TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Popup Menu BASIC
Volume Number:5
Issue Number:4
Column Tag:BASIC School

Related Info: Menu Manager

Pop Up Menus in True BASIC

By Dave Kelly, MacTutor Editorial Board

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

New users of the Macintosh are sometimes fascinated with the use of pull-down menus. Even experienced users head straight for the menu bar when they get a new program to see just what it does. Usually the menus get checked out before the manual does. Hierarchical menus added additional capabilities for the user. A little over a year ago, we began seeing the appearance of pop-up menus as another interface for the user. The various versions of BASIC cover the regular pull-down menus pretty easily. Hierarchical menus and pop-up menus are now being used in most of the software which is now being released. This column will attempt to explain how to set up pop-up menus using True Basic. Similar methods for implementing may be used in ZBasic or any other language for that matter. The method is about the same in whatever language is used and since many of the commands come from the Macintosh Toolbox. It should be pointed out that you must be using System 4.1 or greater for Hierarchical or pop-up menus to work. You should upgrade to the latest version (6.02).

It is advisable to know when it is appropriate to use pop-up menus. Apple recommends that pop-up menus be used for setting values or choosing from lists of related items. A pop-up menu could “pop up” anywhere (its location is global), but usually used in a dialog. The indication that there is a pop-up menu is that there is a box with a one-pixel thick drop shadow which is drawn around the current value. When the user presses the mouse button which pointing within the box, the pop-up menu appears with the current value checked and highlighted. Other than that, the pop-up menu acts just like any other menu.

The Macintosh ROM takes care of the pop-up menu action, but you must take care of drawing the shadowed box which indicates that there is a pop-up menu. You must take care of inverting the title when the menu is showing. The current value should appear in the pop-up menu when it is selected. Apple also recommends that you NOT use Hierarchical pop-up menus. You should consider very carefully if you really need to use a pop-up menu. Some features could better be implemented with icons or with the normal menus in the menu bar. Don’t use commands in your pop-up menus unless you have to. If you do use commands, you should duplicate the item in the menu bar menus. “All commands that are in general use throughout the application should appear in the menu bar. This assures that the most important commands are always visible and available to the user”. (refer to “Commands in pop-up Menu” from HI Update #13).

How it works....

Inside Macintosh Volume. V menu manager routines added one new ROM function for doing pop-up menus. The function PopUpMenuSelect allows pop-up menus to be handled and created anywhere on the screen. Since the pop-up menu resources are handled the same as for other menus, they may contain color and submenus. The True Basic demo program has a basic event loop structure which can be used as a basic skeleton for other applications if you want. The libraries which are used come from the True Basic Macintosh Programmer’s Kit which is essential for any serious Macintosh program development.

To implement pop-up menus, the program uses an array to set up the menu items. These items are declared in the PopItem$ array which is dimensioned near the beginning of the program. SysEnvirons is called to see if the system has the pop-up menu routines. If it doesn’t, the program quits. It would be better to display a dialog to warn the user why the program quit. In addition to setting up the menu bar, the menu used in the pop-up is created and stored in a resource where MyMenus$(4) is the handle to the menu resource. After the menu resource is created, the only thing left to do is draw the pop-up title and shadowed box then wait for an event.

The top and left corner of the pop-up are assigned at the beginning of the Drawpopup routine so that you may place the pop-up wherever you like. Be sure to leave room for the title. The routine figures out the width of the Title and longest menu item and draws them at the appropriate locations. When the pop-up menu comes up, the shadowed box should always line up with the pop-up menu. This is simple, but you can get confused unless you realize that the shadowed box and title are drawn with local window coordinates, but the pop-up menu location is determined by global screen coordinates. It is necessary to convert this location from local to global to tell the pop-up select routine where the menu should go. If the window gets moved (by someone dragging it), remember that the global coordinate is now different, but the local coordinate stayed the same.

You determine that a pop-up menu needs to be handled by checking to see if the mouse was clicked within the shadowed box. The GetNextEvent function returns the point where the click occurred. This point is compared with the PtInRect routine to determine if the point is within the shadowed rectangle where the pop-up will appear. If so then the program handles the pop-up event by calling the PopUpMenuSelect routine. PopUpMenuSelect takes the menu handle, the left and top coordinates where the menu will appear, and the currently selected menu item and handles the menu by displaying the menu then returns the item number of the menu item that was selected. That item is then redrawn into the shadowed box and becomes the newly selected item. The program should then handle whatever action or flag the menu item should do.

This process is simple enough after seeing a few examples. The main problem with pop-up menus as with other controls that you may want to use is that you must be careful not to clutter up the window too much. The graphic design of the interface is just as important as the code that is written. That’s why there will always be a demand for good programs even though HyperCard and other tools make developing programs easier.

By the way, some of the programming in True Basic can be simplified by using the TrueWindows Library. The problem comes when you want to create an application using the Runtime package. The Binder utility asks for the compiled libraries and then the compiled program and outputs them to an application that contains the True Basic interpreter. If you use libraries that have calls or functions with the same name, they may work fine until you bind them together into an application with Binder. Binder gives an error when putting the libraries together which says that you have more than one call with the same name. This could happen if you are using TrueWindows and the other Macintosh Programmer’s Kit routines (like the ones used in this program). You may be able to get around this by going to the source code files and removing the duplicate name and recompiling the library. Be sure to keep it separate from the original so that they don’t get mixed up or someday you may need a routine that you deleted and wonder why things don’t work.

I set up my copy of the True Basic runtime application with my own icon and when I create an application, the information is already set up provided that I want to use the same one each time I make a new application. Usually you will want them to be different. I use the Prof. Mac icon for any applications that I make for MacTutor.

! PopUp Menu Demo
! True Basic version 2.01
! Requires True Basic Macintosh Developer’s ToolKit Libraries
! by Dave Kelly
! ©1989 MacTutor

REM Open up libraries
LIBRARY “MenuLib*”                ! Menu Manager
LIBRARY “WindowLib*”              ! Window Manager
LIBRARY “DeskLib*”                ! Desk Manager
LIBRARY “EventLib*”               ! Event Manager
LIBRARY “QuickLib*”               ! Quickdraw
LIBRARY “DataLib*”                ! Desk Acc and system calls
LIBRARY “MacLib*”                 ! True Basic event control
LIBRARY “System*”                 ! System Calls

REM following variables are used globally throughout program
DECLARE DEF NIL$, POINTER$,screenBits$,bounds$,top,left,bottom,right,TopLeft$,H,V
DECLARE DEF OpenDeskAcc,NewWindow$,SystemEdit
DECLARE DEF MenuSelect,PtInRect,TrackGoAway

DIM MyMenus$(1:4)
DIM PopItem$(1:3)
CALL SysEnvirons(sysEnvRec$,status)    ! Get current system revision
CALL UnpackEnvirons(sysEnvRec$,envversion, machine,sysversion,processor, 
hasFPU,hasColorQD,keyboardtype,atversion, sysvrefnum)
IF sysversion=0 then              ! Do we have the right ROM?
   STOP
END IF
CALL TakeMac   ! turn off True Basic and let the program do its own thing
LET everyevent=-1                 ! event mask for all events
LET doneFlag=0                    ! this flag is set when program ending 
has been selected.
LET z$=bounds$(screenBits$)       ! Get the size of the screen.
CALL setrect(r$,left(z$)+4,top(z$)+44,right(z$)-4,bottom(z$)-4)
CALL setrect(dragrect$,4,24,right(z$)-4,bottom(z$)-4)
LET myWindow$=NewWindow$(NIL$,r$,”Sample”,1,0,POINTER$(-1),1,0)      

! Create a window
CALL SetPort(myWindow$)           ! Access the new window
CALL SetUpMenus                   ! Turn on menus
CALL Drawwindow                   ! Set up window info

! Main Event Loop

DO
   CALL SystemTask                ! Handle System tasks/DAs
   CALL GetNextEvent(everyevent,theEvent$,eResult)    
! check for events
   IF eResult<>0 then    ! if no event error occurred then...
      CALL UnpackEvent(theEvent$,what,mess,when,where$,mod)
      SELECT CASE what 
! what represents the kind of event that occurred.
      CASE 1                      ! mouse down event occurred
           CALL FindWindow(where$,whichWindow$,wResult)
           SELECT CASE wResult
           CASE 1         ! Event was in the menu bar
                LET mResult=MenuSelect(where$)
                CALL DoMenu(mResult)
           CASE 2         ! Event was in a system window
                CALL SystemClick(theEvent$,whichWindow$)   
 ! Pass the event to the system
           CASE 3   ! Event was in content region of a window
                CALL GlobalToLocal(where$)  
 ! convert coordinates for the window
                IF PtInRect(where$,PopRect$)=1 THEN   
 ! see if popup was selected
                   CALL PopUpEvent     ! if so, handle the popup event
                END IF
           CASE 4   ! Event in the window’s drag region
                CALL DragWindow(whichWindow$,where$,dragrect$)
           CASE 6   ! Event in go-away region of active window
                LET doneFlag=TrackGoAway(whichWindow$,where$)
           CASE else
           END SELECT
      CASE 6                      ! update event occurred
           CALL Packb(w$,1,32,mess)
           CALL BeginUpdate(w$)
           CALL Drawwindow
           CALL DrawPopUp
           CALL EndUpdate(w$)
      CASE else                   ! anything else?
      END SELECT
   END IF
LOOP until doneFlag<>0

CALL DisposeWindow(myWindow$)     ! Throw away window handle
CALL ClearMenuBar                 ! Clear Menus
FOR i=Lbound(MyMenus$) to Ubound(MyMenus$)
    CALL DisposeMenu(MyMenus$(i))
NEXT i
CALL GiveMac                      ! Return control back to True Basic
STOP                              ! End the program

SUB DrawWindow                    ! Draw message in window
    CALL textfont(2)              ! Set font to New York font
    CALL textsize(12)             ! Set size to 12 point
    CALL textface(1)              ! Set text to bold
    CALL textmode(0)              ! Set to copy mode
    CALL moveto(10,20)
    CALL DrawString(“True BASIC Version 2.0 PopUp Menu demo”)
    CALL textface(0)              ! Set text to plain
END SUB

SUB DoMenu(code)                  ! handle Menu events
    CALL Packb(s$,1,32,code)
    LET MenuNumber=Unpackb(s$,1,-16)
    LET Menuitem = Unpackb(s$,17,-16)
    SELECT CASE MenuNumber
    CASE 1                        ! Apple Menu
         CALL GetItem(MyMenus$(1),MenuItem,name$)
         LET mrefNum=OpenDeskAcc(name$)
         CALL SetPort(mywindow$)
    CASE 2                        ! File Menu
         LET doneFlag=-1
    CASE 3                        ! Edit Menu
         LET z=SystemEdit(Menuitem+1)
    CASE else
    END SELECT
    CALL HiliteMenu(0)
END SUB

SUB SetUpMenus
    DECLARE DEF NewMenu$,StringWidth ! Declare variables used
    DECLARE DEF GetFontInfo$      ! in toolbox functions

    LET MyMenus$(1)=NewMenu$(1,chr$(20))  ! The first menu is 
    CALL AddResMenu(MyMenus$(1),”DRVR”)   ! Apple menu.
    LET MyMenus$(2)=NewMenu$(2,”File”)   ! File menu is second
    CALL AppendMenu(MyMenus$(2),”Quit”)
    LET MyMenus$(3)=NewMenu$(3,”Edit”)   ! Next the Edit menu
    CALL AppendMenu(MyMenus$(3),”Cut”)
    CALL AppendMenu(MyMenus$(3),”Copy”)
    CALL AppendMenu(MyMenus$(3),”Paste”)
    LET PopTitle$=”PopUp Menu Title:  “   ! Save pop up title
    LET MyMenus$(4)=NewMenu$(4,PopTitle$) ! Create pop up menu
    LET Popitem$(1)=”Item 1"
    LET Popitem$(2)=”Item 2"
    LET Popitem$(3)=”Item 3"
    LET NoOfPopItems=3
    LET PopItem=1
    FOR i=1 to 3
        CALL AppendMenu(MyMenus$(4),Popitem$(i))  ! Add popup items
    NEXT i
    FOR i=lbound(MyMenus$) to Ubound(MyMenus$)-1  ! put the menus into
        CALL insertMenu(MyMenus$(i),0)      ! the menu bar
    NEXT i
    CALL InsertMenu(MyMenus$(4),-1)    ! Add pop up menu
    CALL CheckItem(MyMenus$(4),PopItem,1)   ! check default item

    REM Get maximum length of PopUp items
    CALL TextFont(0)              ! Set to system font
    CALL TextSize(12)             ! Set to 12 point size
    CALL GetFontInfo(FontInfo$)
    LET ascent = Unpackb(fontinfo$,1,-16)
    LET descent = Unpackb(fontinfo$,17,-16)
    LET widMax = Unpackb(fontinfo$,33,-16)
    LET leading = Unpackb(fontinfo$,49,-16)
    LET MaxItemLength=0

    FOR i=1 to NoOfPopItems
        LET strwidth=StringWidth(Popitem$(i))
        IF StrWidth>MaxItemLength then LET MaxItemLength=StrWidth
    NEXT i

    CALL DrawPopUp
    CALL DrawMenuBar
END SUB

SUB DrawPopUp
    CALL TextFont(0)       ! Set Font to Chicago (System)
    CALL TextSize(12)             ! Set Size to 12 point
    LET Popuptop=100              ! Top of Popup menu
    LET Popupleft=200             ! Left of Popup menu
    CALL SetRect(PopRect$, Popupleft,Popuptop, Popupleft+5+MaxItemLength+13, 
Popuptop+ascent+ descent+ leading+1)
    CALL FrameRect(PopRect$)   ! Draw currently selected item
    CALL MoveTo(Right(PopRect$),Top(PopRect$)+1)
    CALL LineTo(Right(PopRect$),Bottom(PopRect$))
    CALL MoveTo(Left(PopRect$)+1,Bottom(PopRect$))
    CALL LineTo(Right(PopRect$),Bottom(PopRect$))
    LET StrWidth=StringWidth(PopTitle$)
    LET xlocation=Left(PopRect$)-StrWidth
    LET ylocation=(Top(PopRect$)+Bottom(PopRect$))/2+(ascent-descent)/2
    CALL MoveTo(xlocation,ylocation)
    CALL Drawstring(PopTitle$)    ! Draw the Popup menu title
    CALL SetRect(InvertTitleRect$,xlocation-8,Top(PopRect$)+1,Left(PopRect$),Bottom(PopRect$))
    LET xlocation=Left(PopRect$)+13
    CALL MoveTo(xlocation,ylocation)
    CALL Drawstring(PopItem$(PopItem))      
 ! Draw the currently selected item
END SUB

SUB PopUpEvent
    DECLARE DEF PopUpMenuSelect   ! Declare function
    CALL InvertRect(InvertTitleRect$)  ! invert popup title
    LET TempPoint$=TopLeft$(PopRect$)
    CALL LocalToGlobal(TempPoint$)   ! Change to global coords
    LET PopTop=V(TempPoint$)+1
    LET PopLeft=H(TempPoint$)+1
    LET Result=PopUpMenuSelect(MyMenus$(4),PopTop,PopLeft,PopItem)
   ! Do the Popup
    CALL Packb(s$,1,32,Result)    ! Get the menu result
    LET MenuNumber=Unpackb(s$,1,-16) 
  ! Ignore Menunumber, we know which menu this is
    LET Menuitem = Unpackb(s$,17,-16)  ! Get the menu item

    IF MenuItem=PopItem THEN
       CALL InvertRect(InvertTitleRect$) 
    ! Invert the title to normal if old item selected
    ELSE
       CALL CheckItem(MyMenus$(4),PopItem,0) ! uncheck last item
       CALL CheckItem(MyMenus$(4),MenuItem,1) ! check new item
       CALL EraseRect(PopRect$)   ! Draw the current menu item
       CALL FrameRect(PopRect$)
       CALL MoveTo(xlocation,ylocation)
       CALL Drawstring(PopItem$(PopItem))
       CALL InvertRect(InvertTitleRect$)
       SELECT CASE MenuItem       ! Handle menu event
       CASE 1
            REM Do Item 1
            LET PopItem=MenuItem
       CASE 2
            REM Do Item 2
            LET PopItem=MenuItem
       CASE 3
            REM Do Item 3
            LET PopItem=MenuItem
       CASE ELSE
       END SELECT
       CALL MoveTo(xlocation,ylocation)
       CALL TextFont(0)    ! Set font to Chicago (System)
       CALL Drawstring(PopItem$(PopItem))   ! draw selected popup item
    END IF
END SUB
END

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Remotix 3.1.4 - Access all your computer...
Remotix is a fast and powerful application to easily access multiple Macs (and PCs) from your own Mac. Features Complete Apple Screen Sharing support - including Mac OS X login, clipboard... Read more
DesktopLyrics 2.6.6 - Displays current i...
DesktopLyrics is an application that displays the lyrics of the song currently playing in "iTunes" right on your desktop. The lyrics for the song have to be set in iTunes; DesktopLyrics does nothing... Read more
VOX 2.5.1 - Music player that supports m...
VOX is a beautiful music player that supports many filetypes. The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features and support for all... Read more
NetNewsWire 4.0.0 - RSS and Atom news re...
NetNewsWire is the best way to keep up with the sites and authors you read most regularly. Let NetNewsWire pull down the latest articles, and read them in a distraction-free and Mac-like way. Native... Read more
MacUpdate Desktop 6.0.6 - Search and ins...
MacUpdate Desktop 6 brings seamless 1-click installs and version updates to your Mac. With a free MacUpdate account and MacUpdate Desktop 6, Mac users can now install almost any Mac app on macupdate.... Read more
ForkLift 2.6.5 - Powerful file manager:...
ForkLift is a powerful file manager and ferociously fast FTP client clothed in a clean and versatile UI that offers the combination of absolute simplicity and raw power expected from a well-executed... Read more
Drive Genius 4.1.0 - Powerful system uti...
Drive Genius 4 gives you faster performance from your Mac while also protecting it. The award-winning and improved DrivePulse feature alerts you to hard drive issues before they become major problems... Read more
OnyX 2.9.7 - Maintenance and optimizatio...
OnyX is a multifunctional utility for OS X. It allows you to verify the startup disk and the structure of its System files, to run miscellaneous tasks of system maintenance, to configure the hidden... Read more
DEVONthink Pro 2.8.5 - Knowledge base, i...
DEVONthink Pro is your essential assistant for today's world, where almost everything is digital. From shopping receipts to important research papers, your life often fills your hard drive in the... Read more
Backblaze 4.0.1.878 - Online backup serv...
Backblaze is an online backup service designed from the ground-up for the Mac.With unlimited storage available for $5 per month, as well as a free 15-day trial, peace of mind is within reach with... Read more

Carbo - Handwriting in the Digital Age...
Carbo - Handwriting in the Digital Age 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Productivity Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
The Apple Watch isn't Great as a Fi...
| Read more »
Show the World What You See With Stre.am...
Live broadcasting is getting popular on mobile devices, which is why you can now get Stre.am, by Infinite Takes. [Read more] | Read more »
PhotoTime's 2.1 Update Adds Apple W...
The latest PhotoTime update is adding even more functionality to the handy photo organizing app. Yep, including Apple Watch support. [Read more] | Read more »
Oh My Glob! Adventure Time Puzzle Quest...
Finn and Jake are taking over D3 Go!'s popular puzzle game series in the upcoming Adventure Time Puzzle Quest. [Read more] | Read more »
Earthcore: Shattered Elements - Tips, Tr...
At first glance, Earthcore: Shattered Elements seems like a rather simple card-battling game. Once you’re introduced to skills that will change quite a bit. Even more so once you start to acquire hero cards. But it’s not so complicated that we... | Read more »
Dungeon999F (Games)
Dungeon999F 1.33 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.33 (iTunes) Description: "The game you must play at least once in your life!" "The game with potential of million downloads globally!" ...is what the... | Read more »
Mixels Rush - Use Mixes, Maxes and Murps...
Mixels Rush - Use Mixes, Maxes and Murps to Outrun the Nixels 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Use awesome new Mixels and make crazy combinations to beat the annoying... | Read more »
Battles of the Ancient World II (Games)
Battles of the Ancient World II 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Sword Of Xolan (Games)
Sword Of Xolan 1.0.4 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.0.4 (iTunes) Description: Sword of Xolan is an action platformer game that includes the juice of pixel art style. Xolan is a young and brave man who... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Sale! 16GB iPad mini 3 for $349, save $50
B&H Photo has the 16GB iPad mini 3 WiFi on sale for $349 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $50 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Read more
Price drop on 2014 15-inch Retina MacBook Pro...
B&H Photo has dropped prices on 2014 15″ Retina MacBook Pros by $200. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1799.99 save $200 - 15″ 2.5GHz... Read more
Will iOS 9 Finally Bring Productivity Friendl...
Ah, the irony. From its original announcement in 2010, Apple has doggedly insisted that the iPad remain “simple,” thus arbitrarily limiting its considerable potential as a content creation and... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro (refurbished) avai...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pros available for $829, or $270 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.... Read more
Mac Pros on sale for up to $260 off MSRP
B&H Photo has Mac Pros on sale for up to $260 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 3.7GHz 4-core Mac Pro: $2799, $200 off MSRP - 3.5GHz 6-core Mac Pro: $3719.99... Read more
Save up to $600 with Apple refurbished Mac Pr...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished Mac Pros available for up to $600 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each Mac Pro, and shipping is free. The... Read more
Apple drops price on refurbished 15-inch 2.2G...
The Apple Store has dropped their price on the Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro to $1609, $390 off original MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is included, and shipping is... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished Mac minis for up t...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 Mac minis, with models available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz... Read more
Cover For iPhone Helps You Create Beautiful P...
Taking photos, editing and sharing them is one of the things most of people do on their iPhones for fun, especially if they’re users of social media. Unfortunately, many iOS photo-editing solutions... Read more
Password Keyboard 1.0 For iOS Handles Logins...
Pfaeffikon, Switzerland based Power APP has introduced Password Keyboard 1.0.0, their new password utility developed for iPhone, iPad and iPod touch devices. Password Keyboard is designed to simplify... Read more

Jobs Board

Project Manager / Business Analyst, WW *Appl...
…a senior project manager / business analyst to work within our Worldwide Apple Fulfillment Operations and the Business Process Re-engineering team. This role will work Read more
Visual Merchandise Manager %u2013 Accessories...
…to be part of an incredible team. Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming reality very quickly. Our Accessories assortment makes Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as the Apple business manager and influencer in a hyper-business critical Reseller's store which delivers Read more
Technical Project Manager - *Apple* Pay - A...
**Job Summary** Apple Pay is seeking an experienced technical PM…manage the rollout of features to merchants for the Apple Pay platform in the US Within this role Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.