TweetFollow Us on Twitter

An Introduction to Kerberos and Single Signon

Volume Number: 21 (2005)
Issue Number: 2
Column Tag: Programming

Patch Panel

by John C. Welch

An Introduction to Kerberos and Single Signon

How to Get All Your Work Done With Only One Password

One of the single biggest problems that any sysadmin (or user for that matter) has is authentication management. We have lists of passwords that get used for everything. The login password. The email password. The file server password. The SSH password. Dealing with this is beyond painful, especially when you are managing hundreds, or even thousands of machines. As a result, one of the holy grails of network systems everywhere is the Single Signon, (SSO). SSO means you log into your Mac, and that's it. You're done with passwords. You don't have to enter anything again, because the SSO mechanism handles your authentication for you.

One Login To Rule Them All

Fortunately, not only is there an outstanding SSO architecture out there, in the form of MIT's Kerberos, (http://web.mit.edu/kerberos/www/) but that mechanism is integrated into two network architectures that Mac users on a corporate LAN are going to use a lot: Apple's Open Directory and Microsoft's Active Directory. In this article, we'll take a look at the basics of Kerberos, and how Apple uses it to make your networked life a little simpler. Please note that while we'll talk about basic Kerberos principles, this isn't a detailed analysis of Kerberos, so if you're looking for a howto on complex Kerberos implementations, this article isn't it. Also note that we're using a very simple simulated Kerberos setup for clarity. They can be as complex as you want them to be. Finally, since Apple bases its Kerberos implementation around Kerberos version 5, that's what we're assuming you have. If you're using Kerberos version 4, some things are going to work differently.

Authentication, Not Authorization

Since Apple's SSO architecture is based around Kerberos, we need to be very clear on the one misconception that will trip up sysadmins new to Kerberos more than anything: Kerberos is an authentication mechanism, not an authorization mechanism. Kerberos' entire purpose is to provide a safe, secure, reasonably convenient way to say that the person logging into the network is who they say they are. It authenticates users. Kerberos does not say what you are allowed to use. That's authorization and while authorization mechanisms can use Kerberos, the actual decision of what you can use once authorized is not a part of Kerberos. It can be hard to wrap your head around this at first, since the two concepts go hand in hand, but the distinction is important.

One way to think of this is via the example of gaining access to a secure network room. There are two parts, authentication and authorization. First, you have to establish your identity to the security system. This is what things like biometrics, mag-stripe cards, prox cards, etc., are for. You use these to establish your identity, or authenticate yourself. Once that's done, that authentication is used by the authorization mechanism to see if you're allowed access. If you are, the door unlocks, and into the server room you go, aka:

    1. "Let me in"

    2. "Who are you"

    3. "I'm Bob"

    4. "Prove it"

    5. "Here's my proof, now let me in"

    6. "Hold on Bob, let me make sure you can go in."

    7. "Okay, you're authorized to get into the server room, I'll unlock the door"

Step 5 is the authentication, step 7 is the authorization. If Bob wasn't allowed access to that room, then step 7 would read as "Yep, you're Bob. But you can't get in, you aren't authorized, sorry about that."

Kerberos is the way that Apple has chosen for that all-important step 5. Now that we know what Kerberos, (or "Kerb" for short) is used for, let's take a look at Kerberos as a thing.

Kerberos, Three Heads, No Waiting

Kerberos is, according to MIT:

"Kerberos is a network authentication protocol. It is designed to provide strong authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography."

While that's a technically accurate description, it's not terribly helpful. A much more useful definition comes from AFP548's (http://www.afp548.com/) series of articles on Kerberos :

"Kerberos does one thing, and only one thing. Lucky for us it happens to do it very well. Kerberos is a method of authentication and only authentication. That means it only validates username password combos. After that it's up to the service using the username and password to do the rest of the work. Kerberos doesn't not authorize a valid user to use a service, and it doesn't provide any services itself. It only authenticates.

Alright, Kerberos authenticates, big deal. There are a lot of authentication methods out there. APOP, Apple's SASL Password Server, PAM and a host of others all do this already. What Kerberos brings to the party is that it allows the authentication of a user without ever having to have that user's password go across the network. Every other popular service either just transmits the password to the server in plain text, or has a convoluted method for encrypting the password and then sending it across the network."

That line about your password never going across the network is critical. It means there's no way for anyone to sniff your password on the network, because it never goes on to the network. If it's not there, it's rather hard to steal it. When I worked for MIT IS, they couldn't use firewalls, since so much of the computing MIT does not only has to remain open, but is too experimental to work well with firewalls, so outside of a very small number of sites, they don't use them. They use Kerberos, and it works very well. (It had better, since if you kick a tree at MIT, twenty hackers fall out, and they're all good.)

This lack of a password means however, that Kerberos never works the way you think it does at first. The way most non-Kerberized, (Note: when a service uses Kerberos for authentication, it's said to be "Kerberized". After all, why have a cool technology if you can't create new words for it?) authentication schemes work is something like this:

    1. "I want to access <resource>"

    2. "Who are you?"

    3. "Bob"

    4. "Prove it"

    5. "Here's my <incrediblyconvolutedencrypted> password"

    6. "Okay, you're Bob"

While this method works, if your password goes out over a network, especially the public Internet, eventually, someone's going to grab it. Moore's law says it will eventually happen.

Kerberos does things differently, and as a result, your password never leaves your machine. So now, let's follow our buddy Bob through a Kerberos login.

First, Bob sits down at his Mac running a current version of Panther, Mac OS X 10.3. (Yes, you can use Kerberos with 10.2.x, but it's kludgy, so if you decide to use Kerb, upgrade to 10.3, you'll be much happier in the long run.) He enters his userID ("admin", since that's what he is) and his password (doesn't matter). Once this happens, Kerberos starts its authentication jive. First, Kerb takes that user id and matches it to the Mac's Kerb realm. A realm, in Kerbspeak is analogous to a DNS domain, and in fact, looks like an all caps version of a domain. So, if MacTech was using Kerb internally, their realm would probably look like: MACTECH.COM. Realms are pretty simple, they're just the basic organizational unit for Kerberos, and are how you keep track of what resources are part of what group. You can have multiple realms working together, either cross-linked, in what's called a cross-realm trust, (i.e. MACTECH.COM and XPLAIN.COM agree to trust each other to authenticate users on the other's realm) or hierarchally, (i.e. you have XPLAIN.COM, and MACTECH.XPLAIN.COM as a subrealm of XPLAIN.COM.) In our case, Bob's user id is joined up with his realm to produce his Kerberos Principle, (aka Kerberos user id), and looks rather like a funky email address: admin@REALM.COM.

Kerberos takes this principle and sends it as plain text across the network to the Kerberos Domain Controller, or KDC. Since this is just a user id, and is not sensitive information, there's no need to encrypt it. The KDC is the center of any given Kerberos realm, (Yes, it probably should be called a KRC, or Kerberos Realm Controller, but it's not.), and contains the database with all the user information for its realm. Along with Bob's principle, his Mac also sends the current time as it knows it, and the principle for the KDC, aka the Ticket Granting Server (TGS, part of the KDC). (We'll explain tickets in just a tick, so hang tight) The TGS principle is always the same, krbtgt/realm name@realm name, so for Bob, his TGS principle is krbtgt/REALM.COM@REALM.COM.

The TGS gets this information, and looks up Bob's principle. It finds admin, and admin's password. However, Bob didn't send this password with his principle, so the KDC doesn't really know that it's the person it knows as admin@REALM.COM. All it knows is that someone claiming to be admin is trying to authenticate to REALM.COM. So, Kerberos does something that's pretty slick. It takes the password that it has for admin@REALM.COM, and uses it to create an encrypted session key. The only thing that can decrypt this is admin@REALM.COM's password. Within this session key is a bit of information called the Ticket Granting Ticket, or TGT.

The TGT is what the authorization system will use to ensure that a properly authenticated admin@REALM.COM is allowed to access various resources. The TGT itself is encrypted with a key known only to the TGS. This is fine, since it's the only thing that cares about the contents of the TGT. This encrypted TGT is then encrypted again within the session key that only admin@REALM.COM's key can decrypt. So basically, you need an unencrypted encrypted TGT to do anything. It's a little hard to explain, but it's like this: You ask for a TGT. You get back a little black box with a thumbprint scanner. The TGT is a USB key that has all the info on you. But to use it, you have to unlock the little black box that contains this USB key. What's on the key is not important to you. What's important is that you have the right thumbprint. If you do, groovy, you can now use the TGT. If not, then you can't.

So, the TGS sends this little black box back to Bob's Mac. The Kerb system on the Mac takes the password that Bob typed in, (or however he got it. You can use Kerberos with biometrics, RSA smart cards, USB keys, whatever you feel comfortable with. "Password" is not always a human - typed string), and decrypts the session key. If the passwords are the same, Bob now has a valid TGT, and a nice krbtgt ticket, which will allow him to get other tickets and access to other services. Note that at no time did admin's password travel across the network. It never will either. From now on, the TGT, which can only be decrypted by the KDC/TGS does all the work. If Bob were to open up the Kerberos application in /System/Library/CoreServices right now, he'd see the following:


Figure 1. Kerberos setup after initial authentication

So while this is cool, it's kind of a so what. I mean, great, Bob's authenticated as admin, has his initial tickets. What good does this do him? Well, if that was all Kerb did, not much. Logging into a Mac is nothing new; logging into a Mac with a centralized authentication system isn't new. The cool part of Kerberos comes from the Single Signon abilities it gives you. So, now that Bob's got all his tickets, he needs to mount an Apple File Protocol, (AFP) share to get some files for a project he's working on. He finds the server in the Finder, or the connect to server dialog, and gets a list of shares, picks the one he wants, and mounts it.

Wait, how did Bob do that when he didn't have to enter a password or log in at all? Are they allowing guest access? No, they're taking advantage of Mac OS X Server's Kerberized AFP services. After Bob mounts that AFP share, if you looked at the Kerberos application, you'd see something new: an AFP ticket.


Figure 2. Kerberos showing AFP server tickets

So now what happened here? Well, when Bob accessed the Kerberized AFP server, Kerberos on his Mac took his TGT, and added a request to access that AFP server and sent it off to the KDC. Remember, passwords never travel across the network with Kerberos, and the KDC controls all for the domain, so rather than the AFP server handling the authentication part of this request, the KDC does. The KDC knows that it sent out the same TGT it's now getting to admin@REALM.COM, so when it gets the TGT and the AFP access request from Bob, it decrypts the TGT and can validate it locally. Again, no password on the wire, but it's all secure. Along with the access request and the TGT, Bob's machine packs an authenticator, which is a timestamp that's been encrypted with Bob's session key. The authenticator is there to ensure that every access request is unique. Without this, an attacker could just look for TGTs, copy them, and then use them to fake access.

This brings up another point that can cause problem for sysadmins new to Kerberos: Time Synchronization. Since the authenticator is a timestamp, all the machines in a Kerb realm have to have their clocks synchronized (usually to within five minutes of each other). Otherwise, there's no way the KDC can use the timestamp, since, if there was no synchronization requirement, you could use any timestamp you want, or just capture an earlier session key and use that forever. The other reason for time synchronization is that Kerb tickets have a time limit, usually ten hours. If you look at the earlier screen shots of the Kerberos application, you can see a "Time Remaining" column. This is the time left on the validity of the tickets. There's a very good reason for this. It ensures that even if you don't log out, you have to periodically reauthenticate. (One way to handle the time synchronization issue is the make the KDC machine the time server for your network, and have everything synch off of it. It's not the only way by a long shot, time synchronization is a well - solved problem.)

Face it, we aren't perfect about logging out. Especially if you have jobs that are going to take a long time to run, you don't want to log out. Well, if you had valid access for...well, forever then an attacker could more easily subvert your nice Kerb system. So, tickets expire. Now, you can renew tickets any number of ways. In Panther, any time you log in, whether new, via Fast User Switching, or even from the screen saver, that's Kerberized, so you're reauthenticating yourself. If you haven't reauthenticated in a period of time decided by the KDC, you'll be asked to reauthenticate by Kerberos while you're logged in, as shown in the picture below.


Figure 3. Kerberos Authenication while logged in

Now, getting back to Bob's desire to get onto his AFP server, the KDC gets this request, the TGT and the authenticator. The TGT and the authenticator work to show it's still admin@REALM.COM, and that the TGT is still valid. The request itself is the service principle for the AFP server in REALM.COM that Bob wants access to. (Within Kerberos, everything uses a principle to identify itself. Users, services, and KDCs, they all have principles.) For AFP, this looks like: afpserver/server@realm. The KDC gets this information, and uses the session key to validate the user. It takes the TGT, which contains the user principle, and uses that to create a service ticket. The service ticket has two parts, the service principle, and the session key. This session key is created by the KDC and used to validate the user again. Both of these items are now encrypted again by the KDC with a password known only by the KDC and the service, in this case, the AFP server Bob wants access to. The KDC also includes a copy of this session key that is encrypted with the session key that was first created when Bob logged in. This way, Bob has a copy of the session key, which he'll need, even though he can't read the data in the session key. That's fine, since he doesn't need to.

Bob's Mac gets all this, ((session key & service principle) and a second session key) and sends the first session key and service principle (the ones encrypted by the KDC with the password that only the KDC and the service know), and sends this, unchanged to the server, along with an authenticator, which is a timestamp like the one it sent to the KDC earlier when Bob started this whole process of getting on to the AFP server. It encrypts this with the second session key that it got from the KDC. The service gets all this, and does a couple things. First, it decrypts the session key & service principle that is encrypted with the password that only it and the KDC know about. If this works, then the service gets access to that session key, which it then uses to decrypt the second session key that has encrypted the authenticator that Bob's Mac sent too. If both of these operations work, then there is an extremely high probability that this is in fact, a legitimate request from admin@REALM.COM, and that this admin is indeed who it claims it is. If all this checks out, the AFP server is happy that this is a legitimate user. It can then see what admin@REALM.COM, is authorized to use as far as shares go. If admin@REALM.COM, is authorized to use shares on that server, then Bob gets his list of shares, mounts the one(s) he wants and voila! He's working on files on his AFP server.

While this seems incredibly complicated, and is kind of is, what Bob sees is:

    1. Pick the server he has access to

    2. Pick the share he wants to mount

    3. Do work

With Kerberos' SSO implementation, all the complexity is handled below the user level, as it should be, so that user can do what they need to do, and it just works.

SSO Does Not Suck

That's the real beauty of Kerberos and SSO. As long as the service you're trying to use is Kerberized, you don't have to constantly log in and log out. With Mac OS X Server, almost every service is Kerberized, including things like ssh, FTP, IMAP, POP, AFP, and SMTP. (No, Windows services like SMB aren't Kerberized in Panther, but hopefully in Tiger they will be.) So you can get email, transfer files, run applications on remote servers, even ssh into a remote server, and never have to enter a password once you get past the initial login. How cool is that? Very, especially if you're a sysadmin with users that can only handle one password. When it comes time to change a password, you only have to do it one time, and you change it for every Kerberized service. Another cool feature is that since Microsoft's Active Directory uses Kerberos, you can integrate your Macs into an Active Directory environment, and still get all the benefits that SSO has to offer. A final nice benefit is that with Kerb, you can get tickets as any user you have login information for. So, you can log in as one level of user, but only get access to certain items as another level of user, by logging into Kerberos as that second user. It sounds funny, but it's a handy trick if you need it.

Now, SSO and Kerberos are not magic. While the services may be Kerberized, that's only half the picture. The clients you use to get to the services also have to be Kerberized. So the AFP client in the Finder is Kerberized, as is ssh on Panther. However, if you want a fully Kerberized FTP client, Fetch is the major name you'll see. For email, you have to use a Kerberized email application, like Mail, Eudora, or others. (No, Microsoft Entourage is not Kerberized, even though Exchange, and Outlook are, a point of no small annoyance to those of us wanting to move to an SSO world as much as possible, and no, the Keychain doesn't count.)

As well, while Kerberos keeps passwords from crossing the wire, it doesn't magically make them secure. Using a password of "password" is still going to leave you wide open to attack. There's no way around it; even with Kerberos, password quality is critical.

Finally, even though Apple has made it really easy to get started with Kerberos on your network, there's a ton more to it than you'll find in Apple's documentation. I really, really recommend that you spend a lot of time on the sites in this article, (also listed at the end of the article) and with the O'Reilly book on Kerberos. It's easy to make a silly mistake with Kerb that will cause you many problems down the road, so a little planning on the front end will save you a ton of agony on the back end. You aren't going to get full integration with other Kerb realms or Active Directory by winging it. If you're going to be running an Open Directory Realm, I cannot recommend strongly enough that you spend the money on the Apple server courses, taught by Schoun Regan, Mike Bartosh, Joel Rennich, and others. They will save you more pain than you thought could exist in the world of being a sysadmin, and will save you the course cost in time spent not undoing mistakes within a year of taking them, heck, probably within months.

Conclusion

I hope this (very) simplistic look at Kerberos and Single Signon helps you out, whatever your network setup is. While the setup can be a bear, and wrapping your head around Kerberos can be daunting, once you get it, you'll wonder why more things aren't Kerberized, because it's just so silly to not be Kerberized.

Bibliography

  • Garman, Jason "Kerberos: The Definitive Guide". (August 2003), O'Reilly & Associates.

Web sites with pertinent articles:

  • http://www.afp548.com/ (Not just for Kerberos. If you're a Mac administrator, you need this site.)
  • http://www.4am-media.com/modules.php?name=Articles (three excellent articles on Kerberos by Mike Bartosh, who knows more than almost everyone about Kerberos and Mac OS X implementations)
  • http://web.mit.edu/is/kerberos/www/ (The home page for Kerberos. Marshall, Alexa, Scott, and the rest of the MIT Kerb team do amazing work, and without them, and a lot of other people at MIT (and Apple too!), we wouldn't have this really cool technology on our OS of choice.)
  • Starts at http://www.afp548.com/articles/panther/kerberos1.html, and was invaluable as a source for this article. If you run Mac networks, you need to read this site, it's one of the best ones out there. Joel, Josh, and all the others do a fantastic job. Yes, I'm gushing, they earned it.

John Welch (jwelch@provar.com) is an IT Staff Member for Kansas City Life Insurance, a Technical Strategist for Provar, (http://www.provar.com/) and the Chief Know-It-All for TackyShirt, (http://www.tackyshirt.com/. He has over fifteen years of experience at making Macs work with other computer systems. John specializes in figuring out ways in which to make the Mac do what nobody thinks it can, showing that the Mac is a superior administrative platform, and teaching others how to use it in interesting, if sometimes frightening ways. He also does things that don't involve computertry on occasion, or at least that's the rumor.

 
AAPL
$97.67
Apple Inc.
+0.64
MSFT
$44.50
Microsoft Corpora
+0.10
GOOG
$589.02
Google Inc.
-4.33

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

TinkerTool 5.3 - Expanded preference set...
TinkerTool is an application that gives you access to additional preference settings Apple has built into Mac OS X. This allows to activate hidden features in the operating system and in some of the... Read more
Audio Hijack Pro 2.11.0 - Record and enh...
Audio Hijack Pro drastically changes the way you use audio on your computer, giving you the freedom to listen to audio when you want and how you want. Record and enhance any audio with Audio Hijack... Read more
Intermission 1.1.1 - Pause and rewind li...
Intermission allows you to pause and rewind live audio from any application on your Mac. Intermission will buffer up to 3 hours of audio, allowing users to skip through any assortment of audio... Read more
Autopano Giga 3.6 - Stitch multiple imag...
Autopano Giga allows you to stitch 2, 20, or 2,000 images. Version 3.0 integrates impressive new features that will definitely make you adopt Autopano Pro or Autopano Giga: Choose between 9... Read more
Airfoil 4.8.7 - Send audio from any app...
Airfoil allows you to send any audio to AirPort Express units, Apple TVs, and even other Macs and PCs, all in sync! It's your audio - everywhere. With Airfoil you can take audio from any... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.8 - Connect...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more
xACT 2.30 - Audio compression toolkit. (...
xACT stands for X Aaudio Compression Toolkit, an application that encodes and decodes FLAC, SHN, Monkey’s Audio, TTA, Wavpack, and Apple Lossless files. It also can encode these formats to MP3, AAC... Read more
Firefox 31.0 - Fast, safe Web browser. (...
Firefox for Mac offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals... Read more
Little Snitch 3.3.3 - Alerts you to outg...
Little Snitch gives you control over your private outgoing data. Track background activityAs soon as your computer connects to the Internet, applications often have permission to send any... Read more
Thunderbird 31.0 - Email client from Moz...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Reddme for iPhone - The Reddit Client (...
Reddme for iPhone - The Reddit Client 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: News Price: $.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Reddme for iPhone is an iOS 7-optimized Reddit client that offers a refreshing new way to experience Reddit... | Read more »
Jacob Jones and the Bigfoot Mystery : Ep...
Jacob Jones and the Bigfoot Mystery : Episode 2 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Jacob Jones is back in Episode 2 of one of Apples 'Best of 2013' games and an App Store... | Read more »
New Trailer For Outcast Odyssey, A New K...
New Trailer For Outcast Odyssey, A New Kind of Card Battler Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 25th, 2014 [ permalink ] Out this Fall is a new kind of card battle game: Outcast Odyssey. | Read more »
Garfield: Survival of the Fattest Coming...
Garfield: Survival of the Fattest Coming to iOS this Fall Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 25th, 2014 [ permalink ] Who loves lasagna? Me. Also everyone’s favorite grumpy fat cat, Garfield. | Read more »
Happy Flock Review
Happy Flock Review By Andrew Fisher on July 25th, 2014 Our Rating: :: HERD IT ALL BEFOREUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Underneath the gloss of Happy Flock’s visuals is a game of very little substance. It’s cute, but... | Read more »
Square Register Updates Adds Offline Pay...
Square Register Updates Adds Offline Payments Posted by Ellis Spice on July 25th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Looking For Group – Hearthstone’s Curse...
For the first time since its release (which has thankfully been a much shorter window for iPad players than their PC counterparts), Blizzard’s wildly successful Hearthstone: Heroes of Warcraft CCG is sporting some brand new content: the single... | Read more »
Poptile Review
Poptile Review By Jennifer Allen on July 25th, 2014 Our Rating: :: SIMPLY FUNUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Simple yet a little bit glorious, Poptile is a satisfying entertaining puzzle game with oodles of the ‘one... | Read more »
Modern Combat 5: Blackout Review
Modern Combat 5: Blackout Review By Brittany Vincent on July 25th, 2014 Our Rating: :: LESS QQ, MORE PEW PEWUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad The fifth entry into the blockbuster Modern Combat series is what mobile... | Read more »
Watch and Share Mobile Gameplay Videos W...
Watch and Share Mobile Gameplay Videos With Kamcord Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 25th, 2014 [ permalink ] iPhone App - Designed for the iPhone, compatible with the iPad | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

iMacs on sale for $150 off MSRP, $250 off for...
Best Buy has iMacs on sale for up to $160 off MSRP for a limited time. Choose free home shipping or free instant local store pickup (if available). Prices are valid for online orders only, in-store... Read more
Mac minis on sale for $100 off MSRP, starting...
Best Buy has Mac minis on sale for $100 off MSRP. Choose free shipping or free instant local store pickup. Prices are for online orders only, in-store prices may vary: 2.5GHz Mac mini: $499.99 2.3GHz... Read more
Global Tablet Market Grows 11% in Q2/14 Notwi...
Worldwide tablet sales grew 11.0 percent year over year in the second quarter of 2014, with shipments reaching 49.3 million units according to preliminary data from the International Data Corporation... Read more
New iPhone 6 Models to Have Staggered Release...
Digitimes’ Cage Chao and Steve Shen report that according to unnamed sources in Apple’s upstream iPhone supply chain, the new 5.5-inch iPhone will be released several months later than the new 4.7-... Read more
New iOS App Helps People Feel Good About thei...
Mobile shoppers looking for big savings at their favorite stores can turn to the Goodshop app, a new iOS app with the latest coupons and deals at more than 5,000 online stores. In addition to being a... Read more
Save on 5th generation refurbished iPod touch...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 5th generation iPod touches available starting at $149. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free. Many, but not all... Read more
What Should Apple’s Next MacBook Priority Be;...
Stabley Times’ Phil Moore says that after expanding its iMac lineup with a new low end model, Apple’s next Mac hardware decision will be how it wants to approach expanding its MacBook lineup as well... Read more
ArtRage For iPhone Painting App Free During C...
ArtRage for iPhone is currently being offered for free (regularly $1.99) during Comic-Con San Diego #SDCC, July 24-27, in celebration of the upcoming ArtRage 4.5 and other 64-bit versions of the... Read more
With The Apple/IBM Alliance, Is The iPad Now...
Almost since the iPad was rolled out in 2010, and especially after Apple made a 128 GB storage configuration available in 2012, there’s been debate over whether the iPad is a serious tool for... Read more
MacBook Airs on sale starting at $799, free s...
B&H Photo has the new 2014 MacBook Airs on sale for up to $100 off MSRP for a limited time. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. They also include free copies of Parallels... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Sr Software Lead Engineer, *Apple* Online S...
Sr Software Lead Engineer, Apple Online Store Publishing Systems Keywords: Company: Apple Job Code: E3PCAK8MgYYkw Location (City or ZIP): Santa Clara Status: Full Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.