The Canadian Alliance Against Software Theft (CAAST), in conjunction with the Business Software Alliance (BSA), has released the results of a study conducted by the International Planning & Research Group (IPR) showing that the national software piracy rate in Canada is 38 percent. While software piracy in Canada has declined over the past two years, the Canadian software industry lost a combined C$457 million in retail sales of business software applications, $1.9 billion in wage and salary loss, and more than 32,000 jobs in 2000. Apple is a member of both CAAST and BSA.