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Design Objects
Volume Number:7
Issue Number:1
Column Tag:C Workshop

Related Info: Memory Manager File Manager Event Manager

Designing With Objects

By Wade Maxfield, Dallas, TX

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

How to Design an Object Oriented Program

[Wade Maxfield is a System Analyst Consultant currently working at Mobil Oil company in Dallas, Texas. His interest in computers dates from the late 1960’s, when he wrote his “very first” bubble sort in Fortran for an IBM 1130. His training for the real world comes from the BSEET program at DeVry Institute.]

In a 1960’s era Reader’s Digest “Life in these United States” anecdote, a man told a story about his huge English Sheepdog. One of his neighbors a few blocks down the lane had a Triumph automobile, which was a few inches shorter in height than the dog. As this tiny car would scoot by their house on the way to work, their dog would tear out, barking loudly. This became a ritual, since the neighbor went to work the same time each afternoon.

Finally, the neighbor had enough. In full view of everyone, he skidded to a stop. The dog dug in, missing the car by inches. Sitting on the back of the driver’s seat in the topless car, he turned to the dog and asked, “Now that you have it, what are you going to do with it?”

We are in the same predicament. We have objects. What are we going to do with them? In this article, I will endeavor to show you how to plan, design, and write an object oriented program by example. I have chosen a very simple task-- removing line feeds from a text file. The main thing to learn is that messages are where you start, and objects where you finish. There are several pieces to the design puzzle. Some background is in order. I have listed the key elements by heading.

1. Messages:

Messages are what we describe fully before we write our program. If you program off the cuff, you will find that you will still want to define a message before you write the program, even if it is 30 seconds before.

Conceptually, messages are data. Messages have a transient existence. They are created by the sending object, destroyed by the receiving object. Messages tell the object what to do. A message has a command portion, and a variable data portion.

The command portion in a message always causes some software to be executed but a message has no software in it. In a truly message based system a message can be seen using tools that can examine data lying around inside a program’s environment. In today’s compiled object oriented systems, messages are function calls. The function name is the command portion and the parameters are the variable data portion.

Depending upon the destination and the purpose of a message it might need to be acknowledged. This acknowledgment in a totally message based system is in the form of a message called an ACK(nowledgment). If a message cannot be acted upon, or if the work the object is supposed to do fails, a message is NAK(ed. (not acknowledged)). In a compiled object oriented system, the return value from the function call is the ACK or NAK. An acknowledgment is a conceptual tool. If this tool is exercised properly, it can guarantee system performance. Your objects can always be told whether or not an operation occurred.

2. Objects:

Objects started with SmallTalk in Xerox PARC. Danny Kay and his cohorts came up with SmallTalk during research into where computers should go. Their research spawned the ill-fated Xerox Star, the Apple Lisa, the Macintosh, and now the NeXT. They pioneered the concept of treating software functions as black boxes. You talked to these boxes with messages. These boxes are known as objects.

[an aside:

The object oriented package in the THINK C environment contains very good explanations of objects and messages (methods) from the programming usage viewpoint. Messages as function calls are fully explained. What is not fully explained is how an object works.

An object is defined by declaring a structure with an implicit typedef statement. This creates a structure which is used as a future template for the actual object. The object is declared as a pointer to a structure of type object. Then the new(object) call is made. This function allocates a Macintosh Memory Manager Handle large enough to hold the structure definition, and fills in the new handle with enough address information to derive the addresses of the functions referenced in the structure. From then on, a call through a “message dispatcher” finishes the calling of the routine indicated by the method described in the object or its ancestor. A message call looks like this: object->method(parm1, parm2). ]

3. Data Definitions:

Software engineers at Bell Laboratories pioneered the concept of designing software by describing all of the data you are going to manipulate. You first wrote down all of the variable names, and placed them into a dictionary. In this dictionary, you then described everything you would do to the variables. Once you have rigorously defined everything that can be done to the data, you have described what the software must do to successfully complete its given task.

4. Design Methodology and its Graphics:

Mr. Yourdon, with his cohort Mr. DeMarco, came up with a methodology of analyzing software design. The Yourdon Structured Analysis and Design Methodology is oriented towards real time design, but it works for Macintosh software design. The reason is that all Macintosh programs are near real time programs. All real time software responds to events as they occur. What user will wait minutes for the computer to respond to a mouse click?

The most important (to me) portion of the Yourdon design techniques is the data flow diagrams. These describe where the data goes (but not when). I have modified his diagram concepts, and thrown away a few of his rules. I will lay a few ground rules for drawing these modified diagrams.

First, a circle is an object. An object receives messages from other objects. An objects name is placed in the circle.

Second, messages are drawn as arcs from one object to the next. A directional arrow is placed at the end of the arc and a brief description of the message sent to the object placed near the middle of the arc. This description is usually more of a mnemonic than a true description.

Third, data is indicated by a description sandwiched between two parallel lines (usually horizontal). Variables are data. The data is manipulated by objects (and may be part of the object). An “arrowed” arc is used to show which object manipulated the data, with a description of what happens to the data (read, write, update, Etc.). In object oriented programming, an object should only manipulate its own data. It can be told to manipulate its data with a message, or asked for the current value of the data with a message. Data may also be a disk file, or any other storage location (such as a video screen).

Fourth, a rectangular box is used to indicate an external event which causes some data to flow through the system in the form of messages. This external event may be a mouse click or keyboard entry from the user, a call back routine from a disk write event, or an interrupt from the system time clock. An external event is almost always asynchronous to program execution. The flow of this data is also indicated by labeled arcs.

Diagram 1

Diagram 2

Diagram 3

Diagram 4

Diagram 5

Finally:

So now we have the elements necessary to think of designing for object oriented programming. First we have objects, which accept messages. Second, we have the concept that you describe everything that you must do to the data (ie: describe all of the messages). Third, we have some structured analysis techniques modified from real time design analysis given by Yourdon. Lets do a design.

The Design:

I need to strip line feeds from text files which are sent to me from IBM (yuk!) based systems. I need for this program to 1). display a standard SFGetFile dialog box, 2). open the selected file, 3). display a standard SFPutFile dialog box, 4). create the described file, 5). read in the source data a line at a time until exhausted, and 6). write the same data minus the line feeds to the destination file. I will use THINK C 4.0.

How the messages flow:

(Note, the names are made up as I go along. Any correlation to any code past or present is purely coincidental. Any correlation to objects already known is purposeful.)

I will send a (GetExistingFile) message to myFileManager object to get me the source file the user wants to convert. myFileManager will send a reply message to me telling me one of two things: 1) he has the data for me (ACK), 2) he doesn’t have anything for me (ie: the user canceled, an error occurred), and nothing can be guaranteed about his data (NAK). See diagram 1.

If the message was a success, I will send an (OpenFile) message to myFileManager. He will create a myDataFile object for me that deals with that file, and give that object to me. It will know how to read, write, and close that file. See diagram 3.

Then I will send a (GetNewFile) message to myFileManager object to get me the destination file the user wants as the output. After dealing with the identical return as in the (GetExistingFile) message, I will send an (OpenFile) message to myFileManager, and get the destination myDataFile object. See diagrams 2 and 3. Then I will create my TextFilter object and initialize it.

Now, until the return message from myDataFile input object indicates an error or end of file, I will send (ReadLine) messages to the source file object. I will feed the lines in a (StripLineFeeds) message to the TextFilter object. I can ignore the (ACK) message from this object. Then I will send a (WriteSome) message to the output object. See diagram 4.

At a NAK from the input myDatFile object, I will send a (CloseFile) message to myFileManager object, handing him the input an output objects. That will take care of any clean up for this particular situation. I will also send a (Dispose) message to my TextFilter object. See diagrams 4 and 5.

Normally, an Exit message or a Quit message would be sent, but for this simple situation, the clean up was done in the run method, and no other messages are needed. The program execution falls through to the normal exit code included in the application shell.

Conclusion:

If THINK C 4.0 were truly a message based system, with an interpreter handling the dispatch of messages, and the running of code based on where the message was sent, then you would see very little program logic should you try to examine the “code” without the above narrative. Messages would flow back and forth between objects without apparent rhyme or reason, and you would have a hard time predicting what the system does unless you had the master plan in your hand.

You could design a program that way under THINK C 4.0, or a similar environment. If you did, you would find that under situations where one message triggered a second message which triggered the first message (and so on), the stack would quickly overflow. There would be no returns from the subroutines. The address pushed on the stack for each message call would not be popped. And we know all messages should be popped off! A work around for this would be an assembly language routine which would take the outgoing message as its parameters and do the stack clean up for you. This would be very dangerous for the casual programmer. Any mistake would crash the system.

Another way to handle messages under this type of environment would be to build your own message dispatcher, and tie it into the user defined events in the Macintosh event manager. A message would be posted into the event queue, and the message would be dispatched through the main message processor, Macintosh style.

The messages themselves could be done two ways. You could include every case in the do application event handler. Talk about huge multilevel switch statements! Or, if the message portion of the event was a pointer to the data structure containing the message, and that structure contained the object and the address of its method (the message to be sent), along with some indication of the parameters to be given to the method, a message dispatcher would work. Each object handle would have to be locked down to prevent movement. It would be difficult to send several messages in a row from one object. The design would stay the same, but there could be as much as one method per message sent or received.

For our program, I am going to use the environment handed to me without changes. This solves a problem for me in that I look at the resulting code and it looks like pure C! This makes it easy for me to understand and troubleshoot. However, the advantages of objects do show up. My program reads more like an outline than a typical C program containing a massive amounts of details.

What is not apparent is the design methodology behind the program. The program is easy to modify. It also looks to be simple, and it is. The objects do the hard work, and their code can look very dirty. The benefit is in dealing on a different conceptual plane. Once an object is written, it can be easily reused or stretched.

Once the “system” using objects is designed, the objects themselves don’t have to reside inside the current application. An object can be moved to a different program or computer. As long as the messaging system handles the delivery of messages and their replies, the “system” will always accomplish what it is supposed to. This “lever” [message oriented design] allows multiple processor systems to be built with very little change in design when moving from a single processor system.

The code:

NOTE: For this example, I have taken the standard Starter.c application provided with THINK C 4.0 and modified it for this project. Many of the explanatory notes are the ones given in the THINK C 4.0 source code. For this project, I was able to ignore them!

(This is the root of all object oriented programs for THINK C 4.0. Note that it looks more like an outline than a program.)

/*****
 * RemoveLF.c
 *
 * A starter main file for writing programs with the
 * THINK Class Library
 *****/
#include “CRemoveLFApp.h”
extern  CApplication *gApplication;

void main()
{
 gApplication = new(CRemoveLFApp);
 ((CRemoveLFApp *)gApplication)->IRemoveLFApp();
 gApplication->Run();
 gApplication->Exit();
}

(All of the work in our particular program is done in the Run method.)
/*****
 * CRemoveLFApp.c
 * Application methods for a typical application.
  *****/
#include “oops.h”
#include “messageDefines.h”
#include “CRemoveLFApp.h”
#include “CRemoveLFDoc.h”
#include “CmyFileManager.h”
#include “CmyDataFile.h”
#include “CTextFilter.h”

extern  OSType gSignature;
static char readBuffer[512];
/*..........................................................*/
void CRemoveLFApp::Run(void)
/*
Name: Wade Maxfield
Date: November 25, 1989
Notes:
Run
we need to do our thing here, not the normal built in
code work
Modification History:
*/
{
CmyFileManager *FileManager;
SFReply sourceReply;
SFReply destinationReply;
short returnMessage;
CmyDataFile *sourceDataFile;
CmyDataFile *destinationDataFile;
long bytesRead;
CTextFilter *TextFilter;

 FileManager = new(CmyFileManager);
 FileManager->ImyFileManager();
 
/* ask for the source file */
 returnMessage = FileManager->GetExistingFile(&sourceReply);

 if ( returnMessage == NAK )
    return; /* this application is finished. */
 
/* ask for the destination file. (this creates it also) */
 returnMessage = FileManager->GetNewFile (&destinationReply,’TEXT’);

 if ( returnMessage == NAK )
   return; /* this application is finished. */

 returnMessage = FileManager->OpenFile (&sourceDataFile,&sourceReply);
 
 if ( returnMessage == NAK )
    return;
 
returnMessage = FileManager->OpenFile (&destinationDataFile,&destinationReply);

if ( returnMessage == NAK )
   return;
 
/* we are ready for the new text filter object */
TextFilter = new(CTextFilter);
TextFilter->ITextFilter(); /* initialize it */
 
do {    
   returnMessage = sourceDataFile->ReadLine (readBuffer,512L,&bytesRead);
 
   if ( returnMessage == NAK )
      break;
 
   /* strip the line feeds */
   TextFilter->StripLineFeeds(readBuffer,&bytesRead);
 
   returnMessage = destinationDataFile->WriteSome (readBuffer,bytesRead);
   } while(TRUE);

FileManager->CloseFile(&sourceDataFile);     
FileManager->CloseFile(&destinationDataFile);      
TextFilter->Dispose(); /* get rid of the text filter object */
 }

/***
 * IRemoveLFApp
 *
 * Initialize the application. Your initialization method should 
 at least call the inherited method. If your application class defines 
its own instance variables or global variables, this is a good place 
to initialize them.
 *
 ***/
void CRemoveLFApp::IRemoveLFApp(void)
{
CApplication::IApplication(4, 20480L, 2048L);
}

/***
 * SetUpFileParameters
 *
 * In this routine, you specify the kinds of files your
 * application opens.
 ***/

void CRemoveLFApp::SetUpFileParameters(void)
{
inherited::SetUpFileParameters();  /* Be sure to call the default method 
*/

/**
 **sfNumTypes is the number of file types
 **your application knows about.
 **sfFileTypes[] is an array of file types.
 **You can define up to 4 file types in
 **sfFileTypes[].
 **/
sfNumTypes = 1;
sfFileTypes[0] = ‘TEXT’;

/**
 **Although it’s not an instance variable,
 **this method is a good place to set the
 **gSignature global variable. Set this global
 **to your application’s signature. You’ll use it
 **to create a file (see CFile::CreateNew()).
 **/
gSignature = ‘????’;
}

/***
 * DoCommand
 *
 * Your application will probably handle its own commands.
 * Remember, the command numbers from 1-1023 are reserved.
 * The file Commands.h contains all the reserved commands.
 *
 * Be sure to call the default method, so you can get
 * the default behvior for standard commands.
 ***/
void CRemoveLFApp::DoCommand(long theCommand)
{
switch (theCommand) {
 /* Your commands go here */
 default: inherited::DoCommand(theCommand);
 break;
 }
}

/***
 * Exit
 * Chances are you won’t need this method.
 * This is the last chance your application gets to clean up
 * things like temporary files.
 ***/
void CRemoveLFApp::Exit()
{
/* your exit handler here */
}

/***
 * CreateDocument
 * The user chose New from the File menu.
 * In this method, you need to create a document and send it
 * a NewFile() message.
 ***/
void CRemoveLFApp::CreateDocument()
{
CRemoveLFDoc*theDocument;
 
  theDocument = new(CRemoveLFDoc);
 
/**
 **Send your document an initialization
 **message. The first argument is the
 **supervisor (the application). The second
 **argument is TRUE if the document is printable.
 **/
  theDocument->IRemoveLFDoc(this, TRUE);

/**
 **Send the document a NewFile() message.
 **The document will open a window, and
 **set up the heart of the application.
 **/
 theDocument->NewFile();
}

/***
 * OpenDocument
 *
 * The user chose Open  from the File menu.
 * In this method you need to create a document
 * and send it an OpenFile() message.
 *
 * The macSFReply is a good SFReply record that contains
 * the name and vRefNum of the file the user chose to
 * open.
 ***/
void CRemoveLFApp::OpenDocument(SFReply *macSFReply)
{
CRemoveLFDoc*theDocument;
 
 theDocument = new(CRemoveLFDoc);

/**
 **Send your document an initialization
 **message. The first argument is the
 **supervisor (the application). The second
 **argument is TRUE if the document is printable.
 **/
 theDocument->IRemoveLFDoc(this, TRUE);

/**
 **Send the document an OpenFile() message.
 **The document will open a window, open
** the file specified in the macSFReply record,
** and display it in its window.
**/
 theDocument->OpenFile(macSFReply);
}

 (This object’s file contains the code which describes the myDataFile 
object.  Some of these methods will be useful in future projects.)
/*
*
CmyDataFile.c
 this file adds a method to the standard definition.  It uses some code 
borrowed from another  (non-object oriented) project to do it.
*/

#include “MessageDefines.h”
#include “CmyDataFile.h”

/* needed for code module picked up from another project */
typedef short WORD ;
typedef  char CHAR;

long ReadaLine(WORD refNum,CHAR *tempString,WORD  maxChars) ;
#define NIL 0L
static union {
 HParamBlockRec dfParameterBlock; /* our parameter block for private 
use */
 CInfoPBRec dirPBBlock;
 }p;

/*:........................................................*/
long ReadaLine(WORD refNum,CHAR *tempString,WORD  maxChars) 
/* WORD refNum;  /* Mac file reference number*/
/*CHAR *tempString;/* where to store the data */
/* WORD maxChars;  /* maximum number of characters to read for this line 
*/
/*
Name: Wade Maxfield
Date: Feb 21, 1989
Notes:
Modification History:
11/25/89 -- here we mix objects and standard c code.
*/
{
WORD error;
WORD stringCount;

/*
PBGetFPos (paramBlock: ParmBlkPtr; async: BOOLEAN) : OSErr;

Trap macro  _GetFPos

Parameter block
    -->  12  ioCompletion    pointer
    <--  16  ioResult        word
    -->  24  ioRefNum        word
    <--  36  ioReqCount      long word
    <--  40  ioActCount      long word
    <--  44  ioPosMode       word
    <--  46  ioPosOffset     long word
*/
 p.dfParameterBlock.fileParam.ioCompletion = NIL;
 p.dfParameterBlock.ioParam.ioRefNum = refNum;
 error = PBGetFPos (&p.dfParameterBlock,FALSE ) ;/* false = synchronously 
*/
 if (error != noErr)
 return(error);
 
/*PBRead (paramBlock: ParmBlkPtr; async: BOOLEAN) : OSErr;
   Trap macro  _Read
    Parameter block
        --> 12  ioCompletion    pointer
        <-- 16  ioResult    word
        --> 24  ioRefNum    word
        --> 32  ioBuffer    pointer
        --> 36  ioReqCount  long word
        <-- 40  ioActCount  long word
        --> 44  ioPosMode   word
        <-> 46  ioPosOffset long word
*/
 p.dfParameterBlock.ioParam.ioBuffer = tempString;
 p.dfParameterBlock.ioParam.ioReqCount =maxChars ;
 /* 0d is cr, $80 is newline mode */
 p.dfParameterBlock.ioParam.ioPosMode = fsAtMark+0x0D80;
 /* from present counter */
 
 error = PBRead (&p.dfParameterBlock,FALSE ) ;/* false = synchronously 
*/

 if (p.dfParameterBlock.ioParam.ioActCount)
    stringCount =p.dfParameterBlock.ioParam.ioActCount-1;
 else
    stringCount = 0;
 
 /* all characters exhausted */
 if ( (error == eofErr && stringCount == 0 ) || 
    (error != noErr && error != eofErr) )
    return(error);
 
 if ( tempString[stringCount] == ‘\r’)
    tempString[++stringCount]=0;  /* delimit string */
 else
    tempString[++stringCount] = 0;
 
 return(stringCount);
}

/* now the methods */
/* ............................................*/
void CmyDataFile::ImyDataFile(void)
/*
Name: Wade Maxfield
Date: November 25, 1989
Notes:
initalize this object
Modification History:
*/
{
/* call the superclass function */
CDataFile::IDataFile();
}

/* ..................................................... */
OSErr CmyDataFile::ReadLine(Ptr buffer, long howMuch, long *bytesRead)
/*
Name: Wade Maxfield
Date: November 25, 1989
Notes:
read a line from the file into the buffer, stopping at carriage return
return an ACK or a NAK
Modification History:
*/
{
long returnValue;

returnValue = ReadaLine(refNum,buffer, howMuch);
  
if (returnValue < 0 )
   {
   *bytesRead = 0;
   return(NAK);
   }
else
   {
   *bytesRead = returnValue;
   return(ACK);
   }
}

(Contains the file manager object)
/*
 CmyFileManager.c
 this is the methods file for my file manager object.
*/
#include “oops.h”
#include “MessageDefines.h”
#include “Global.h”
#include “CmyFileManager.h”
#include “CApplication.h”

/**** Global Variables ****/
extern CApplication*gApplication; /* Application object */
extern  OSType gSignature;

/* ............................................... */
void CmyFileManager::ImyFileManager(void)
/*
Name: Wade Maxfield
Date: November 25, 1989
Notes:
initalize this object
Modification History:
*/
{
/* call the superclass function */
CDataFile::IDataFile();
}

/* .................................................. */
short CmyFileManager::GetExistingFile(SFReply *macSFReply)
/*
Name: Wade Maxfield
Date: November 25, 1989
Notes:
put up the SFGetFile dialog box, return result in macSFReply
return a good message(ACK) or a bad message (NAK)
\Modification History:
*/
{
gApplication->ChooseFile(macSFReply);
 
if ( !macSFReply->good )
   return(NAK);
else
   return(ACK);
}
/* .................................................... */
short  CmyFileManager::GetNewFile(SFReply *macSFReply,OSType fType)
/*
Name: Wade Maxfield
Date: November 25, 1989
Notes:
put up the SFPutFile dialog box, return result in macSFReply
create the chosen file, or recreate it.
return a good message(ACK) or a bad message (NAK)
Modification History:
*/
{
Point   corner;  /* Top left corner of dialog box*/
SignedBytesaveHState;
short returnMessage;
 /* Center dialog box on the screen*/
FindDlogPosition(‘DLOG’, gApplication->sfGetDLOGid, &corner);  
saveHState = HGetState(this);
HLock(this);

SFPutFile(corner,”\pSave file as:”,”\p”,NULL,macSFReply);
 
HSetState(this, saveHState);
/* now create the file for a future open. 
  these methods are inherited. */
if ( macSFReply->good)
   {
   SFSpecify(macSFReply);
   returnMessage = CreateNew(gSignature, fType );
 
   /* if is a duplicate, and user said ok to delete old,
   then go ahead and re do it */
   if ( returnMessage == dupFNErr && macSFReply->good)
      {
      ThrowOut(); /* get rid of old file */
      returnMessage = CreateNew(gSignature, fType );
      }
   }

if ( !macSFReply->good || returnMessage < 0)
   return(NAK);
else
   return(ACK);
}
/* ................................................ */
short  CmyFileManager::OpenFile(CmyDataFile **newDataFileObject, SFReply 
*macSFReply)
/*
Name: Wade Maxfield
Date: November 25, 1989
Notes:
Create a myDataFile object, and open the file, hand it back to
the calling method.
return a good message(ACK) or a bad message (NAK)
Modification History:
*/
{
short returnMessage;

/* create the new file object */
*newDataFileObject = NULL; /* to allow test for object create */ 
*newDataFileObject = new(CmyDataFile);
 
if (!(long)(*newDataFileObject)) /* object wasn’t created */
   return(NAK);
 
(*newDataFileObject)->ImyDataFile();
 
/* tell the inherited routine what file we have */
(*newDataFileObject)->SFSpecify(macSFReply); 
 
returnMessage = (*newDataFileObject)->Open(fsRdWrPerm); 
 /* call the inherited open */
 
if ( returnMessage < 0 )
   return(NAK); /* indicate an error (NAK) */
 
return(ACK); /* return a good message */
}

/* ..................................................... */
short  CmyFileManager::CloseFile(CmyDataFile **dataFileObject)
/*
Name: Wade Maxfield
Date: November 25, 1989
Notes:
Close the file and dispose of the data file object.
\return a good message(ACK) 
Modification History:
*/
{
/* first, close the file, then delete the file object */
(*dataFileObject)->Close();
 
(*dataFileObject)->Dispose(); /* close and dispose of the object */
*dataFileObject = NULL; /* indicate is gone */
return(ACK); /* all quiet on western front */
}

/*
CTextFilter.c
 this object has no ancestors
*/
#include “messageDefines.h”
#include “CTextFilter.h”
/* ................................................... */
void CTextFilter::ITextFilter(void)
{
/* we don’t need to do anything right now */
}

/* .................................................... */
short CTextFilter::StripLineFeeds(char *textBuffer, long *bufferSize)
/* remove line feeds within the current text buffer */
{
short index, index2;

for ( index = 0 ; index < *bufferSize; index++ )
   {
   if ( textBuffer[index ] == 0x0a )
      {
       (*bufferSize) --;
       for ( index2 = index; index2 < (*bufferSize)+1; index2++)
           textBuffer[index2] = textBuffer[index2+1];
         }
      }

return(ACK);
}

(Header files)
/*
CmyDataFile.h
this is the definition of my file manager object
*/
#define _H_CmyDataFile  /* Include this file only once */
#include “CDataFile.h”

struct CmyDataFile : CDataFile 
 {
 /* instance variables */
 /* my messages */
 void ImyDataFile(void);
 OSErr ReadLine(Ptr info,long howMuch, long *bytesRead);
 };
/*
CmyFileManager.h
this is the definition of my file manager object
*/
#define _H_CmyFileManager /* Include this file only once */
#include “CDataFile.h”
#include “CmyDataFile.h”
struct CmyFileManager : CDataFile 
 {
 /* instance variables */
 /* my messages */
 void ImyFileManager(void);
 short GetExistingFile(SFReply *macSFReply);
 short GetNewFile(SFReply *macSFReply,OSType fType);
 short OpenFile(CmyDataFile **newDataFileObject,SFReply *macSFReply);
 short CloseFile(CmyDataFile **newDataFileObject);
 };

/*
MessageDefines.h
Generic values need across all messages
*/
#define ACK  1
#define NAK  0

/*
CTextFilter.h
this is the class definition for the text filter .
*/
#define _H_CTextFilter
#include “CObject.h”

struct CTextFilter : CObject
 {
 /* no instance variables */
 /* methods */
 void ITextFilter(void);
 short StripLineFeeds(char *textBuffer, long *bufferSize);
 };

 

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Software Updates via MacUpdate

Yasu 4.0.0 β - System maintenance app; p...
Yasu was created with System Administrators who service large groups of workstations in mind, Yasu (Yet Another System Utility) was made to do a specific group of maintenance tasks quickly within a... Read more
Skype 7.37.0.178 - Voice-over-internet p...
Skype allows you to talk to friends, family and co-workers across the Internet without the inconvenience of long distance telephone charges. Using peer-to-peer data transmission technology, Skype... Read more
EtreCheck 3.0.5 - For troubleshooting yo...
EtreCheck is an app that displays the important details of your system configuration and allow you to copy that information to the Clipboard. It is meant to be used with Apple Support Communities to... Read more
Amadeus Pro 2.3.1 - Multitrack sound rec...
Amadeus Pro lets you use your Mac computer for any audio-related task, such as live audio recording, digitizing tapes and records, converting between a variety of sound formats, etc. Thanks to its... Read more
NeoFinder 6.9.3 - Catalog your external...
NeoFinder (formerly CDFinder) rapidly organizes your data, either on external or internal disks, or any other volumes. It catalogs all your data, so you stay in control of your data archive or disk... Read more
WhatsApp 0.2.1880 - Desktop client for W...
WhatsApp is the desktop client for WhatsApp Messenger, a cross-platform mobile messaging app which allows you to exchange messages without having to pay for SMS. WhatsApp Messenger is available for... Read more
Hazel 4.0.6 - Create rules for organizin...
Hazel is your personal housekeeper, organizing and cleaning folders based on rules you define. Hazel can also manage your trash and uninstall your applications. Organize your files using a familiar... Read more
Apple iBooks Author 2.5 - Create and pub...
Apple iBooks Author helps you create and publish amazing Multi-Touch books for iPad. Now anyone can create stunning iBooks textbooks, cookbooks, history books, picture books, and more for iPad. All... Read more
MYStuff Pro 2.0.26 - $39.99
MYStuff Pro is the most flexible way to create detail-rich inventories for your home or small business. Add items to MYStuff by dragging and dropping existing information, uploading new images, or... Read more
MarsEdit 3.7.8 - Quick and convenient bl...
MarsEdit is a blog editor for OS X that makes editing your blog like writing email, with spell-checking, drafts, multiple windows, and even AppleScript support. It works with with most blog services... Read more

How to get past Vulture Island's tr...
Vulture Island is a colorful and quirky mish-mash of platforming and puzzles. It’s creative and fresh, but sometimes the game can throw a curveball at you, leaving you stuck as to how you should progress. These tips will help you explore smoothly... | Read more »
The new Clash of Kings is just for Weste...
If you’ve played the original Clash of Kings, you’ll probably recognise the city building, alliance forging and strategic battles in Clash of Kings: The West. What sets this version apart is that it’s tailor made for a Western audience and the... | Read more »
Frost - Survival card game (Games)
Frost - Survival card game 1.12.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.12.1 (iTunes) Description: *Warning: the game will work on iPhone 5C and above and iPad Pro / 4. Other devices are not supported* | Read more »
How to build and care for your team in D...
Before you hit the trail and become a dog sledding legend, there’s actually a fair bit of prep work to be done. In Dog Sled Saga, you’re not only racing, you’re also building and caring for a team of furry friends. There’s a lot to consider—... | Read more »
How to win every race in Dog Sled Saga
If I had to guess, I’d say Dog Sled Saga is the most adorable racing game on the App Store right now. It’s a dog sled racing sim full of adorable, loyal puppies. Just look at those fluffy little tails wagging. Behind that cute, pixelated facade is... | Read more »
Let the war games commence in Gunship Ba...
Buzz Lightyear famously said, “This isn’t flying, this is falling – with style!” In the case of Gunship Battle: Second War, though, this really is flying - with style! The flight simulator app from Joycity puts you in control of 20 faithfully... | Read more »
How to get a high score in Fired Up
Fired Up is Noodlecake Games’ high score chasing, firefighting adventure. You take control of a wayward firefighter who propels himself up the side of a highrise with blasts of water. Sound silly? It is. It’s also pretty difficult. You can’t... | Read more »
NBA 2K17 (Games)
NBA 2K17 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $7.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Following the record-breaking launch of NBA 2K16, the NBA 2K franchise continues to stake its claim as the most authentic sports video... | Read more »
Dog Sled Saga (Games)
Dog Sled Saga 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: A game by Dan + Lisa As a rookie musher, foster a dogsledding team whose skills will grow if they're treated right. Week by... | Read more »
60 Seconds! Atomic Adventure (Games)
60 Seconds! Atomic Adventure 1.2 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.2 (iTunes) Description: 60 Seconds! is a dark comedy atomic adventure of scavenge and survival. Collect supplies and rescue your family... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

21-inch iMacs on sale for up to $120 off MSRP
B&H Photo has 21″ iMacs on sale for up to $120 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 21″ 3.1GHz iMac 4K: $1379 $120 off MSRP - 21″ 2.8GHz iMac: $1199.99 $100 off MSRP - 21″ 1... Read more
13-inch 2.7GHz/256GB Retina MacBook Pro on sa...
Amazon.com has the 13″ 2.7GHz/256GB Retina Apple MacBook Pro on sale for $151 off MSRP including free shipping: - 13″ 2.7GHz/256GB Retina MacBook Pro (sku MF840LL/A): $1348 $151 off MSRP Read more
Apple TVs on sale for up to $50 off MSRP
Best Buy has 32GB and 64GB Apple TVs on sale for $40-$50 off MSRP on their online store. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale prices for online orders only, in-store... Read more
Apple refurbished 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 13″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $270 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.7GHz... Read more
Duplicate Sweeper Free On Mac App Store For O...
To celebrate the launch of Apple’s latest macOS Sierra, Stafford, United Kingdom based Wide Angle Software has announced that its duplicate file finder software, Duplicate Sweeper, is now available... Read more
13-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to...
B&H Photo has 13″ Retina Apple MacBook Pros on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro: $1174.99 $125 off MSRP - 13... Read more
Evidence Surfaces Pointing To New A10X Chip F...
Citing a job description for a Project Lead position at Apple’s Austin, Texas engineering labs, Motley Fool’s Ashraf Eassa deduces that development is progressing well on Apple’s next-generation in-... Read more
Check Print’R for macOS Allows Anyone to Easi...
Delaware-based Match Software has announced the release and immediate availability of Check Print’R 3.21, an important update to their easy-to-use check printing application for macOS. Check Print’R... Read more
Apple refurbished 11-inch MacBook Airs availa...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 11″ MacBook Airs (the latest models), available for up to $170 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is... Read more
Apple refurbished 15-inch Retina MacBook Pros...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 15″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $380 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 15″ 2... Read more

Jobs Board

Sr. *Apple* Mac Engineer - Net2Source Inc....
…staffing, training and technology. We have following position open with our client. Sr. Apple Mac Engineer6+ Months CTH Start date : 19th Sept Travelling Job If Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions-Norfolk,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Restaurant Manager (Neighborhood Captain) - A...
…in every aspect of daily operation. WHY YOU'LL LIKE IT: You'll be the Big Apple . You'll solve problems. You'll get to show your ability to handle the stress and Read more
Lead *Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple (...
# Lead Apple Solutions Consultant Job Number: 51829230 Detroit, Michigan, United States Posted: Sep. 19, 2016 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** The Lead ASC is an Read more
US- *Apple* Store Leader Program - Apple (Un...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on Read more
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