks, including photo retouching,... Read more
Sandvox 2.10.2 - Easily build eye-catchi...
Sandvox is for Mac users who want to create a professional looking website quickly and easily. With Sandvox, you don't need to be a Web genius to build a stylish, feature-rich, standards-compliant... Read more
LibreOffice 5.0.1.2 - Free, open-source...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
f.lux 36.1 - Adjusts the color of your d...
f.lux makes the color of your computer's display adapt to the time of day, warm at night and like sunlight during the day. Ever notice how people texting at night have that eerie blue glow? Or wake... Read more
VirtualBox 5.0.2 - x86 virtualization so...
VirtualBox is a family of powerful x86 virtualization products for enterprise as well as home use. Not only is VirtualBox an extremely feature rich, high performance product for enterprise customers... Read more
File Juicer 4.43 - Extract images, video...
File Juicer is a drag-and-drop can opener and data archaeologist. Its specialty is to find and extract images, video, audio, or text from files which are hard to open in other ways. In computer... Read more
Apple MainStage 3.2 - Live performance t...
MainStage 3 makes it easy to bring to the stage all the same instruments and effects that you love in your recording. Everything from the Sound Library and Smart Controls you're familiar with from... Read more

ReBoard: Revolutionary Keyboard (Utilit...
ReBoard: Revolutionary Keyboard 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Utilities Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Do everything within the keyboard without switching apps! If you are in WhatsApp, how do you schedule a... | Read more »
Tiny Empire (Games)
Tiny Empire 1.1.3 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.1.3 (iTunes) Description: Launch cannonballs and blow tiny orcs into thousands of pieces in this intuitive fantasy-themed puzzle shooter! Embark on an... | Read more »
Astropad Mini (Productivity)
Astropad Mini 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Productivity Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: *** 50% off introductory price! ​*** Get the high-end experience of a Wacom tablet at a fraction of the price with Astropad... | Read more »
Emo Chorus (Music)
Emo Chorus 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Music Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Realistic Choir simulator ranging from simple Chorus emulation to full ensemble Choir with 128 members. ### introductory offer... | Read more »
Forest Spirit (Games)
Forest Spirit 1.0.5 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.5 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Ski Safari 2 (Games)
Ski Safari 2 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The world's most fantastical, fun, family-friendly skiing game is back and better than ever! Play as Sven's sister Evana, share... | Read more »
Lara Croft GO (Games)
Lara Croft GO 1.0.47768 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.47768 (iTunes) Description: Lara Croft GO is a turn based puzzle-adventure set in a long-forgotten world. Explore the ruins of an ancient... | Read more »
Whispering Willows (Games)
Whispering Willows 1.23 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.23 (iTunes) Description: **LAUNCH SALE 50% OFF** - Whispering Willows is on sale for 50% off ($4.99) until September 9th. | Read more »
Calvino Noir (Games)
Calvino Noir 1.1 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.1 (iTunes) Description: The film noir stealth game. Calvino Noir is the exploratory, sneaking adventure through the 1930s European criminal underworld.... | Read more »
Angel Sword (Games)
Angel Sword 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $6.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Prepare to adventure in the most epic full scale multiplayer 3D RPG for mobile! Experience amazing detailed graphics in full HD.... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Tablet Screen Sizes Expanding as iPad Pro App...
Larger screen sizes are gaining favor as the tablet transforms into a productivity device, with shipments growing 185 percent year-over-year in 2015. According to a new Strategy Analytics’ Tablet... Read more
Today Only: Save US$50 on Adobe Elements 13;...
Keep the memories. lose the distractions. Summer’s winding down and it’s time to turn almost perfect shots into picture perfect memories with Elements 13. And get the power to edit both photos and... Read more
1.4GHz Mac mini on sale for $449, save $50
Best Buy has the 1.4GHz Mac mini on sale for $50 off MSRP on their online store. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Price for online orders only, in-store price may vary... Read more
12-inch 1.1GHz Gold MacBook on sale for $1149...
B&H Photo has the 12″ 1.1GHz Gold Retina MacBook on sale for $1149.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $150 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this... Read more
27-inch 3.3GHz 5K iMac on sale for $1849, sav...
Best Buy has the 27″ 3.3GHz 5K iMac on sale for $1849.99. Their price is $150 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if... Read more
Worldwide Tablet Shipments Expected to Declin...
Does Apple badly need a touchscreen convertible/hybrid laptop MacBook? Yes, judging from a new market forecast from the International Data Corporation (IDC) Worldwide Quarterly Tablet Tracker, which... Read more
Continued PC Shipment Shrinkage Expected Thro...
Worldwide PC shipments are expected to fall by -8.7 percent in 2015 and not stabilize until 2017, according to the latest International Data Corporation (IDC) Worldwide Quarterly PC Tracker data. The... Read more
Imminent iPhone 6s Announcement Leads To 103%...
NextWorth Solutions, with its online and in-store electronics trade-in programs including http://NextWorth.com, reports that it has experienced a 103 percent surge in quoted trade-in values over the... Read more
Weekend Deal: 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros for...
Save up to $100 on the purchase of a new 2015 13″ Retina MacBook Pro at the following resellers this weekend. Shipping is free with each model: 2.7GHz/128GB MSRP $1299 2.7GHz/... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $999,...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $999.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Read more

Jobs Board

Senior Payments Security Manager - *Apple*...
**Job Summary** Apple , Inc. is looking for a highly motivated, innovative and hands-on senior payments security manager to join the Apple Pay security team. You will Read more
Software QA Engineer, *Apple* Pay Security...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
Business Process Engineer ( *Apple* Online S...
**Job Summary** The Apple Online Support Planning team is looking for an experienced Business Process engineer to lead key business process improvement initiatives Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
Product Design Engineer - *Apple* Watch - A...
**Job Summary** Product Design Engineer Job Description As a member of Apple 's Watch product design team, you will help to create the next generation of the world's Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.