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CGIs in Lisp
Volume Number:12
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Webtech™

CGIs in Lisp

A Web dictionary server

By Mathieu Lafourcade and Gilles Sérasset

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.


A paper dictionary is fine for reading comfort, versatility, etc., but updating of the data is not possible (apart from buying a new dictionary!), and the amount of data may be smaller than an electronic version. A resident electronic dictionary allows cut and paste, and updates are generally possible; but, like the paper dictionary, you must carry it along (in your hard disk). The Web-based dictionary doesn’t take any space on your hard disk; the memory footprint is that of your Web browser. On the other hand you do rely on the availability of the network and/or server.

This article describes how a Web server offering multilingual dictionary services was set up by integrating three components: MacHTTP, AppleScript, and Macintosh Common Lisp (MCL). The dictionary server is constructed from a dictionary application, ALEX, written with MCL. This application can be remotely (and facelessly if needed) controlled with AppleScript. Given this design, the connection with MacHTTP is painless. The result is a very cost-effective way of providing a large linguistic resource on the Web.

Our developmental approach was to come up with something functional as fast as possible and to enhance the solution afterward. We had to compromise between functionality delivered to the user, performance, and the technical implications for the developer.

We first describe a typical user session; you can try this out yourself by pointing to the URL from your own browser (you can see the URL in Figure 1). The general architecture of the server is then presented, followed by some technical details about the three components.

Note: The included sources have often been trimmed to keep this article as short as possible - for instance, the error handling is generally not included.

Figure 1. Initial Web page of the server

A Typical User Session

The Web page displays a form (Figure 1). The user can choose a dictionary, enter a word to look up, and click on the “Look up” button. It is possible to terminate the candidate word with an asterisk; in this case the first entry which starts with the text entered is returned.

A new page appears displaying the information associated with the word entered (Figure 2). If the entry is not found, a (friendly) error message is given. Beside the title (corresponding to the word looked up), the user has access to links to the previous word (if any), to the form (just like pressing the “Back” button of the Web client), or to the next word (if any). This way, the user can walk through the entire dictionary.

Figure 2. The data displayed for the entry “apple”;
the source of this page is given in Listing 10

For example, the user can click on the previous entry “applause” and obtain the corresponding page (Figure 3). The user can continue to scan the dictionary or can return to the form and choose an other entry or dictionary.

Figure 3. The web page for the entry “applause”

The HTML Form

The form used as an interface between user and server, the starting point of a session, is a plain HTML page. The link between this page and the application handling the action is made in the form declaration. The standard POST method is used for sending the message from the server to the application, wAlex.acgi.

We assume you are familiar with HTML (if not, check out the numerous informative pages available on the Web). The <FORM> tag specifies a form, which may include various items, such as text input (text field) and select input (menu). Notice that many less common characters (in English at least) are represented a specific way (for example the “ç” as "&ccedil"), and this is the beginning of big problems when you decide to deal with other languages, like French for instance.

Listing 1:
HTML Source of Figure 1

The dictionary lookup form

All the cosmetic and informative stuff at the beginning of the page.
   <img ALIGN=middle src="" 
   <img ALIGN=middle src="">
<H1><FONT SIZE=+7>GENERIC</FONT><B>R dictionary web service</H1>

The form definition starts here.

  <P>To look up for a word fill the text field below and click in the 
button "Submit". 
You can search by prefixes by adding the character "*" at the end of 
the entry.<B>R
  <TD ALIGN=CENTE>REntry to look up <INPUT TYPE="text" NAME="Entry" VALUE="" 
<OPTION VALUE="2">Fran&ccedil;ais-Malais
<OPTION VALUE="3">English-Malay
<OPTION VALUE="1">informatique Fran&ccedil;ais-Anglais-Malais

The Submit button is defined here.

One hidden item giving the name of the form we are in.
<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN NAME="FormName" VALUE="web-generic-ds.html">
The form definition ends here.

Some links to specific dictionary forms are presented here.
Or if you prefer, you can go to specific form for each of these dictionaries. 

These forms allows filtering. <B>R
<A HREF="">Fran&ccedil;ais-Malais</A> 
<A HREF="">English-Malay</A> -
<A HREF="">informatique Fran&ccedil;ais-Anglais-Malais</A> 

The signature ends the page.
<P><IMG ALIGN = MIDDLE src=""></br>
<FONT SIZE = 1> Last revision 24/11/95 - ALEXv1.84 - wALEXv0.8  <IMG 
<A HREF="">mathieu lafourcade</A> -
<A HREF="">GETA</A>-<A HREF="">IMAG</A> | 
<A HREF="">csUSM</A>-<A>UTMK</A> <IMG SRC=""> 

 Thanks to: Jon Wiederspan for CGI, all the FEM staff
for the dictionaries, USM dan UTMK, IMAG and GETA, and every person who 
gave me some feedback.

Opening Pandora’s Box

How does the information get from the browser to the server to the Dictionary Service? In form-based queries, there are two methods (POST and GET) for submitting the data to the gateway script. We use only POST, as recommended by NCSA. POST (unlike GET) is not limited in the amount of information you can pass with a form.

A gateway script is needed on the server side to decode these arguments, process the query, and return an answer. In our case we have MacHTTP (the server application) and our MCL-based application, ALEX (which serves dictionary data). We have tested two different architectures for connecting MacHTTP to ALEX.

In the first solution, we transformed ALEX, our MCL appplication, itself into an acgi script. The second solution uses a small AppleScript applet to make the glue between MacHTTP and ALEX. Both methods have their own advantages and drawbacks.

ALEX (MCL) As a CGI Application

In the first solution MacHTTP interacts directly with ALEX, our MCL application (Figure 4). To make MacHTTP believe it is an acgi script, the name of the application must end with “.acgi”. When MacHTTP receives a query from a WWW client requesting a file whose suffix mapping is “.acgi” (an executable application), MacHTTP will attempt to communicate with it via a custom Apple event of class 'WWW ' and ID 'sdoc'. We want the received request to be handled by ALEX; hence, our application has to listen (at least) to this particular Apple event. For this solution, we also have to change the name of the form action in the HTML file to wAlex.acgi (which is the name of our MCL application).

MCL directly supports the four required Apple events sent by the Finder: Open Application, Open Documents, Print Documents, and Quit Application. In addition, MCL provides a very easy way to support other Apple events by writing and installing new Apple event handlers.

Figure 4. MacHTTP communicates directly with ALEX transformed into an ACGI application

Handling Apple events

An Apple event handler is a generic function specialized on the application class. Hence it is possible to customize the behaviour of the predefined Apple event handlers by specializing the application class. This is not necessary for our purpose. However, we have to write a new handler for the CGI event.

As MCL bypasses the Apple Event Manager’s dispatch routine, you don’t have to bother with how your function is called by the Apple Event Manager. Lisp takes care of dispatching and run-time error checking. If no error occurs, your handler should simply return in a normal way. The returned value is ignored. If an error occurs, your handler should signal an appleevent-error condition, with an error number and an optional error string.

An Apple event handler has four arguments: the application (always the value of the global variable *application*), the Apple event (you generally don’t have to look at the record structure directly), the reply (another Apple event record, provided by the Apple Event Manager) and an optional handler reference constant (any Lisp object that can be used e.g. to distinguish two different installations of the same handler; this will be ignored for our purpose). Look at Listing 4.

Decoding arguments

MacHTTP provides a lot of information (client address, user name and password, arguments of the request, etc.). MacHTTP’s documentation will give you the complete set of parameters and their four-byte codes.

To get the value associated with each parameter, you have to use the ae-get-parameter-char function. You specify the AppleEvent object and the parameter, and the function returns a string containing the required value.

In our case, we assume that the client issues a POST method (the GET method case can be easily deduced from this code). Hence, the arguments we need are the post arguments, accessible via the 'post' four-byte code.

The ae-get-parameter-char function returns a string consisting of all the variables of the form, and their values appended together. This format is not directly usable; hence, we will transform it into a list of variable-value pairs. For instance, the argument string:


will be transformed into:

(:DICTID "3" 
 :FORMNAME "web-generic-ds"
 :ENTRY "apple")

To transform this kind of string, we use one of our publicly available packages called geta-strings (

Listing 2:
wAlex.acgi 1/3 (MCL Application)

Decoding POST arguments
(defun create-keywords-from-args (args)
;; segment the string with ‘&’ as a separator
 (let ((mylist (geta-strings::list-words args "&"))
;; for each part, segment with ‘=‘ as a separator and construct the result
  (dolist (lv-pair mylist)
    (setf pair (geta-strings::list-words lv-pair "="))
    (push (second pair) result)
      (concatenate 'string ":" (first pair))) result)

This list will be simply used as a list of arguments for a function accepting all the variables defined in the HTML form as keys. Hence, we rely on the standard Lisp binding mechanism to bind each value to its variable. For our purpose, we ask the appropriate dictionary for an HTML version of the entry structure.

Listing 3:
wAlex.acgi 2/3 (MCL Application)

Getting the corresponding entry
(defun get-walex-entry  (&key dictid 
;; Now, we can directly use each variable to query our dictionary
  (let ((dict (get-dictionary dictid dicttype)))
      entry :output-format :html-1))


MacHTTP expects the Apple event reply’s direct parameter to contain an HTTP/1.0 header and HTML text that will be transmitted to the client. Hence, we have to construct an appropriate answer. The HTML/1.0 header will be built as a global variable:

;; Define the http 1.0 header (beware of crlf)
(defvar *crlf* 
  (format nil "~A~A" #\Linefeed #\Newline))
(defvar *http-10-header* 
  (format nil "HTTP/1.0 200 OK ~A~
               Server: MacHTTP ~A~
               MIME-Version: 1.0 ~A~
               Content-type: text/html ~A~A" 
          *crlf* *crlf* *crlf* *crlf* *crlf*))

The reply itself will be returned by the findAndTransmuteItem function. Hence, we just have to put the header and answer in the Apple event reply’s direct parameter with the ae-put-parameter-char function.

Listing 4:
wAlex.acgi 3/3 (MCL Application)

Defining and installing the Apple event handler

(defmethod my-ae-handler ((a application) 
;; We don’t use the handlerRefcon argument
  (declare (ignore handlerRefcon))
;; Just get the post parameter, decode it, handle it and reply
  (let* ((post-args 
             (ae-get-parameter-char theAppleEvent 
                                    :|post| t)))
          (apply #'get-walex-entry post-args)))
;; Build the reply and put it into the Apple event reply’s direct parameter
    (ae-put-parameter-char reply #$keyDirectObject 
                           (format nil "~A ~A"
(install-appleevent-handler :|WWW | :|sdoc| #'my-ae-handler)

An AppleScript Applet As Glue

In this second solution (Figure 5) we use an AppleScript applet to make the glue between MacHTTP and ALEX (MCL). As in the previous solution, the applet is named wAlex.acgi. It is now up to the applet to decode the argument passed by MacHTTP. This time the decoding is done thanks to several Scripting Extensions.

The Tokenize function allows you to transform a string with separating characters into a list. For example, from "A;list;of;word" you will get {"A" "list" "of" "words"} if you take ; as the separator. DePlus does the same, but with the + character (more specific and more efficient). Encoding a URL consists of replacing any problematic characters with their %xx counterpart (for example, the space is replaced by %20). Decoding a URL is the reverse process. DecodeURL_8bits does more by also handling the nightmarish problem of accents (and diacritics in general).

After being activated by MacHTTP, the wAlex.acgi applet calls specific AppleScript Programming Interface (ASPI) procedures of the dictionary server application ALEX (MCL).

Figure 5. MacHTTP communicates indirectly with ALEX through an AppleScript applet

The communication between MacHTTP and wAlex.acgi is asynchronous. This means that MacHTTP is not waiting for the script to reply. But the communication is synchronous between wAlexScript and ALEX. As we didn’t deal with time-out in our script, the default value of 60 seconds applies. ALEX has to reply within one minute (no user will stand a much longer delay anyway).

This solution is well adapted to our needs, as we would like to add more dictionaries that are not necessarily managed by our MCL application. With this solution, we need very little change to the AppleScript applet to integrate new tools.

The script

We use the POST method in our forms or in the links associated with the previous and next entries. In the entry point, the dispatching to the appropriate function is handled on the basis of the method argument.

Notice that for an AppleScript applet, when properties are set outside of the event handlers, they are “remembered” across launches. We want the script to be continuously open.

Listing 5:
wAlex.acgi (AppleScript Applet)

Properties and CGI entry point

-- This code comes from Jon Wiederspan and has been modified to fit our purposes.
-- Some properties are defined for making it easier to read.
property crlf : (ASCII character 13) & (ASCII character 10)
property http_10_header : "HTTP/1.0 200 OK" & crlf & "Server: MacHTTP" 
& crlf & "MIME-Version: 1.0" & crlf & "Content-type: text/html" & crlf 
& crlf

property theApp : application "Alex"

-- The main entry of our script.
on «event WWW sdoc» path_args ¬
 given «class kfor»:http_search_args, «class post»:post_args, «class 
meth»:method, «class addr»:client_address, «class user»:username, «class 
pass»:|password|, «class frmu»:from_user, «class svnm»:server_name, «class 
svpt»:server_port, «class scnm»:script_name, «class ctyp»:content_type

-- Decode the Post arguments.
    -- Tokenizing our arguments means creating a list (or arguments) form a string
 set tokenized_pa to tokenize post_args with delimiters {"&"}

-- Save the original AppleScript text item delimiters.
 set oldDelim to AppleScript's text item delimiters

-- Use “=“ to delimit the pairs.
 set AppleScript's text item delimiters to {"="}

-- Retrieve our arguments (it is positional and thus not very nice).
 set theEntry to (Decode URL 
 (dePlus (last text item of item 1 of tokenized_pa)))
 set theBaseID to (Decode URL 
 (dePlus (last text item of item 3 of tokenized_pa)))

-- Restore the original AppleScript text item delimiters.
 set AppleScript's text item delimiters to oldDelim

-- Returns the result (we don’t use theFrom for simplicity)
 return http_10_header & 
 getAlexEntryWithID(theBaseID, theEntry, post_args)

-- Error handling (not detailed).
 on error msg number num 
 end try
end «event WWW sdoc»

For our purpose we consider only two arguments (although some others could be useful later on): the word to look up, and a reference to the dictionary. The entry is strictly the string given by the user. The base ID is strictly the selected option of the selected item (in the list of available dictionaries). You can see that in fact we pass the whole argument string along with the two decoded argument. We use this technique for handling optional arguments. In this case the string should be decoded by ALEX (exactly the same way it is done in our first solution). The value of post_args giving rise to Figure 2 is "ENTRY=apple&DictID=3". You can see from Figure 1 what settings in the form this refers to.

And the Winner Is...

The main advantage of the first solution is that the direct interaction between MacHTTP and MCL doesn’t make use of AppleScript. The integration is lighter, and thus there is better overall performance in speed and robustness. But you have to delve into the decoding of AppleEvents.

The second solution is technically simpler, and you can very easily change the Lisp interface without changing the overall processing. You can also use other applications to manage dictionaries accessible by the same form. The choice of the target application is done by the applet.

For our actual implementation we retained the second solution, but the choice depends on the goals you assign to your application.

One last question can arise: where we should decode the arguments. We have presented two radically different ways of decoding, with either MCL or the AppleScript applet doing the job. Actually, in the current version of our server, we used a mixture of the two approaches. The AppleScript is used, but decodes only certain arguments (the dictionary name), and always passes the whole argument string to MCL. Then, MCL itself decodes the string with the help of the code presented in listings 2 and 3.


ALEX, the application that serves dictionary information, has been developed with MCL. This tool can be used as an end-user tool with a user interface, or can be remotely and facelessly controlled with AppleScript.

Overview: a small session

ALEX is a small tool allowing a user to open and browse dictionaries. The interface, although minimal, seems quite efficient for the assigned purpose. This tool has been developed as a part of research on the kind of interface needed (or desirable) for structured dictionaries.

The user can scroll through the entry list (not implemented with the list manager, which is limited to around 4000 items), or can make simple active lookups. By active lookup we mean that as the user enters characters into the text box at the top of the window the first entry starting with those characters is selected.

What makes ALEX somewhat different from other tools is that all the entries are kept structured and displayed on the fly, allowing the user to specify some filtering process. It is possible to ask for several kinds of formatting. Another aspect, still under investigation, is the complete scriptability of ALEX.

Figure 6. An ALEX window displaying the entry “apple” of
the English-Malay dictionary


The implementation of ALEX is based on several layers, all implemented with MCL. MCL relies on a Dictionary Object Protocol. This manager allows the developer to define multi-key dictionaries and manipulate them. The DOP itself is based on Wood, a persistent Object-Oriented Database developed by Bill St. Clair ( The persistency allows a minimal memory footprint - a dictionary is never completly loaded into memory. ALEX can be considered as a reduced user interface for the DOP, allowing remote control by AppleScript.

Figure 7. Layers of the actual implementation of ALEX.
The Wood layer stores the low-level format of the dictionary entry. The DOP dynamically decodes each entry in a
high-level format. From this high-level format,
ALEX produces any output format.

AppleScript Programming Interface (ASPI)

The do script AppleScript command is a universal command for controlling ALEX. This is very practical for debugging and trying new ideas; you just have to throw Lisp code at ALEX through AppleScript. The dark side is that anyone can do anything. In order for this to work, don’t forget to load the eval-server.lisp file located in the MCL Examples folder with a (require :eval-server) form.

We defined some AppleScript commands that can do specific actions: opening and closing a dictionary, looking up, inserting and deleting entries, etc. The two transmute functions are the ones used in the HTML code.

Listing 6:

-- Get the data in the HTML format with the id of the base.
on getAlexEntryWithID(id, entry, args)
 tell TheApp
 do script ("(get-alex-item (alex::base 
 (alex::get-dict-handler \"" & id & 
 "\"  :id)) " & "\"" & entry & "\"" & 
 " :output-format :html-1 & :args & "\"" args & "\")")
 end tell
end getAlexEntryWithID

As you can see, scripting our MCL application consists simply of building strings that, once given to the Lisp interpreter, will produce some effect. Yes, you can do Lisp from AppleScript! This is simple and neat. Of course, you cannot ask an end-user to write some Lisp code from AppleScript; this is why you have to provide what we call an AppleScript Programming Interface (ASPI). It is a set of AppleScript commands that will control your application. The getAlexEntryWithID function is one of the functions of ALEX’s ASPI.

Many of the functions come in two flavors, with dictionary access by ID or by name. For example, getAlexEntryWithID has its getAlexEntryWithName counterpart. Some of them are documented in Listing 7.

Listing 7:
Other ASPI Useful for ALEX


-- Open a base from a given filename. Return an index dictionary or 0 in case of error.
on openAlexDictionary(filename)
 tell theApp
 return do script ¬
 ("(alex::open-object :alex-base :return-index t :file 
 (pathname \"" & filename & "\"))")
 end tell
end openAlexDictionary

-- Return the dictionary name based on the dictionary id.
on getAlexDictionaryName(id)
 tell theApp
 return do script ("(alex:name (alex::base 
 (alex::get-dict-handler \"" & id & "\"  :id)))")
 end tell
end getAlexDictionaryName

-- Deletes an entry (if defined) based on the dictionary id.
on deleteAlexEntryWithID(id, entry)
 tell theApp
 do script ("(delete-item (alex::base 
 (alex::get-dict-handler \"" & id & "\"  :id)) :key " 
 & "\"" & entry & "\"" & ")")
 end tell
end deleteAlexEntryWithID

Take some time to document your ASPI, and you have achieved the same result as developing your AppleEvents suite, but with less effort and time. One main difference from the more classical method is that your application has no AppleScript dictionary and you cannot use clauses.

Dictionary data structure

The entries are kept in a specific format in the dictionary. This format has been designed to compromise between file space and decoding time. For our dictionary a DOP base is linked to a text file which stands for a text buffer. The low-level format is basically a vector of index-length pairs pointing to this buffer. When an item is found, it is dynamically decoded into a high-level format (example in Listing 10).

The get-alex-item function of ALEX (called by getEntryWithID) basically retrieves one dictionary item and calls transmute-entry, which transforms the high-level format into any output format specifed by the developer. We take advantage of the generic function mechanism of CLOS (Common Lisp Object System) in MCL to have an easily extensible collection of specific formats. The selection of the appropriate method is done on the basis of specialised arguments of the function, basically the type of the current item and the desired output format (cf. Listing 9).

Listing 8:
Two CLOS Headers for Plain Text and HTML Formatting

First method for of text output (code not detailed).
(defmethod transmute-entry(entry
  (entry-type (eql :en-entry))
  (output-format (eql :text)) )

Second method for one kind of HTML output (code not detailed).
(defmethod transmute-entry(entry
  (entry-type (eql :en-entry))
  (output-format (eql :html-1)) )

Listing 9:
High-level Format of ALEX Items

High-level format for “apple”

The high level format of ALEX is a (kind of) property list. The first item is always the type of the entry. The 
rest of the structure is made of an open list composed of a type and one or several string values.
(:EM-ENTRY (:ENTRY "apple") (:C "n") (:N "1") (:G "(tree)") (:ME "pokok 
epal") (:N "2") (:G "(fruit)") (:ME "(buah) epal") (:P "an apple") (:P 
"the apple") (:P "bad apple") (:P "rotten apple") (:MPE "orang yg tdk 
baik") (:P "an apple for the teacher") (:MPE "sogokan") (:MPE "tumbuk 
rusuk") (:P "an apple of discord") (:P "the apple of discord") (:MPE 
"punca perselisihan") (:MPE "punca pergaduhan") (:MPE "punca perkelahian") 
(:P "the apple of o's eye") (:MPE "kesayangan sso") (:MPE "buah hati."))

Requested output format

The code produced by ALEX for the entry “apple” is given in listing 10 (the code has been slightly edited for readability). Besides the cosmetic features of the page, the most interesting part of the listing is the handling of the “previous” and “next” entries.

Listing 10:
Source of Figure 2

HTML “apple”

Beginning of the header of the page and control part for access to the previous and next entries.
width=10> <IMG ALIGN=Bottom SRC=""><b><FONT 
SIZE = +6> apple </FONT></B> <TD ALIGN=Right><TABLE border=0> 

The left arrow and the previous word. Here (and only here) the GET method is used in the urls (notice the 
? character).
<A HREF=""><IMG 
SRC="" BORDER=0></A></TD>

The link back to the form.
to form</A> | </TD> 

The right arrow and the next word.

The informative part of this page.
<DD><I>n</I><IMG HSPACE=8 SRC=""> 
<B>1</B> -  (tree); <IMG SRC=""> 
pokok epal <IMG HSPACE=6 SRC="">
<B>2</B> - (fruit); <IMG SRC=""> 
(buah) epal  rotten apple, bad apple, the apple, an apple; <IMG SRC=""> 
orang yg tdk baik  an apple for the teacher; <IMG SRC=""> 
tumbuk rusuk, sogokan  the apple of discord, an apple of discord; <IMG SRC=""> 
punca perkelahian, punca pergaduhan, punca perselisihan  the apple of o's eye; <IMG SRC=""> 
buah hati., kesayangan sso.</DL>

Information to remind the user in which dictionary he is looking.
<H>R<FONT SIZE=1>from English-Malay</FONT>

Note that the space character in “apple Brandy” has been replaced by a '+'. This has been done at the HTML page production level. Leaving the space would have led to strange and unpleasant results.

By the way, there is a bug (or, say, a slight but unpleasant defect) in this HTML page; can you figure it out? Looking attentively at Figure 2 might help.

Alternative Solutions, Shortcomings And Future Works

There are many unsatisfactory details in the solution we present here, either for the user experience or the developer’s technical investment. We are working to fix or bypass some, but many remain beyond our reach, as we do not control the technology.


Alternative forms (accessible from the page of Figure 1) allow some filtering on a French-English-Malay dictionary. As the kind of filtering is dependent on the selected dictionary, it was impossible to provide a single interface giving simultaneously the dictionary choice and the filtering options.


A common problem is encountered with diacritics. To properly produce HTML pages, it is compulsory to process each string of the dictionary item and to replace dubious characters by HTML codes. The little bug of Listing 10 is contained in “the apple of o’s eye”. The closing single smart quote character is not a valid one in HTML, resulting in poor formatting in Figure 2.


We are considering giving speech output to some information associated with an entry of our dictionary. On the Web server, a Text-To-Speech system could be installed and produce sound files to be downloaded by the client. But that’s another story.


Technology integration is difficult for many reasons: you have to be reasonably knowledgeable in the different technologies you deal with, you have to compromise between many factors, and the whole thing is often hairy to debug.

As stated by Apple, AppleScript is the way to integrate technologies on Mac OS; but lots of people find it difficult to develop AppleScript-aware applications. With Macintosh Common Lisp, AppleScript awareness is given for free (the do script command). You can come up with a functional result quickly, satisfy your customers, and have a great tool to experiment with ideas and automated tasks.


We would like to thank all the people who participated in the development of the tools mentioned in this paper: Apple and Digitool, of course, but also Jon Wiederspan for his CGI-aware script samples. Thank you, Bill, for the tremendous support to MCL and Wood. We would also not wish to forget all the people involved in our French-English-Malay Dictionary, the staff of the UTMK laboratory in Penang, the French Embassy in Malaysia, the DBDP in Kuala Lumpur, and the GETA in Grenoble, France.

[If you’re curious about the authors and their work (and surroundings), start with the following Web pages, which I uncovered by guesswork (no word-searching necessary). You may need to brush up on your French first! - man]


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Dash is an API documentation browser and code snippet manager. Dash helps you store snippets of code, as well as instantly search and browse documentation for almost any API you might use (for a full... Read more
Civilization VI 1.1.0 - Next iteration o...
Sid Meier’s Civilization VI is the next entry in the popular Civilization franchise. Originally created by legendary game designer Sid Meier, Civilization is a strategy game in which you attempt to... Read more
Network Radar 2.3.3 - $17.99
Network Radar is an advanced network scanning and managing tool. Featuring an easy-to-use and streamlined design, the all-new Network Radar 2 has been engineered from the ground up as a modern Mac... Read more

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Construction Simulator 2 reaches its fir...
Construction Simulator 2 debuted iOS and Android devices exactly one year ago, and publisher Astragon is marking the game’s first anniversary with a range of time-limited discounts. It’s been a successful debut for the civil engineering sim, which... | Read more »
All the best games on sale for iPhone an...
This week's list of games on sale for the iPhone and iPad isn't too bad really. There's some gems on here, as well as some games that have had their prices cut low enough that you can look past the rough edges and questionable decisions. [Read... | Read more »
The best games that came out for iPhone...
It's not a huge surprise that there's not a massive influx of new, must-buy games on the App Store this week. After all, GDC is happening, so everyone's busy at parties and networking and dying from a sinister form of jetlag. That said, there are... | Read more »
Destiny meets its mobile match - Everyth...
Shadowgun Legends is the latest game in the Shadowgun series, and it's taking the franchise in some interesting new directions. Which is good news. The even better news is that it's coming out tomorrow, so if you didn't make it into the beta you... | Read more »
How PUBG, Fortnite, and the battle royal...
The history of the battle royale genre isn't a long one. While the nascent parts of the experience have existed ever since players first started killing one another online, it's really only in the past six years that the genre has coalesced into... | Read more »
Around the Empire: What have you missed...
Oh hi nice reader, and thanks for popping in to check out our weekly round-up of all the stuff that you might have missed across the Steel Media network. Yeah, that's right, it's a big ol' network. Obviously 148Apps is the best, but there are some... | Read more »
All the best games on sale for iPhone an...
It might not have been the greatest week for new releases on the App Store, but don't let that get you down, because there are some truly incredible games on sale for iPhone and iPad right now. Seriously, you could buy anything on this list and I... | Read more »
Everything You Need to Know About The Fo...
In just over a week, Epic Games has made a flurry of announcements. First, they revealed that Fortnite—their ultra-popular PUBG competitor—is coming to mobile. This was followed by brief sign-up period for interested beta testers before sending out... | Read more »
The best games that came out for iPhone...
It's not been the best week for games on the App Store. There are a few decent ones here and there, but nothing that's really going to make you throw down what you're doing and run to the nearest WiFi hotspot in order to download it. That's not to... | Read more »
Death Coming (Games)
Death Coming Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: (iTunes) Description: --- Background Story ---You Died. Pure and simple, but death was not the end. You have become an agent of Death: a... | Read more »

Price Scanner via

Use your Education discount this weekend to b...
Purchase a new Mac using Apple’s Education discount, and take up to $400 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution with a .edu email address qualify for the discount... Read more
15″ 2.2GHz MacBook Pro, certified refurbished...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pros available for $1699. That’s $300 off MSRP for this model, and it’s the lowest price available for a 15″ MacBook Pro currently offered by... Read more
Clearance 2016 15″ MacBook Pros, certified re...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2016 15″ Touch Bar MacBook Pros available starting at $1849, up to $690 off original MSRP. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free... Read more
Apple restocks clearance 2016 13-inch MacBook...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2016 13″ MacBook Airs available starting at $809. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free: – 13″ 1.6GHz/8GB/128GB MacBook Air: $... Read more
Thursday roundup of the best 13″ MacBook Pro...
B&H Photo has new 2017 13″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to $200 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax for NY & NJ residents only. Their prices are the lowest available for... Read more
Sale: 9.7-inch 2017 WiFi iPads starting at $2...
B&H Photo has 9.7″ 2017 WiFi Apple iPads on sale for $40 off MSRP for a limited time. Shipping is free, and pay sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 32GB iPad WiFi: $289, $40 off – 128GB iPad WiFi: $... Read more
Roundup of Certified Refurbished iPads, iPad...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 9.7″ WiFi iPads available for $50-$80 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each iPad, and shipping is free: – 9″ 32GB WiFi iPad: $... Read more
Back in stock! Apple’s full line of Certified...
Save $300-$300 on the purchase of a 2017 13″ MacBook Pro today with Certified Refurbished models at Apple. Apple’s refurbished prices are the lowest available for each model from any reseller. A... Read more
Wednesday deals: Huge sale on Apple 15″ MacBo...
Adorama has new 2017 15″ MacBook Pros on sale for $250-$300 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and Adorama charges sales tax in NJ and NY only: – 15″ 2.8GHz Touch Bar MacBook Pro Space Gray (MPTR2LL/A): $... Read more
Apple offers Certified Refurbished Series 3 A...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Series 3 Apple Watch GPS models available for $50, or 13%, off the cost of new models. Apple’s standard 1-year warranty is included, and shipping is free. Numerous... Read more

Jobs Board

Lead *Apple* Solution Consultant - Apple (U...
# Lead Apple Solution Consultant Portland OR Job Number: 113593449 Portland, Oregon, United States Posted: 20-Mar-2018 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** As a Lead Read more
Senior Linux Systems Engineer, *Apple* Pay...
# Senior Linux Systems Engineer, Apple Pay Job Number: 113584532 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: 20-Mar-2018 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Read more
Threat Intelligence Engineer - *Apple* Info...
# Threat Intelligence Engineer - Apple Information Security Job Number: 113023220 Austin, Texas, United States Posted: 20-Mar-2018 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Manager - Retail Manager - Apple, In...
Job Description:Job SummaryKeeping an Apple Store thriving requires a diverse set of leadership skills, and as an Apple Retail Manager, you're a master of them Read more
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