TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Separate Data, Code
Volume 8
Number4
Column Title:Getting Started

Related Info: Resource Manager Window Manager Picture Utilities

Separating Data from Code

Using those little pockets of data called resources

By Dave Mark, MacTutor Regular Contributing Author

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

Last month’s column focused on QuickDraw, the Macintosh drawing environment. The TextBoxer program showed you how to use QuickDraw in combination with the Window Manager to draw text and graphics in a window. This month we’ll learn about resources, the Mac’s mechanism for separating data from code.

Resources

Resources are little pockets of data, designed to pull descriptive data out of your program’s source code. For example, a WIND resource describes the size, location, and characteristics of a Macintosh window. In last month’s column, we used the Window Manager call NewWindow() to create a new window:

/* 1 */

WindowPtr window;
Rect    windowRect;
 
SetRect( &windowRect, 20, 40, 260, 74 );

window = NewWindow( nil, &windowRect, "\pBox o’ Text",
 kVisible, documentProc, kMoveToFront,
 kNoGoAway, kNilRefCon );

The parameters passed to NewWindow() completely describe the window. The trouble is, the description is inexorably bound into the source code. To change the size or position of the window, you’ve got to recompile your program. The WIND resource gives you an alternative to this strategy. Here’s how it works...

Basic Resource Strategy

At the heart of any resource strategy is a resource editor. Though there are others, for my money [especially since it is free - Ed.] ResEdit can’t be beat. ResEdit allows you to edit resources using a graphic resource editor designed for that resource type. For example, Figure 1 shows ResEdit’s WIND editing window.

This window gives you all the tools you’ll need to completely describe a window. At the top is a row of icons that let you select the type of window you’d like to create. At bottom-left is a series of fields you can use to describe the size and location of the window. In the center is a miniature version of your screen, showing how your window will look once it’s created.

Figure 1. ResEdit’s WIND editing window.

Once you design your resources, you load them into your program using a set of Toolbox routines designed to work with resources. As an example, the routine GetNewWindow() loads a WIND resource and creates the same kind of WindowRecord as the Window Manager routine NewWindow():

/* 2 */

window = GetNewWindow( kBaseResID, nil, kMoveToFront );

If you use NewWindow() to create a window, the data that describes the window is embedded in the source code in the form of NewWindow() parameters. If you use GetNewWindow(), the data that describes the window resides outside of your program’s code, in the WIND resource. The WIND resource acts as a template for creating a window.

As you spend more time programming the Macintosh, you’ll learn more and more about the enormous potential of resources. For now, we’ll start slowly, introducing a few basic resources in this column, and adding to our list each month.

Resource Management Specifics

Resources are identified by a resource type and a resource ID. The resource type is a four-byte value, typically made up of readable ASCII characters. The resource type defines the data described by the resource. For example, a WIND resource always follows the same format and always describes a Macintosh window. There are lots of different resource types.

A program can contain more than one resource of a given type. The resource ID serves to differentiate one resource of a given type from another. Typically, resource IDs start at 128 and move upwards from there. If your program used three WIND resources, you’d number them 128, 129, and 130.

This month’s sample program, PICTWindow, makes use of two resources, a PICT and a WIND. The PICT resource contains a Macintosh picture. PICTWindow uses the WIND resource to create a new window, loads the PICT resource into memory, then draws the PICT in the window.

Let’s get to work...

Creating the PICTWindow Resources

If you don’t already have a copy of ResEdit, go out and get one. You can download ResEdit from most of the big bulletin boards, and you can purchase ResEdit from APDA.

In my latest APDA catalog, there were three entries for ResEdit version 2.1.1. $29.95 gets you the manual and disk, $14.95 is the manual only, and $15.00 for the disk only. You can reach APDA by phone at (800) 282-2732 in the United States, (800) 637-0029 in Canada, and (408) 562-3910 internationally.

You might also consider ordering the book ResEdit Complete, a fine book written by Peter Alley and Carolyn Strange ($29.95 from APDA).

Once you’ve copied your copy of ResEdit to your hard drive, create a folder for all the PICTWindow files inside your development folder. I called my folder (logically enough) PICTWindow.

Next, use your favorite graphics package to create a pleasing picture. Copy the picture, then paste it into the Scrapbook. Feel free to use color, text, and whatever else pleases your eye in your picture. PICTWindow can handle anything you can paste into the Scrapbook.

Now you’re ready to create some resources. Double-click on the ResEdit icon to start-up ResEdit. When the bouncing Jack-in-the-box appears, click the mouse button. You’ll be prompted for a file to open (if your version of ResEdit doesn’t prompt you, it’s OK, just ignore the rest of this paragraph). Click the Cancel button.

We’re going to create a new resource file. Select New... from the File menu. The dialog box shown in Figure 2 will appear, asking you to name the new resource file. Using the standard techniques, navigate over and in to the PICTWindow folder you created earlier. In the text field at the bottom of the dialog box, type the file name PICTWindow.Π.rsrc exactly as it appears in Figure 2. To type the Π character, hold down the option key and press the p key. Be sure to type the name exactly as shown. Don’t add anything. Don’t leave anything out. You’ll see why later in the column.

Figure 2. Naming your new resource file.

Once the name is typed in, click on the New button. ResEdit will create the new resource file and display a window showing the resources in this file. So far, there are none. We’ll fix that right now.

Select Create New Resource from the Resource menu. A scrolling list of resource types will appear (Figure 3). Scroll to the bottom of the list and select WIND (if you prefer, you can type WIND in the text field). Once WIND is selected (or typed) click the OK button. A WIND icon will be added to the PICTWindow.Π.rsrc main window, showing you that a WIND resource exists. A WIND picker window will appear, listing all the WIND resources in this file. Finally, on top of the other two, a WIND editing window will appear, allowing you to edit your new WIND.

Figure 3. Creating a new WIND resource.

By default, your new WIND resource is given the resource ID 128. That’s convenient, since that’s the number we wanted it to have. Use the settings shown in Figure 4 to modify your WIND resource. Click the second icon from the left (at the top of the window) and type in the four numbers shown in the lower left corner.

Figure 4. The WIND editing window from WIND 128.

Next, select Set 'WIND' Characteristics... from the WIND menu that appeared along with the WIND editor. Type in an appropriate window title (don’t change any of the other fields) and click the OK button. Congratulations! You’ve just created your first Macintosh resource. Close the WIND editing window and the WIND picker window, leaving the main window for the resource file. A WIND icon should appear in this window.

Let’s add the second resource needed by our program, the PICT resource. Go to the Scrapbook and Copy the picture you pasted in there earlier (if you prefer, Copy one of the pictures that come with the Scrapbook - Don’t copy plain text. Plain text won’t do what we want).

Once your picture is copied, bring the PICTWindow.Π.rsrc window back to the front and select Paste from ResEdit’s Edit menu. A new resource will be created and a PICT icon will appear in the main window verifying this fact. The PICT resource will automatically be given the resource ID 128. Now would be an excellent time to select Save from the File menu. You are done creating resources.

Quit ResEdit by selecting Quit from the File menu.

Creating the PICTWindow Project

Startup THINK C and create a new project in the PICTWindow folder. Name the new project PICTWindow.Π (be sure to spell it exactly this way). When you run a project, THINK C automatically tacks on the five characters “.rsrc” to the end of the project name and looks for a resource file with that name. If a resource file with that name is found, the resources in that file are automatically made available to your program. PICTWindow.Π is the name of your project file and PICTWindow.Π.rsrc is the name of your resource file.

Once the project is created, go into the Mac Libraries folder and add MacTraps to the project. Next, select New from the File menu to create a new source code file. Type in this source code:

/* 3 */

#define kBaseResID 128
#define kMoveToFront (WindowPtr)-1L


/***************/
/*  Functions  */
/***************/

void  ToolBoxInit( void );
void  WindowInit( void );
void  DrawMyPicture( void );


/****************** main ***************************/

void  main( void )
{
 ToolBoxInit();
 WindowInit();
 
 DrawMyPicture();
 
 while ( !Button() ) ;
}


/****************** ToolBoxInit *********************/

void  ToolBoxInit( void )
{
 InitGraf( &thePort );
 InitFonts();
 InitWindows();
 InitMenus();
 TEInit();
 InitDialogs( nil );
 InitCursor();
}


/****************** WindowInit ***********************/

void  WindowInit( void )
{
 WindowPtrwindow;
 
 window = GetNewWindow( kBaseResID, nil, kMoveToFront );
 
 if ( window == nil )
 {
 SysBeep( 10 );  /*  Couldn't load the WIND resource!!!  */
 ExitToShell();
 }
 
 ShowWindow( window );
 SetPort( window );
}


/****************** DrawMyPicture ********************/

void  DrawMyPicture( void )
{
 Rect   pictureRect;
 PicHandlepicture;
 
 picture = GetPicture( kBaseResID );
 
 if ( picture == nil )
 {
 SysBeep( 10 );  /*  Couldn't load the PICT resource!!!  */
 ExitToShell();
 }
 
 pictureRect = (**picture).picFrame;
 
 OffsetRect( &pictureRect, - pictureRect.left,
 - pictureRect.top );
 
 DrawPicture( picture, &pictureRect );
 
 FrameRect( &pictureRect );
}

Once your source code is typed in, select Save from the File menu. Save the file under the name “PICTWindow.c”. Next, add the source file to the project by select Add (not Add...) from the Source menu. Your project window should look like the one shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. The project window for PICTWindow.Π.

Running the Program

Now you’re ready to run your program. Select Run from the Project menu. If you encounter any errors, check your source code for typos and make sure your project window has the two files shown in Figure 5. Once your program runs, you should see a window similar to the one shown in Figure 6.

Notice that the picture is drawn in the upper left corner of the window. The upper left corner of the picture is at (0,0) in the window’s local coordinate system.

Figure 6. The PICTWindow window!

Key Lines of Code

Most of the program should make sense to you if you read through last month’s TextBoxer example. Rather than repeat last weeks explanations, I’d like to point out three key segments of code. The first is the code that loads the WIND resource and creates a new window:

/* 4 */

 window = GetNewWindow( kBaseResID, nil, kMoveToFront );

As mentioned earlier, this line of code accomplishes the same thing as NewWindow(), except that GetNewWindow() gets its information from the WIND resource, instead of its parameter list. GetNewWindow() is described in Volume I of Inside Macintosh, on page 283.

The second key line of code is the line that loads the PICT resource:

/* 5 */

 picture = GetPicture( kBaseResID );

This line of code loads the PICT resource with an ID matching kBaseResID. Match this line of code up with the following:

/* 6 */

 DrawPicture( picture, &pictureRect );

and you can really see the power of resources. Two lines of code and you’ve drawn a complex graphic in a window!!! By the way, GetPicture() is on page 475 of Volume I of Inside Macintosh and DrawPicture() is on page 190 of Volume I.

Till Next Month

Take some time to play around with ResEdit. Use ResEdit to modify your WIND resource, changing the type of window (click on the icons on the top row of the WIND editor) and the window’s location. Notice that the picture is drawn in the upper left of the window, no matter where the window is drawn on the screen. Look up OffsetRect() in Inside Macintosh and try to figure out why the picture is drawn where it is.

Finally, try to write a routine that centers the picture in the window. For a little help with this last exercise, you can check out the ShowPICT program in Volume I of the Mac Primer.

Sorry to cut this column short, but the next time I speak with you all, I should be a proud new poppa! Stay tuned...

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

PopChar 7.1 - Floating window shows avai...
We're also selling a 5-license family pack for only $25.99! PopChar helps you get the most out of your font collection. With its crystal-clear interface, PopChar X provides a frustration-free way to... Read more
BBEdit 11.1.1 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more
Picasa 3.9.139 - Organize, edit, and sha...
Picasa and Picasa Web Albums allows you to organize, edit, and upload your photos to the Web from your computer in quick, simple steps. Arrange your photos into folders and albums and erase their... Read more
Mac DVDRipper Pro 5.0.5 - Copy, backup,...
Mac DVDRipper Pro is the DVD backup solution that lets you protect your DVDs from scratches, save your batteries by reading your movies from your hard disk, manage your collection with just a few... Read more
NetShade 6.2 - Browse privately using an...
This promotion is for NetShade and 1 year of Proxy and VPN services NetShade is an anonymous proxy and VPN app+service for Mac. Unblock your Internet through NetShade's high-speed proxy and VPN... Read more
CrossOver 14.1.3 - Run Windows apps on y...
CrossOver can get your Windows productivity applications and PC games up and running on your Mac quickly and easily. CrossOver runs the Windows software that you need on Mac at home, in the office,... Read more
Little Snitch 3.5.3 - Alerts you about o...
Little Snitch gives you control over your private outgoing data. Track background activity As soon as your computer connects to the Internet, applications often have permission to send any... Read more
OmniGraffle Pro 6.2.3 - Create diagrams,...
OmniGraffle Pro helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use... Read more
OmniFocus 2.2 - GTD task manager with iO...
OmniFocus helps you manage your tasks the way that you want, freeing you to focus your attention on the things that matter to you most. Capturing tasks and ideas is always a keyboard shortcut away in... Read more
1Password 5.3.2 - Powerful password mana...
1Password is a password manager that uniquely brings you both security and convenience. It is the only program that provides anti-phishing protection and goes beyond password management by adding Web... Read more

MooVee - Your Movies Guru (Entertainmen...
MooVee - Your Movies Guru 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Entertainment Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: MooVee helps you effortlessly manage your movies, on your iPhone. | Read more »
Geometry Wars 3: Dimensions (Games)
Geometry Wars 3: Dimensions 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Enjoy the next chapter in the award-winning Geometry Wars franchise and enjoy stunning, console-quality... | Read more »
CHAOS RINGS Ⅲ (Games)
CHAOS RINGS Ⅲ 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $19.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: The newest addition to the popular smartphone RPG series is finally here! ・CHAOS RINGS Overview | Read more »
The Popular Insight Series of Travel Gui...
Getting around in a country when you can't understand the primary language can be tough. Fortunately there are several options available to help wold travellers with the important stuff like giving directions to a cab driver or asking where the... | Read more »
Desktop Dungeons is Now on the iPad Desp...
Desktop Dungeons has been a well-loved roguelike on PC for quite some time, and now it's finally available for the iPad! Just the iPad, though. Sorry iPhone users. [Read more] | Read more »
Moleskine Timepage – Calendar for iCloud...
Moleskine Timepage – Calendar for iCloud, Google & Exchange 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Productivity Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The most elegant calendar for your pocket and wrist, Timepage is a... | Read more »
QuizUp Gets Social in its New Update
Plain Vanilla Corp has released a new and improved version of their popular trivia game, QuizUp. The app now emphasizes social play so you can challenge friends from all over the world. [Read more] | Read more »
The Deep (Games)
The Deep 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Swipe Controls Delve into the deep in this retro rogue-like! Swipe to move your diver around and keep away from the enemies as you... | Read more »
Sproggiwood (Games)
Sproggiwood 1.2.8 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $9.99, Version: 1.2.8 (iTunes) Description: Sproggiwood was developed for devices with at least 1GB of RAM. We recommend you only download Sproggiwood if your device... | Read more »
Battle of Gods: Ascension (Games)
Battle of Gods: Ascension 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: TURN-BASED TACTICAL COMBATFight tactical battles against the forces of Hades! In Battle of Gods: Ascension you play... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple refurbished 2014 13-inch Retina MacBook...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 13″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $400 off original MSRP, starting at $979. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and... Read more
What Would the ideal Apple Productivity Platf...
For the past four years I’ve kept a foot in both the Mac and iPad camps respectively. my daily computing hours divided about 50/50 between the two devices with remarkable consistency. However, there’... Read more
PageMeUp 1.2.1 Ten Dollar Page Layout Applica...
Paris, France-based Softobe, an OS X software development company, has announced that their PageMeUp v. 1.2.1, is available on the Mac App Store for $9.99. The license can be installed on up to 5... Read more
Eight New Products For USB Type-C Application...
Fresco Logic, specialists in advanced connectivity technologies and ICs, has introduced two new product families targeting the Type-C connector recently introduced across a number of consumer... Read more
Scripps National Spelling Bee Launches Buzzwo...
Scripps National Spelling Bee fans can monitor the action at the 2015 Spelling Bee with the new Buzzworthy app for iOS, Android and Windows mobile devices. The free Buzzworthy app provides friendly... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $120 o...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $979 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $120 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price for this model (except for Apple’... Read more
27-inch 3.3GHz 5K iMac on sale for $1899, $10...
B&H Photo has the new 27″ 3.3GHz 5K iMac on sale for $1899.99 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Read more
Save up to $50 on iPad Air 2, NY tax only, fr...
B&H Photo has iPad Air 2s on sale for up to $50 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $469 $30 off - 64GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $549.99 $50 off - 128GB iPad... Read more
Updated Mac Price Trackers
We’ve updated our Mac Price Trackers with the latest information on prices, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers: - 15″ MacBook Pros - 13″ MacBook... Read more
New 13-inch 2.9GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.9GHz/512GB Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1699.99 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price for this model from... Read more

Jobs Board

Program Manager, *Apple* Community Support...
**Job Summary** Apple Support Communities ( discussions. apple .com) helps customers get the most from their Apple products and services by providing access to Read more
Senior Data Scientist, *Apple* Retail - Onl...
**Job Summary** Apple Retail - Online sells Apple products to customers around the world. In addition to selling Apple products with unique services such as iPad Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
*Apple* Watch SW Application Project Manager...
**Job Summary** The Apple Watch software team is looking for an Application Engineering Project Manager to work on new projects for Apple . The successful candidate Read more
Engineering Manager for *Apple* Maps on the...
…the Maps App Team get to take part in just about any new feature in Apple Maps, often contributing a majority of the feature work. In our day-to-day engineering work, we Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.