TweetFollow Us on Twitter

MatLab
Volume Number:4
Issue Number:5
Column Tag:The Workstation Mac

MatLab Comes to the Mac II

By Paul Zarchan, Cambridge, Mass

Introduction

MATLAB is an interactive program to help with scientific and engineering numeric calculations. Although it was originally written in FORTRAN for mainframe computers, a second generation MATLAB was rewritten for smaller computers such as the Sun Workstation and the VAX computer. In the last few years a special version of MATLAB was developed to run on MS DOS compatable PC’s with math coprocessors. Typical uses for MATLAB are general purpose numeric computation, algorithm prototyping and solving special purpose problems with matrix formulations that arise in disciplines such as automatic control theory, statistics and digital signal processing. MATLAB is now available for the Mac II or for any Mac souped up with a 68020 accelerator board and a 68881 math coprocessor. For engineers this lends legitimacy to the claim that the Mac II is actually a workstation.

Unlike FORTRAN on the MAC, MATLAB is not really designed to make executable code (i.e. “double clickable” applications). As with interpretive BASIC, the MATLAB application is required on the disk to execute any file previously generated. Unlike BASIC, MATLAB is very fast because of the highly efficient algorithms. MATLAB allows engineers to solve problems almost as they are written mathematically and in addition allows easy access to libraries of some very powerful software. Some have called MATLAB “APL without the pain”. The Mac version of MATLAB takes full advantage of the Mac interface. This also means the MATLAB output can easily be incorporated into reports and presentations making MacMATLAB far more useful than the DOS version.

Matrix Examples

Matricies can be entered either in the MATLAB editor or by the carrot prompt by using brackets to define the matrix and semicolons to separate matrix rows. For example, by entering

»A=[1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 0]

we get the MATLAB output on screen as

A =
     1     2     3
     4     5     6
     7     8     0

If we want to find the transpose of matrix A we simply type at the prompt

»B=A’

where the ‘ indicates transposition The resultant screen output is

B =
     1     4     7
     2     5     8
     3     6     0

Taking the matrix inverse of A is simple as typing

»inv(A)

which yields the screen output (nearly instantaneously)

ans =
   -1.7778    0.8889   -0.1111
    1.5556   -0.7778    0.2222
   -0.1111    0.2222   -0.1111

Many other matrix and linear algebra functions are available with MATLAB. Of course, many engineers have these functions built into their FORTRAN libraries - so why use MATLAB? Let’s do more examples to see why!

Polynomial Example

Suppose we had two polynomials and we wanted to multiply them and find the roots of the resultant expression. If the two polynomials were

x2+3x+2 and x2+x-12

we would define the polynomials in MATLAB by typing

»A=[1 3 2];
»B=[1 1 -12];

where the polynomials are expressed as vectors where the vector elements represent the polynomial coefficients in descending order. We can multiply the 2 polynomials algebraically in MATLAB by using the convolution function or

»C=conv(A,B)

which yields

»C =
     1     4    -7   -34   -24

The screen output displays the coefficients of the resultant polynomial in descending order. This means that the product of the 2 polynomials is given by

x4+4x3-7x2-34x-24

To find the roots of the resultant polynomial we simply type

»roots(C)

which yields the 4 roots as

ans =
    3.0000
   -4.0000
   -2.0000
   -1.0000

Still not impressed with MATLAB? Let’s look at more examples.

Plotting

Unlike FORTRAN, plotting functions come built into MATLAB. If we wanted to plot

y=sin(x) and z=.01x2 from -15 to 15 in increments of .05 only the following 4 MATLAB statements would be required

»x=-15:.05:15;
»y=sin(x);
»z=x.^2/100;
»plot(x,y,x,z)

The unenhanced screen output for such a set of commands appears in Fig. 1. Of course since MATLAB grpahical output is in the PICT format it can be copied to the clipboard and pasted into any Macintosh application.

Figure 1 - Plotting With MATLAB is Easy

The graph can be embellished within the MATLAB environment (with features similar to Cricket Graph) or copied onto the clipboard and pasted into MacDraw for further enhancement.

If we wanted to show that a 5 term Fourier series expansion for a square wave is accurate (Gibb’s effect) we only need the following 3 lines of MATLAB code.

»t = 0:.1:10;
»y = sin(t) + sin(3*t)/3 + sin(5*t)/5 + sin(7*t)/7 + sin(9*t)/9;
»plot(t,y)

The resultant unenhanced MATLAB output is shown below.

Figure 2 - MATLAB Output For Gibb’s Effect

Still not impressed? Suppose we wanted to evaluate the function

over the range

-2¾x¾2, -2¾y¾3

All we have to do is use the following 3 MATLAB statements to get a 3 dimensional plot (with all the hidden line algorithms transparent to the user) of the function.

»[x,y]=meshdom(-2:.2:2,-2:.2:3);
»z=x.*exp(-x.^2-y.^2);
»mesh(z)

Figure 3 - MATLAB 3 Dimensional Plot

Incidentally, the plot took only a few seconds to generate. Try doing that in FORTRAN!

Signal Processing

Noisy signals can be analyzed with MATLAB. For example, we can make 750 gaussian distributed random numbers with zero mean and unity standard deviation with the statements

»rand(‘normal’)
»y=rand(750,1);

We can then analyze and display the frequency content of the 750 random numbers with a MATLAB histogram statement or

»[n,x]=hist(y);
»plot(x,n,’+’)

As expected, the MATLAB output, shown in Fig. 4, demonstrates that the 750 random numbers follow the standard “bell-shaped” curve or well known gaussian distribution.

Figure 4 - MATLAB Can Make Histograms

As was mentioned in the introduction, MATLAB comes with very powerful algorithms. The next example shows a simple use of the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) function. A common use of the FFT is to find the frequency components buried in a noisy time domain signal. Consider data sampled at 1000 Hz. We can form a signal containing 50 Hz and 120 Hz and corrupt it with gaussian noise (zero mean and unity standard deviation) with the following 5 MATLAB statements.

»t=0:.001:.5;
»x=sin(2*pi*50*t)+sin(2*pi*120*t);
»rand(‘normal’)
»y=x+2*rand(t);
»plot(y(1:50))

Figure 5 - Noisy Signal in Time Domain

It is difficult, if not impossible, to identify the frequency components by looking at the original signal in the time domain. Converting to the frequency domain, the discrete Fourier transform of the noisy signal y is found by taking the FFT. In MATLAB code this means

»Y=fft(y);

The power spectral density, a measurement of the energy at various frequencies, is:

»Pyy=Y.*conj(Y);

We can plot the power spectral density by forming a frequency axis for the first 256 points (the other 256 points are symmetric) with the MATLAB statements

»f=1000*(0:255)/512;
»plot(f,Pyy(1:256))

From the resultant output in Fig. 6 we can clearly see the frequency components at 50 Hz and 120 Hz of the signal.

Figure 6 - Frequency Domain Output

Control Analysis

MATLAB can also be used in the analysis of control systems from both a modern and classical point of view. We can find and plot the root locus of the transfer function

for gains 0 to 10 in steps of .5 with the following MATLAB statements

»num = [.2  .3  1];
»den1 = [1 .4 1];
»den2 = [1 .5];
»den = conv(den1,den2);
»k = 0:.5:10;
»r = rlocus(num,den,k); 
»plot(r,’x’), title(‘Root-locus’),xlabel(‘Real part’),ylabel(‘Imag part’)

The resultant root locus is shown in Fig. 7.

Figure 7 - Root Locus Example With MATLAB

We could find the step response for the same system by typing the additional statements

»[a,b,c,d] = tf2ss(num,den)
»t = 0:.3:15;
»y = step(a,b,c,d,1,t); 
»plot(t,y),title(‘Step response’),xlabel(‘time(sec)’)

yielding the output of Fig. 8

Figure 8 - Step Response Output

Another example of the control system analysis capability of MATLAB consider a second order quadratic transfer function with natural frequency 1 rad/sec and damping of .2. The MATLAB program required to display the magnitude characteristics is shown below and the resultant output is displayed in Fig. 9.

»[a,b,c,d]=ord2(1,.2);
»w=logspace(-1,1);
»[mag,phase]=bode(a,b,c,d,1,w);
»mag1=20*log10(mag);
»semilogx(w,mag1)

Figure 9 - Sample Magnitude Bode Plot For Quadratic Transfer Function

More Details

If you already used MATLAB in the DOS world and have a collection of many files there is no problem in porting them to the MAC. Just use a file transfer program (I used PC to MAC and Back) and the conversion routine (going from ASCII files to .m files) provided by MATLAB. The danger in doing this is that the DOS version of MATLAB will seem very primitive once you have used the MAC version. Incidentally the MAC version of MATLAB runs about 5 times faster than the IBM/AT version and at about the same speed as the Sun-3 Workstation version.

Macintosh MATLAB was developed by The Math Works, Inc. [20 N. Main St., Suite 250, Sherborn, Mass. 01770, (617)653-1415]. The software, including the signal processing toolbox comes on a single 800k disk (unprotected) with a list price of $895. The control and ientification toolboxes are sold separately - each with a list price of $495. Although this software is expensive by MAC word processing and spreadsheet standards - it is inexpensive by engineering software standards.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

DiskCatalogMaker 6.4.12 - Catalog your d...
DiskCatalogMaker is a simple disk management tool which catalogs disks. Simple, light-weight, and fast. Finder-like intuitive look and feel. Super-fast search algorithm. Can compress catalog data... Read more
Macs Fan Control 1.3.0.0 - Monitor and c...
Macs Fan Control allows you to monitor and control almost any aspect of your computer's fans, with support for controlling fan speed, temperature sensors pane, menu-bar icon, and autostart with... Read more
Lyn 1.5.11 - Lightweight image browser a...
Lyn is a lightweight and fast image browser and viewer designed for photographers, graphic artists and Web designers. Featuring an extremely versatile and aesthetically pleasing interface, it... Read more
NeoOffice 2014.11 - Mac-tailored, OpenOf...
NeoOffice is a complete office suite for OS X. With NeoOffice, users can view, edit, and save OpenOffice documents, PDF files, and most Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint documents. NeoOffice 3.x... Read more
LaunchBar 6.4 - Powerful file/URL/email...
LaunchBar is an award-winning productivity utility that offers an amazingly intuitive and efficient way to search and access any kind of information stored on your computer or on the Web. It provides... Read more
Remotix 3.1.4 - Access all your computer...
Remotix is a fast and powerful application to easily access multiple Macs (and PCs) from your own Mac. Features Complete Apple Screen Sharing support - including Mac OS X login, clipboard... Read more
DesktopLyrics 2.6.6 - Displays current i...
DesktopLyrics is an application that displays the lyrics of the song currently playing in "iTunes" right on your desktop. The lyrics for the song have to be set in iTunes; DesktopLyrics does nothing... Read more
VOX 2.5.1 - Music player that supports m...
VOX is a beautiful music player that supports many filetypes. The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features and support for all... Read more
NetNewsWire 4.0.0 - RSS and Atom news re...
NetNewsWire is the best way to keep up with the sites and authors you read most regularly. Let NetNewsWire pull down the latest articles, and read them in a distraction-free and Mac-like way. Native... Read more
MacUpdate Desktop 6.0.6 - Search and ins...
MacUpdate Desktop 6 brings seamless 1-click installs and version updates to your Mac. With a free MacUpdate account and MacUpdate Desktop 6, Mac users can now install almost any Mac app on macupdate.... Read more

Biz Builder Delux (Games)
Biz Builder Delux 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Ah, there's nothing like the rhythmic bustle of a burgeoning business burg... especially when you're the one building it... | Read more »
Auroch Digital is Bringing Back Games Wo...
| Read more »
Carbo - Handwriting in the Digital Age...
Carbo - Handwriting in the Digital Age 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Productivity Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Draggy Dead (Games)
Draggy Dead 1.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.1 (iTunes) Description: Ditch your dead end job and take up a rewarding career in Grave Robbing today!Guide the recently deceased to a fun filled life of... | Read more »
Bad Dinos (Games)
Bad Dinos 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
The Apple Watch isn't Great as a Fi...
| Read more »
Show the World What You See With Stre.am...
Live broadcasting is getting popular on mobile devices, which is why you can now get Stre.am, by Infinite Takes. [Read more] | Read more »
PhotoTime's 2.1 Update Adds Apple W...
The latest PhotoTime update is adding even more functionality to the handy photo organizing app. Yep, including Apple Watch support. [Read more] | Read more »
Oh My Glob! Adventure Time Puzzle Quest...
Finn and Jake are taking over D3 Go!'s popular puzzle game series in the upcoming Adventure Time Puzzle Quest. [Read more] | Read more »
Earthcore: Shattered Elements - Tips, Tr...
At first glance, Earthcore: Shattered Elements seems like a rather simple card-battling game. Once you’re introduced to skills that will change quite a bit. Even more so once you start to acquire hero cards. But it’s not so complicated that we... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

OtterBox Maximizes Portability, Productivity...
From the kitchen recipe book to the boarsroom presentation, the OtterBox Agility Tablet System turns tablets into one of the most versatile pieces of handheld technology available. Available now, the... Read more
Launch of New Car App Gallery and Open Develo...
Automatic, a company on a mission to bring the power of the Internet into every car, has announced the launch of the Automatic App Gallery, an app store for nearly every car or truck on the road... Read more
Memorial Day Weekend Sale: 13-inch 1.6GHz Mac...
Best Buy has the new 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $849 on their online store this weekend. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for online orders... Read more
Memorial Day Weekend Sale: 27-inch 3.5GHz 5K...
Best Buy has the 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac on sale for $2099.99 this weekend. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for online orders only, in-store prices may vary.... Read more
Sale! 16GB iPad mini 3 for $349, save $50
B&H Photo has the 16GB iPad mini 3 WiFi on sale for $349 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $50 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Read more
Price drop on 2014 15-inch Retina MacBook Pro...
B&H Photo has dropped prices on 2014 15″ Retina MacBook Pros by $200. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1799.99 save $200 - 15″ 2.5GHz... Read more
With a Mission to Make Mobile Free, Scratch W...
Scratch Wireless, claiming to be the world’s first truly free mobile service, has announced the availability of a new Scratch-enabled Android smartphone, the Coolpad Arise. The smartphone is equipped... Read more
First-Ever Titanium Alloy Curved iPhone 6 Scr...
One of the most common problems with mobile phones is damage to the screens. The slightest drop can cause a dreaded spider web of gashes and cracks in the glass panel surface that can cost $hundreds... Read more
Preorder new 12-inch MacBook, $10 off, save o...
Adorama has new 12″ Retina MacBooks available for preorder for $10 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only. For a limited time, Adorama will include a free Apple USB-C to USB... Read more
Will iOS 9 Finally Bring Productivity Friendl...
Ah, the irony. From its original announcement in 2010, Apple has doggedly insisted that the iPad remain “simple,” thus arbitrarily limiting its considerable potential as a content creation and... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Architect / Senior Software Engineer, *Apple...
Changing the world is all in a day039s work at Apple . If you love innovation, here039s your chance to make a career of it. You039ll work hard. But the job comes with Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
*Apple* Pay Support Readiness Project Manage...
Changing the world is all in a day039s work at Apple . If you love innovation, here039s your chance to make a career of it. You039ll work hard. But the job comes with Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.