TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Cursor Control 2
Volume Number:6
Issue Number:9
Column Tag:C Workshop

Related Info: Quickdraw

Cursor Control

By Robert S. T. Gibson, Ontario, Canada

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

[Robert S. T. Gibson is a Senior Software Engineer at Atryx Software Design in Canada]

Although it is not suggested by anyone who follows the Macintosh user interface, it is occasionally necessary for a program to change or restrict the cursor position. Some programs move the cursor to lock it into a grid, some restrict the cursor to a specific region, and others (usually games) allow it to wrap around the screen. Games sometimes read the cursor position, compare it to the middle of the screen, and then move the cursor to the screen’s center to keep it from reaching the edge.

Cursor tracking is maintained by many system globals. The three we are interested in, however, are MTemp, RawMouse, Mouse, and CrsrNew (see Figure 1).

It is often dangerous to change the System’s low-memory globals if you don’t know their exact effects on your system.

As always, there is a right way and a wrong way to do this. I’ll skip the wrong way and get right to what I believe to be the correct way. The C techniques used here can easily be adapted into other programming languages.

It is a relatively simple task to set the mouse position, but it requires a bit of insight into how the System keeps control.

Figure 1. Mouse Globals

System Control

Operation of the mouse depends on two routines that are called during interrupts. The first routine simply sets the global variable CrsrNew to true if the mouse position has changed. The second routine is a vertical retrace (VBL) task, which checks the value of CrsrNew and draws the cursor in the new position if the value is true.

Providing CrsrNew is set, each time the VBL task is executed, it draws the cursor and copies the value of MTemp, the new location of the mouse, into the variable RawMouse, the saved (old) location. This allows the next execution to examine the two variables. If MTemp is a valid position, RawMouse is set to the new position and the cycle continues. The mouse location is copied in to the global variable Mouse for use by routines such as GetMouse().

Program Control

Only a few simple steps are required to set the mouse position properly and safely:

Step:

1: set MTemp to the new position

2: set RawMouse to new position

3: set CrsrNew to true

First, we should define our variables:

int             *MTemp;
char            *CrsrNew;

MTemp   = (int *)  0x828;
CrsrNew = (char *) 0x8CE;

Notice that MTemp was declared as an integer, and RawMouse and Mouse were not declared at all. Since the three points are in a row, it is much easier to simply declare the first variable as an integer and increment the pointer to each position to be set. NewPos is passed to our routine, containing the point to which the mouse should be moved in the following code excerpt. Remember that points are stored internally as (v,h) or (row,column), instead of (h,v).

!c

odeexamplestart/* 1 */

for (i=0;i<3;i++) {
 *(MTemp+2*i) = newPos.v;
 *(MTemp+2*i+1) = newPos.h;
}


Once the three points are set, the only task which remains to be done is the setting of the CrsrNew variable. To tell the System that the mouse has moved, the boolean must be set with a non-zero (true) value. Since it is set to -1 by the System, it will be so set here. Any true value should work, however.

/* 2 */

*CrsrNew = -1;

The System routine will realize that the global CrsrNew has been changed, will find the new position in MTemp and RawMouse and will draw the cursor in the new position.

Curse Control

It’s unwise to have your program confuse the user by moving the cursor too dramatically from where he would expect it to appear. If you are in a programming situation which is leading you to move the cursor to where you want it, rather than where the user expects it, you should think twice -- and then think again.

Listing:  Control.c

/*******
 * HandleMouse()
 * Checks the cursor position and calls MousePos if necessary
 *******/
HandleMouse(boundsRect)
Rect  *boundsRect;
{
Point   mousePoint;
Point   newPoint;

 GetMouse(&mousePoint);
 LocalToGlobal(&mousePoint);
 newPoint.h = newPoint.v = -1;
 
 if (mousePoint.h <= boundsRect->left)
 newPoint.h = boundsRect->right - 2;
 else
 if (mousePoint.h >= boundsRect->right - 1)
 newPoint.h = boundsRect->left + 1;
 if (mousePoint.v <= boundsRect->top)
 newPoint.v = boundsRect->bottom - 2;
 else
 if (mousePoint.v >= boundsRect->bottom - 1)
 newPoint.v = boundsRect->top + 1;
 
 if ( (newPoint.h + 1) || (newPoint.v + 1) )
 {
 newPoint.h = (newPoint.h != -1) ? newPoint.h : mousePoint.h;
 newPoint.v = (newPoint.v != -1) ? newPoint.v : mousePoint.v;
 MousePos(newPoint);
 }
}
Listing:  ControlMain.C

/* CursorControl */ /* by Rob Gibson */ /* August 22, 1989. */
/* MacHeaders Included */
/*********  Project file: Control.c  ControlMain.c             Functions.c 
 MacTraps MousePos.c
 Type: APPL Creator: CCTL **********/

#define ControlDialogID 1000
#define nil 0L
/* important dialog items */
enum{   quitItem = 1,   setItem,   topPosItem,     leftPosItem, 
 bottomPosItem,  rightPosItem,   boxItem     };

  /* Our global variables */
DialogPtr ControlDialog;
Rect    boundsRect;

/**InitMacintosh()  Initialize all the managers & memory ***/
InitMacintosh()
{  MaxApplZone();
 InitGraf(&thePort);
 InitFonts();
 FlushEvents(everyEvent, 0);
 InitWindows();
 InitMenus();
 TEInit();
 InitDialogs(0L);
 InitCursor();
} /* end InitMacintosh */

/**GetBounds()  *  * Get the rect specified in dialog  ***/
GetBounds(theDialog)
DialogPtr theDialog;
{  Str255 str;   longdummy;

 boundsRect.top = GetETNum(theDialog, topPosItem);
 boundsRect.left = GetETNum(theDialog, leftPosItem);
 boundsRect.bottom = GetETNum(theDialog, bottomPosItem);
 boundsRect.right = GetETNum(theDialog, rightPosItem);
} /* end GetBounds */

/*TrackRect() Frame old, new bound rects in current GrafPort**/
TrackRect(oldRect, r)
Rect  *oldRect;
Rect  *r;
{  FrameRect(oldRect);
 FrameRect(r);
} /* end TrackRect */

/**DisplayBounds() Display a rect in the dialog*/
DisplayBounds(theRect, theDialog) 
Rect    *theRect;
DialogPtr theDialog;
{  SetETNum(theDialog, topPosItem, (long)theRect->top);
 SetETNum(theDialog, leftPosItem, (long)theRect->left);
 SetETNum(theDialog, bottomPosItem, (long)theRect->bottom);
 SetETNum(theDialog, rightPosItem, (long)theRect->right);
 SelIText(theDialog, topPosItem, 0, 32767);
} /* end DisplayBounds */

/**SetBoundsLoop() User drags to specify new rect**/
SetBoundsLoop(theDialog)
DialogPtr theDialog;
{  Rect oldRect;
 Rect   newRect;
 GrafPtrsavePort;
 GrafPtrdeskPort;
 Point  firstPoint;
 Point  secondPoint;
 Point  lastSecondPoint;

 GetPort(&savePort);
 OpenPort(deskPort = (GrafPtr)NewPtr(sizeof(GrafPort)));
 InitPort(deskPort);
 SetPort(deskPort);
 PenPat(gray);
 PenMode(notPatXor);
 PenSize(2, 2);
 while(!Button());
 GetMouse(&firstPoint);
 newRect.top = lastSecondPoint.v = firstPoint.v;
 newRect.left = lastSecondPoint.h = firstPoint.h;
 newRect.bottom = newRect.right = 0;
 while(Button()) {
 oldRect = newRect;
 GetMouse(&secondPoint);
 /* If the mouse location has changed then track mouse */
 if (secondPoint.v != lastSecondPoint.v || secondPoint.h != lastSecondPoint.h) 
 {
 /* Create a new Rect making sure it is not an empty Rect */
 if (secondPoint.v > firstPoint.v) {
 newRect.top = firstPoint.v;
 newRect.bottom = secondPoint.v;
 }
 else {
 newRect.top = secondPoint.v;
 newRect.bottom = firstPoint.v;
 }
 if (secondPoint.h > firstPoint.h) {
 newRect.left = firstPoint.h;
 newRect.right = secondPoint.h;
 }
 else {
 newRect.left = secondPoint.h;
 newRect.right = firstPoint.h;
 }
 lastSecondPoint = secondPoint;

 TrackRect(&oldRect, &newRect);
 DisplayBounds(&newRect, theDialog);
 }
 }
 FrameRect(&newRect);
 ClosePort(deskPort);
 DisposPtr((Ptr)deskPort);
 PenNormal();
 SetPort(savePort);
 boundsRect = newRect;
 } /* end SetBoundsLoop */

/*HandleControlDialog()  Main event loop  *  ****/
HandleControlDialog(theDialog)
DialogPtr theDialog;
{  EventRecord   event; /*  Filled by GetNextEvent */
 Booleanfinished = false; /*  Are we done? */
 int    chosen;
 char   theChar;

 while (!finished) /*  do this until we selected quit */
 { /* continue with the normal get next event stuff... */
 if (GetNextEvent(everyEvent, &event))
 /*  if there was an event... then  */
 {
 if (event.what == keyDown || event.what == autoKey)
 { 
 theChar = (char) (event.message & charCodeMask);
 switch(theChar) { 
 case ‘Q’:
 case ‘q’:
 case ‘.’:
 chosen = quitItem;
 event.what = 0; /* remove event */
 finished = true;
 ClickButton(theDialog, quitItem, 2);
   break;
   case ‘\t’:
 case ‘\b’: 
 break;
   case ‘\r’:
 case ‘\003’:
 case ‘S’:
 case ‘s’:
 chosen = setItem;
 event.what = 0; /* remove event */
 ClickButton(theDialog, setItem, true);
 SetBoundsLoop(theDialog);
 ClickButton(theDialog, setItem, false);
 break;
 default:
 if (theChar < ‘0’ || theChar > ‘9’)
 event.what = 0;
 break;
 }
 } else if (event.what == updateEvt)
 {
 SetPort(theDialog);
 BeginUpdate(theDialog);
 FrameItem(theDialog, boxItem);
 DrawDialog(theDialog);
 DrawDefaultBtn (theDialog, setItem);
 EndUpdate(theDialog);
 }
   }

 if (!finished) {
 if   (IsDialogEvent(&event))
 if (DialogSelect(&event, &theDialog, &chosen)) {
 GetBounds(theDialog);
 switch (chosen) {
 case 1:
 finished = true;
 break;
 case 2:
 ClickButton(theDialog, setItem, true);
 SetBoundsLoop(theDialog);
 ClickButton(theDialog, setItem, false);
 break;
 default:
 break;
 } /*  end of if switch  */
 } 
 HandleMouse(&boundsRect);
 } /*  end of if (!finished) */
 } /*  of event loop  */

 DisposDialog(theDialog);
} /* end HandleControlDialog */

/*****  * SetUpDialog()  *  * Set up dialog stuff  *  *****/
SetUpDialog() {
 int    itemType;
 Handle Hdl;

 ControlDialog = GetNewDialog(ControlDialogID, nil, -1L);
 CenterWindow(ControlDialog, &screenBits.bounds);
 DisplayBounds(&screenBits.bounds, ControlDialog);
 ShowWindow(ControlDialog);
 boundsRect = screenBits.bounds;
 HandleControlDialog(ControlDialog);
} /* end SetUpDialog */

/*****  * main()  *  * Call the main procedures  *  *****/
main()

{  InitMacintosh();
 SetUpDialog();
} /* end main */
Listings:  Functions.C

/****
 * GetEText()
 * Get text of an ETItem
 ****/
GetEText (theDialog, theItem, s)
DialogPtr theDialog;
inttheItem;
char    *s;
{
 int     theType;
 Handle Hdl;
 Rect box;

 GetDItem (theDialog, theItem, &theType, &Hdl, &box);
 GetIText (Hdl, s);
} /* end GetEText */

/****
 * GetETNum()
 * Get number from an ETItem
 ****/
GetETNum(theDialog, theItem)
DialogPtr theDialog;
inttheItem;
{
 Str255 s;
 long theNum;
 
 GetEText(theDialog, theItem, &s);
 StringToNum(s, &theNum);
 return(theNum);
} /* end GetETNum */

/****
 * SetEText()
 * Set text of an ETItem
 ****/
SetEText (theDialog, theItem, s)
DialogPtr theDialog;
inttheItem;
Str255  s;
{
 int     theType;
 Handle Hdl;
 Rect box;

 GetDItem (theDialog, theItem, &theType, &Hdl, &box);
 SetIText (Hdl, s);
} /* end SetEText */

/****
 * SetETNum()
 * Set number in an ETItem
 ****/
SetETNum(theDialog, theItem, theNum)
DialogPtr theDialog;
inttheItem;
long    theNum;
{
 Str255 s;
 
 NumToString(theNum, s);
 SetEText(theDialog, theItem, &s);
} /* end GetETNum */

/***** LToGRect()  Convert a local rect to global *****/
LToGRect(r)
Rect  *r;
{
 Point  pt1,
 pt2;

 pt1 = topLeft(*r);
 pt2 = botRight(*r);
 LocalToGlobal(&pt1);
 LocalToGlobal(&pt2);
 Pt2Rect(pt1, pt2, r);
} /* end LToGRect */

/*****
 * CenterWindowPoint()
 * Calculates the topleft co-ords of a window,
 * taking screen size into account
 *****/
Point CenterWindowPoint (theRect)
Rect  *theRect;
{
 int    theInd = (screenBits.bounds.bottom<350) ? 3:4;
 Point  thePt;
 int    int1, int2;

 int1=((screenBits.bounds.right-screenBits.bounds.left-theRect->right+theRect->left) 
/ 2);
 int2=((screenBits.bounds.bottom-screenBits.bounds.top-theRect->bottom+theRect->top+20) 
/ theInd);
 SetPt(&thePt, int1, int2);
 return(thePt);
} /* end CenterWindowPoint */

/*****
 * CenterWindow()
 * Centers a dialog or window
 *****/
void CenterWindow(theDialog)
DialogPtr theDialog;
/* Center window - center slightly higher for large screens */
{
 Point  thePt;
 Rect newBounds;

 newBounds = *&theDialog->portRect;
 LToGRect(&newBounds);
 thePt = CenterWindowPoint(&newBounds);
 MoveWindow(theDialog, thePt.h, thePt.v, 0);
} /* end CenterWindow */

/****ClickButton() Simulate a click in a button ****/
ClickButton(theDialog, ID, method) 
/* 0 is off, 1 is on, 2 simulates a click */
DialogPtr theDialog;
intID;
intmethod;
{
 int    itemType;
 Handle item;
 Rect box;
 long ticks;

 GetDItem(theDialog, ID, &itemType, &item, &box);
 HiliteControl((ControlHandle) item, (method >= 1));
 if (method >= 2)
 {
 Delay(8L, &ticks);
 HiliteControl((ControlHandle) item, 0);
 }
} /* end ClickButton */

/****
 * FrameItem()
 * Frame a dialog item in current pen modes
 ****/
void FrameItem (theDialog, item)
DialogPtr theDialog;
intitem;
{
 int    optType;
 Handle btnHdl;
 Rect   optBox;

 SetPort(theDialog);
 GetDItem(theDialog, item, &optType, &btnHdl, &optBox);
 FrameRect(&optBox);
} /* end FrameItem */

/**** DrawDefaultBtn() Outline the default button ****/
void DrawDefaultBtn (theDialog, item)
DialogPtr theDialog;
intitem;
{
 int    optType;
 Handle btnHdl;
 Rect   optBox;

 SetPort(theDialog);
 GetDItem(theDialog, item, &optType, &btnHdl, &optBox);
 PenSize(3, 3);
 InsetRect(&optBox, -4, -4);
 FrameRoundRect(&optBox, 16, 16);
} /* end DrawDefaultBtn */
Listing:  MousePos.C

/********
* MousePos()
* Set the mouse position, August 22, 1989
* by Robert S. T. Gibson for MacTutor
********/
void MousePos(newPos)
Point newPos;
{
 int    *MTemp;
 char *CrsrNew;
 int    i;

 MTemp = (int *)  0x828;  /* Set up our globals... */
 CrsrNew = (char *) 0x8CE;

/* Points are stored as (row, column) or (v, h) in memory...*/
 /* Set our globals... */
 for (i=0;i<3;i++) {
 *(MTemp+2*i) = newPos.v;
 *(MTemp+2*i+1) = newPos.h;
 }
 *CrsrNew = -1;  /* There’s a new position */
}
 
AAPL
$97.03
Apple Inc.
-0.16
MSFT
$44.40
Microsoft Corpora
-0.47
GOOG
$593.35
Google Inc.
-2.63

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Audio Hijack Pro 2.11.0 - Record and enh...
Audio Hijack Pro drastically changes the way you use audio on your computer, giving you the freedom to listen to audio when you want and how you want. Record and enhance any audio with Audio Hijack... Read more
Intermission 1.1.1 - Pause and rewind li...
Intermission allows you to pause and rewind live audio from any application on your Mac. Intermission will buffer up to 3 hours of audio, allowing users to skip through any assortment of audio... Read more
Airfoil 4.8.7 - Send audio from any app...
Airfoil allows you to send any audio to AirPort Express units, Apple TVs, and even other Macs and PCs, all in sync! It's your audio - everywhere. With Airfoil you can take audio from any... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.8 - Connect...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more
xACT 2.30 - Audio compression toolkit. (...
xACT stands for X Aaudio Compression Toolkit, an application that encodes and decodes FLAC, SHN, Monkey’s Audio, TTA, Wavpack, and Apple Lossless files. It also can encode these formats to MP3, AAC... Read more
Firefox 31.0 - Fast, safe Web browser. (...
Firefox for Mac offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals... Read more
Little Snitch 3.3.3 - Alerts you to outg...
Little Snitch gives you control over your private outgoing data. Track background activityAs soon as your computer connects to the Internet, applications often have permission to send any... Read more
Thunderbird 31.0 - Email client from Moz...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more
Together 3.2 - Store and organize all of...
Together helps you organize your Mac, giving you the ability to store, edit and preview your files in a single clean, uncluttered interface. Smart storage. With simple drag-and-drop functionality,... Read more
Cyberduck 4.5 - FTP and SFTP browser. (F...
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

LEX Goes Free For One Day In Honor of Ne...
LEX Goes Free For One Day In Honor of New Update Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 24th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Thomas Was Alone Goes Universal, Slashes...
Thomas Was Alone Goes Universal, Slashes Price to $3.99 Posted by Ellis Spice on July 24th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Meerkatz Challenge Review
Meerkatz Challenge Review By Jennifer Allen on July 24th, 2014 Our Rating: :: FONDLY PUZZLINGUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Cute and challenging, Meerkatz Challenge is a fun puzzle game, particularly for fans of... | Read more »
Book Your Appointment with F.E.A.R. this...
Book Your Appointment with F.E.A.R. | Read more »
It Came From Canada: Epic Skater
For all the hate that it gets for being a pastime for slackers, skateboarding really does require a lot of skill. All those flips and spins take real athleticism, and there’s all the jargon to memorize. Fortunately for us less extreme individuals,... | Read more »
Cultures Review
Cultures Review By Jennifer Allen on July 24th, 2014 Our Rating: :: SLOW-PACED EMPIRE BUILDINGiPad Only App - Designed for the iPad Cute it might seem, but Cultures is a bit too slow paced when it comes to those pesky timers to... | Read more »
More Paintings Have Been Added to Paint...
More Paintings Have Been Added to Paint it Back! Posted by Jessica Fisher on July 24th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
The Order of Souls Review
The Order of Souls Review By Campbell Bird on July 24th, 2014 Our Rating: :: STORY GRINDUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad The Order of Souls is a free-to-play, turn-based RPG with a genre-mixing art style, interesting... | Read more »
Revolution 60 Review
Revolution 60 Review By Jordan Minor on July 24th, 2014 Our Rating: :: LASS EFFECTUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Revolution 60 is a bold, cinematic action game with ambition to spare.   | Read more »
Matter (Photography)
Matter 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Photography Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: Add stunning 3D effects to your photos with real-time shadows and reflections. Export your creations as photos or video loops... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Save on 5th generation refurbished iPod touch...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 5th generation iPod touches available starting at $149. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free. Many, but not all... Read more
What Should Apple’s Next MacBook Priority Be;...
Stabley Times’ Phil Moore says that after expanding its iMac lineup with a new low end model, Apple’s next Mac hardware decision will be how it wants to approach expanding its MacBook lineup as well... Read more
ArtRage For iPhone Painting App Free During C...
ArtRage for iPhone is currently being offered for free (regularly $1.99) during Comic-Con San Diego #SDCC, July 24-27, in celebration of the upcoming ArtRage 4.5 and other 64-bit versions of the... Read more
With The Apple/IBM Alliance, Is The iPad Now...
Almost since the iPad was rolled out in 2010, and especially after Apple made a 128 GB storage configuration available in 2012, there’s been debate over whether the iPad is a serious tool for... Read more
MacBook Airs on sale starting at $799, free s...
B&H Photo has the new 2014 MacBook Airs on sale for up to $100 off MSRP for a limited time. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. They also include free copies of Parallels... Read more
Apple 27″ Thunderbolt Display (refurbished) a...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 27″ Thunderbolt Displays available for $799 including free shipping. That’s $200 off the cost of new models. Read more
WaterField Designs Unveils Cycling Ride Pouch...
High end computer case and bag maker WaterField Designs of San Francisco now enters the cycling market with the introduction of the Cycling Ride Pouch – an upscale toolkit with a scratch-free iPhone... Read more
Kingston Digital Ships Large Capacity Near 1T...
Kingston Digital, Inc., the Flash memory affiliate of Kingston Technology Company, Inc.,has announced its latest addition to the SSDNow V300 series, the V310. The Kingston SSDNow V310 solid-state... Read more
Apple’s Fiscal Third Quarter Results; Record...
Apple has announced financial results for its fiscal 2014 third quarter ended June 28, 2014, racking up quarterly revenue of $37.4 billion and quarterly net profit of $7.7 billion, or $1.28 per... Read more
15-inch 2.0GHz MacBook Pro Retina on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 15″ 2.0GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1829 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $170 off MSRP. B&H will also include free copies of Parallels... Read more

Jobs Board

Sr Software Lead Engineer, *Apple* Online S...
Sr Software Lead Engineer, Apple Online Store Publishing Systems Keywords: Company: Apple Job Code: E3PCAK8MgYYkw Location (City or ZIP): Santa Clara Status: Full Read more
Senior Interaction Designer, *Apple* Online...
**Job Summary** Apple is looking for a hands on Senior…will be a key player in designing for the Apple Online Store. The ideal designer will have a Read more
*Apple* Sales Chat Rep - Apple (United State...
…is looking for motivated, outgoing, and tech savvy individuals who want to offer Apple Customers an unparalleled customer experience over chat. At Apple , we believe Read more
Mac Expert - *Apple* Online Store Mexico -...
…MUST be fluent in English and Spanish to be considered for this position At Apple , we believe that hard work, a fun environment, creativity and innovation fuel the Read more
*Apple* Industrial Design CAD Sculptor - App...
**Job Summary** The Apple Industrial Design team is looking for a CAD sculptor/Digital 3D modeler to create high quality CAD models used in the industrial design process Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.