TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Separate Data, Code
Volume 8
Number4
Column Title:Getting Started

Related Info: Resource Manager Window Manager Picture Utilities

Separating Data from Code

Using those little pockets of data called resources

By Dave Mark, MacTutor Regular Contributing Author

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

Last month’s column focused on QuickDraw, the Macintosh drawing environment. The TextBoxer program showed you how to use QuickDraw in combination with the Window Manager to draw text and graphics in a window. This month we’ll learn about resources, the Mac’s mechanism for separating data from code.

Resources

Resources are little pockets of data, designed to pull descriptive data out of your program’s source code. For example, a WIND resource describes the size, location, and characteristics of a Macintosh window. In last month’s column, we used the Window Manager call NewWindow() to create a new window:

/* 1 */

WindowPtr window;
Rect    windowRect;
 
SetRect( &windowRect, 20, 40, 260, 74 );

window = NewWindow( nil, &windowRect, "\pBox o’ Text",
 kVisible, documentProc, kMoveToFront,
 kNoGoAway, kNilRefCon );

The parameters passed to NewWindow() completely describe the window. The trouble is, the description is inexorably bound into the source code. To change the size or position of the window, you’ve got to recompile your program. The WIND resource gives you an alternative to this strategy. Here’s how it works...

Basic Resource Strategy

At the heart of any resource strategy is a resource editor. Though there are others, for my money [especially since it is free - Ed.] ResEdit can’t be beat. ResEdit allows you to edit resources using a graphic resource editor designed for that resource type. For example, Figure 1 shows ResEdit’s WIND editing window.

This window gives you all the tools you’ll need to completely describe a window. At the top is a row of icons that let you select the type of window you’d like to create. At bottom-left is a series of fields you can use to describe the size and location of the window. In the center is a miniature version of your screen, showing how your window will look once it’s created.

Figure 1. ResEdit’s WIND editing window.

Once you design your resources, you load them into your program using a set of Toolbox routines designed to work with resources. As an example, the routine GetNewWindow() loads a WIND resource and creates the same kind of WindowRecord as the Window Manager routine NewWindow():

/* 2 */

window = GetNewWindow( kBaseResID, nil, kMoveToFront );

If you use NewWindow() to create a window, the data that describes the window is embedded in the source code in the form of NewWindow() parameters. If you use GetNewWindow(), the data that describes the window resides outside of your program’s code, in the WIND resource. The WIND resource acts as a template for creating a window.

As you spend more time programming the Macintosh, you’ll learn more and more about the enormous potential of resources. For now, we’ll start slowly, introducing a few basic resources in this column, and adding to our list each month.

Resource Management Specifics

Resources are identified by a resource type and a resource ID. The resource type is a four-byte value, typically made up of readable ASCII characters. The resource type defines the data described by the resource. For example, a WIND resource always follows the same format and always describes a Macintosh window. There are lots of different resource types.

A program can contain more than one resource of a given type. The resource ID serves to differentiate one resource of a given type from another. Typically, resource IDs start at 128 and move upwards from there. If your program used three WIND resources, you’d number them 128, 129, and 130.

This month’s sample program, PICTWindow, makes use of two resources, a PICT and a WIND. The PICT resource contains a Macintosh picture. PICTWindow uses the WIND resource to create a new window, loads the PICT resource into memory, then draws the PICT in the window.

Let’s get to work...

Creating the PICTWindow Resources

If you don’t already have a copy of ResEdit, go out and get one. You can download ResEdit from most of the big bulletin boards, and you can purchase ResEdit from APDA.

In my latest APDA catalog, there were three entries for ResEdit version 2.1.1. $29.95 gets you the manual and disk, $14.95 is the manual only, and $15.00 for the disk only. You can reach APDA by phone at (800) 282-2732 in the United States, (800) 637-0029 in Canada, and (408) 562-3910 internationally.

You might also consider ordering the book ResEdit Complete, a fine book written by Peter Alley and Carolyn Strange ($29.95 from APDA).

Once you’ve copied your copy of ResEdit to your hard drive, create a folder for all the PICTWindow files inside your development folder. I called my folder (logically enough) PICTWindow.

Next, use your favorite graphics package to create a pleasing picture. Copy the picture, then paste it into the Scrapbook. Feel free to use color, text, and whatever else pleases your eye in your picture. PICTWindow can handle anything you can paste into the Scrapbook.

Now you’re ready to create some resources. Double-click on the ResEdit icon to start-up ResEdit. When the bouncing Jack-in-the-box appears, click the mouse button. You’ll be prompted for a file to open (if your version of ResEdit doesn’t prompt you, it’s OK, just ignore the rest of this paragraph). Click the Cancel button.

We’re going to create a new resource file. Select New... from the File menu. The dialog box shown in Figure 2 will appear, asking you to name the new resource file. Using the standard techniques, navigate over and in to the PICTWindow folder you created earlier. In the text field at the bottom of the dialog box, type the file name PICTWindow.Π.rsrc exactly as it appears in Figure 2. To type the Π character, hold down the option key and press the p key. Be sure to type the name exactly as shown. Don’t add anything. Don’t leave anything out. You’ll see why later in the column.

Figure 2. Naming your new resource file.

Once the name is typed in, click on the New button. ResEdit will create the new resource file and display a window showing the resources in this file. So far, there are none. We’ll fix that right now.

Select Create New Resource from the Resource menu. A scrolling list of resource types will appear (Figure 3). Scroll to the bottom of the list and select WIND (if you prefer, you can type WIND in the text field). Once WIND is selected (or typed) click the OK button. A WIND icon will be added to the PICTWindow.Π.rsrc main window, showing you that a WIND resource exists. A WIND picker window will appear, listing all the WIND resources in this file. Finally, on top of the other two, a WIND editing window will appear, allowing you to edit your new WIND.

Figure 3. Creating a new WIND resource.

By default, your new WIND resource is given the resource ID 128. That’s convenient, since that’s the number we wanted it to have. Use the settings shown in Figure 4 to modify your WIND resource. Click the second icon from the left (at the top of the window) and type in the four numbers shown in the lower left corner.

Figure 4. The WIND editing window from WIND 128.

Next, select Set 'WIND' Characteristics... from the WIND menu that appeared along with the WIND editor. Type in an appropriate window title (don’t change any of the other fields) and click the OK button. Congratulations! You’ve just created your first Macintosh resource. Close the WIND editing window and the WIND picker window, leaving the main window for the resource file. A WIND icon should appear in this window.

Let’s add the second resource needed by our program, the PICT resource. Go to the Scrapbook and Copy the picture you pasted in there earlier (if you prefer, Copy one of the pictures that come with the Scrapbook - Don’t copy plain text. Plain text won’t do what we want).

Once your picture is copied, bring the PICTWindow.Π.rsrc window back to the front and select Paste from ResEdit’s Edit menu. A new resource will be created and a PICT icon will appear in the main window verifying this fact. The PICT resource will automatically be given the resource ID 128. Now would be an excellent time to select Save from the File menu. You are done creating resources.

Quit ResEdit by selecting Quit from the File menu.

Creating the PICTWindow Project

Startup THINK C and create a new project in the PICTWindow folder. Name the new project PICTWindow.Π (be sure to spell it exactly this way). When you run a project, THINK C automatically tacks on the five characters “.rsrc” to the end of the project name and looks for a resource file with that name. If a resource file with that name is found, the resources in that file are automatically made available to your program. PICTWindow.Π is the name of your project file and PICTWindow.Π.rsrc is the name of your resource file.

Once the project is created, go into the Mac Libraries folder and add MacTraps to the project. Next, select New from the File menu to create a new source code file. Type in this source code:

/* 3 */

#define kBaseResID 128
#define kMoveToFront (WindowPtr)-1L


/***************/
/*  Functions  */
/***************/

void  ToolBoxInit( void );
void  WindowInit( void );
void  DrawMyPicture( void );


/****************** main ***************************/

void  main( void )
{
 ToolBoxInit();
 WindowInit();
 
 DrawMyPicture();
 
 while ( !Button() ) ;
}


/****************** ToolBoxInit *********************/

void  ToolBoxInit( void )
{
 InitGraf( &thePort );
 InitFonts();
 InitWindows();
 InitMenus();
 TEInit();
 InitDialogs( nil );
 InitCursor();
}


/****************** WindowInit ***********************/

void  WindowInit( void )
{
 WindowPtrwindow;
 
 window = GetNewWindow( kBaseResID, nil, kMoveToFront );
 
 if ( window == nil )
 {
 SysBeep( 10 );  /*  Couldn't load the WIND resource!!!  */
 ExitToShell();
 }
 
 ShowWindow( window );
 SetPort( window );
}


/****************** DrawMyPicture ********************/

void  DrawMyPicture( void )
{
 Rect   pictureRect;
 PicHandlepicture;
 
 picture = GetPicture( kBaseResID );
 
 if ( picture == nil )
 {
 SysBeep( 10 );  /*  Couldn't load the PICT resource!!!  */
 ExitToShell();
 }
 
 pictureRect = (**picture).picFrame;
 
 OffsetRect( &pictureRect, - pictureRect.left,
 - pictureRect.top );
 
 DrawPicture( picture, &pictureRect );
 
 FrameRect( &pictureRect );
}

Once your source code is typed in, select Save from the File menu. Save the file under the name “PICTWindow.c”. Next, add the source file to the project by select Add (not Add...) from the Source menu. Your project window should look like the one shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. The project window for PICTWindow.Π.

Running the Program

Now you’re ready to run your program. Select Run from the Project menu. If you encounter any errors, check your source code for typos and make sure your project window has the two files shown in Figure 5. Once your program runs, you should see a window similar to the one shown in Figure 6.

Notice that the picture is drawn in the upper left corner of the window. The upper left corner of the picture is at (0,0) in the window’s local coordinate system.

Figure 6. The PICTWindow window!

Key Lines of Code

Most of the program should make sense to you if you read through last month’s TextBoxer example. Rather than repeat last weeks explanations, I’d like to point out three key segments of code. The first is the code that loads the WIND resource and creates a new window:

/* 4 */

 window = GetNewWindow( kBaseResID, nil, kMoveToFront );

As mentioned earlier, this line of code accomplishes the same thing as NewWindow(), except that GetNewWindow() gets its information from the WIND resource, instead of its parameter list. GetNewWindow() is described in Volume I of Inside Macintosh, on page 283.

The second key line of code is the line that loads the PICT resource:

/* 5 */

 picture = GetPicture( kBaseResID );

This line of code loads the PICT resource with an ID matching kBaseResID. Match this line of code up with the following:

/* 6 */

 DrawPicture( picture, &pictureRect );

and you can really see the power of resources. Two lines of code and you’ve drawn a complex graphic in a window!!! By the way, GetPicture() is on page 475 of Volume I of Inside Macintosh and DrawPicture() is on page 190 of Volume I.

Till Next Month

Take some time to play around with ResEdit. Use ResEdit to modify your WIND resource, changing the type of window (click on the icons on the top row of the WIND editor) and the window’s location. Notice that the picture is drawn in the upper left of the window, no matter where the window is drawn on the screen. Look up OffsetRect() in Inside Macintosh and try to figure out why the picture is drawn where it is.

Finally, try to write a routine that centers the picture in the window. For a little help with this last exercise, you can check out the ShowPICT program in Volume I of the Mac Primer.

Sorry to cut this column short, but the next time I speak with you all, I should be a proud new poppa! Stay tuned...

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Tweetbot 2.5.3 - Popular Twitter client.
Tweetbot is a full-featured OS X Twitter client with a lot of personality. Whether it's the meticulously-crafted interface, sounds and animation, or features like multiple timelines and column views... Read more
Hopper Disassembler 4.2.19- - Binary dis...
Hopper Disassembler is a binary disassembler, decompiler, and debugger for 32- and 64-bit executables. It will let you disassemble any binary you want, and provide you all the information about its... Read more
Monosnap 3.4.0 - Versatile screenshot ut...
Monosnap lets you capture screenshots, share files, and record video and .gifs! Capture Capture full screen, just part of the screen, or a selected window Make your crop area pixel perfect with our... Read more
Duet 1.6.5.5 - Use your iPad as an exter...
Duet is the first app that allows you to use your iDevice as an extra display for your Mac using the Lightning or 30-pin cable. Note: This app requires a $14.99 iOS companion app. Version 1.6.5.5:... Read more
Hopper Disassembler 4.2.19- - Binary dis...
Hopper Disassembler is a binary disassembler, decompiler, and debugger for 32- and 64-bit executables. It will let you disassemble any binary you want, and provide you all the information about its... Read more
Duet 1.6.5.5 - Use your iPad as an exter...
Duet is the first app that allows you to use your iDevice as an extra display for your Mac using the Lightning or 30-pin cable. Note: This app requires a $14.99 iOS companion app. Version 1.6.5.5:... Read more
Monosnap 3.4.0 - Versatile screenshot ut...
Monosnap lets you capture screenshots, share files, and record video and .gifs! Capture Capture full screen, just part of the screen, or a selected window Make your crop area pixel perfect with our... Read more
Tweetbot 2.5.3 - Popular Twitter client.
Tweetbot is a full-featured OS X Twitter client with a lot of personality. Whether it's the meticulously-crafted interface, sounds and animation, or features like multiple timelines and column views... Read more
Default Folder X 5.1.6 - Enhances Open a...
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click on... Read more
Evernote 6.12.3 - Create searchable note...
Evernote allows you to easily capture information in any environment using whatever device or platform you find most convenient, and makes this information accessible and searchable at anytime, from... Read more

The best new games we played this week -...
It's pretty much been one big release after another. We were privy to a bunch of surprises this week, with a lot of games we'd been waiting for quite some time dropping unexpectedly. We hope you're free this weekend, because there is a lot for... | Read more »
Stormbound: Kingdom Wars guide - how to...
Stormbound: Kingdom Wars is an excellent new RTS turned card battler out now on iOS and Android. Lovers of strategy will get a lot of enjoyment out of Stormbound's chess-like mechanics, and it's cardbased units are perfect for anyone who loves the... | Read more »
The best AR apps and games on iOS right...
iOS 11 has officially launched, and with it comes Apple's ARKit, a helpful framework that makes it easier than ever for developers to create mobile AR experiences. To celebrate the occassion, we're featuring some of the best AR apps and games on... | Read more »
Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney - Spirit of...
Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney - Spirit of Justice 1.00.00 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.00.00 (iTunes) Description: ************************************************※IMPORTANT※・Please read the “When... | Read more »
Kpressor (Utilities)
Kpressor 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Utilities Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: The ultimate ZIP compression application for iPhone and iPad. - Full integration of iOS 11 with support for multitasking.-... | Read more »
Find out how you can save £35 and win a...
Nothing raises excitement like a good competition, and we’re thrilled to announce our latest contest. We’ll be sending one lucky reader and a friend to the Summoners War World Arena Championship at Le Comedia in Paris on October 7th. It’s the... | Read more »
Another Lost Phone: Laura's Story...
Another Lost Phone: Laura's Story 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Another Lost Phone is a game about exploring the social life of a young woman whose phone you have just... | Read more »
The Witness (Games)
The Witness 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $9.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: You wake up, alone, on a strange island full of puzzles that will challenge and surprise you. You don't remember who you are, and... | Read more »
Egg, Inc. guide - how to build your gold...
Egg, Inc.'s been around for some time now, but don't you believe for one second that this quirky clicker game has gone out of style. The game keeps popping up on Reddit and other community forums thanks to the outlandish gameplay (plus, the... | Read more »
The best deals on the App Store this wee...
Good news, everyone! Your favorite day of the week has arrived at last -- it's discount roundup day! This fine Wednesday evening we're gathering up the hottest deals on the App Store. We've got action platformers, we've got puzzle games, we've got... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Sunday sale: 13-inch 3.1GHz MacBook Pros for...
Amazon has 2017 13″ 3.1GHz MacBook Pros on sale today for up to $150 off MSRP, each including free shipping: – 13″ 3.1GHz/256GB Space Gray MacBook Pro (MPXV2LL/A): $1649.99 $150 off MSRP – 13″ 3.1GHz... Read more
Looking for a 2017 12″ Retina MacBook? Save $...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2017 12″ Retina MacBooks available for $200-$240 off the cost of new models. Apple will include a standard one-year warranty with each MacBook, and shipping is free.... Read more
Apple Offering Up To $455 Credit Toward iPhon...
iPhone 8 and 8 Plus are now available at the Apple Store, and you can receive up to $375 credit toward a new iPhone purchase when you trade in your eligible smartphone. Photo Courtesy Apple Just... Read more
AnyTrans Offers iOS Users Three Ways For Movi...
iMobie Inc. today announceed AnyTrans v6.0.1, which now can help iOS users move all data to iPhone 8/8 Plus seamlessly. The software is available both on Mac and Windows and fully able to move all... Read more
Snag a 13-inch 2.3GHz MacBook Pro for $100 of...
B&H Photo has 2017 13″ 2.3GHz MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for $100 off MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: – 13-inch 2.3GHz/128GB Space Gray MacBook... Read more
Verizon offers new iPhone 8 for $100-$300 off...
Verizon is offering the new iPhone 8 for up to $300 off MSRP with an eligible trade-in: • $300 off: iPhone 6S/6S Plus/7/7 Plus, Google Pixel XL, LG G6, Moto Z2 Force, Samsung Galaxy S7/S7 edge/S8/S8... Read more
Apple Refurbished 2017 13-inch MacBook Pros a...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2017 13″ Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock today and available for $200-$300 off MSRP. A standard Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is... Read more
OWC USB-C Travel Dock with 5 Ports Connectivi...
OWC have announced the new OWC USB-C Travel Dock, the latest addition to their line of connectivity solutions. The USB-C Travel Dock lets you connect its integrated USB-C cable to a Mac or PC laptop... Read more
Pelican Products, Inc. Unveils Cases For All...
Pelican Products, Inc. has announced the launch of its full line of cases including Voyager, Adventurer, Protector, Ambassador, Interceptor (for the Apple iPhone 8 and 8 Plus backwards compatible... Read more
$100 off new 2017 13-inch MacBook Airs
B&H Photo has 2017 13″ MacBook Airs on sale today for $100 off MSRP including free shipping. B&H charges NY & NJ sales tax only: – 13″ 1.8GHz/128GB MacBook Air (MQD32LL/A): $899, $100 off... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Instructional Designer, *Apple* Product Doc...
Job Summary The Apple Product Documentation team is looking for an instructional designer or a video editor to write user documentation for its professional video Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Development Operations and Site Reliability E...
Development Operations and Site Reliability Engineer, Apple Payment Gateway Job Number: 57572631 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: Jul. 27, 2017 Read more
Specialist - Retail Customer Services and Sal...
The position listed below is not with Tennessee Interviews but with Apple , Inc. Tennessee Interviews is a private organization that works in collaboration with Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.