TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Benchmarks 2
Volume Number:3
Issue Number:9
Column Tag:Mac Cad

Benchmarks Re-visited

By Paul Zarchan, Cambridge, Mass

With the emergence of the Mac 2 and the growing base of useful, easy to use scientific software, the field of desktop engineering will surely grow this year. The purpose of this article is to compare, from an engineering user point of view, the new Mac’s (using a Prodigy 4 as the equivalent of a Mac 2) with their counterparts in the IBM micro world, DEC mini world and IBM mainframe world. First the issue of compilation and linking will be addressed and then standardized benchmarks will be used to compare various machines from both a cost and performance point of view. Most of the non Mac results were provided to me by A. Tetewsky and D. Feenberg. These results will soon be published in Ref. 1.

Compiling and Linking

When using a compiled language for programming, such as FORTRAN, the issue of compile and link times is extremely important. In engineering applications, excessive compile and link times may make it worthwhile to develop engineering software in an interpretive language such as BASIC, and then port it to a compiled language after initial debugging and algorithm development have been completed. If switching languages may not be practical, it may be worthwhile to stay in FORTRAN but develop the engineering software on a computer with faster compilation times. After program development the source code can easily be ported to the computer of interest for final compilation.

Let’s consider an example in finding complex roots of real polynomials. The 144 lines of program source code for this example can be found in Ref. 2. This example, like that of the Butterworth example in Ref. 3, uses single precision arithmetic but unlike the Butterworth example has virtually no input/output code. In this root finding example, a solution is found for a 30th order, well-behaved polynomial. The compile and link times for the 144 lines of code, using MS FORTRAN (both in the Apple and non Apple world), are indicated in Table 1 for a variety of micros.

In this example, compilation and linking were done using a hard disk for the IBM AT and Compaq 386, while in the Macintosh world, compilation and linking were done in RAM. In the IBM world, compiling in RAM is not significantly faster than compiling from the hard disk. This will always be the case since the operating system software, DOS, is written for 64k segmented 8086/8088 processors. Although an operating system which is developed for the 80386 or OS/2 should be better and improve compilation times, it will not be available for at least one year. If history is any guide, the wait time may be significantly longer. In addition, due to memory segmentation and the lack of a FORTRAN editor (a word processor must be used), it may be difficult to fit all necessary engineering tools into RAM. In the Macintosh world, memory is linear and easily expandable with third party upgrades. For example a 512K Mac can be upgraded to 2 Megs for about $500. This permits the creation of a 1.5 Meg recoverable RAM disk which is large enough to fit FORTRAN and many other useful tools into RAM. Therefore, compiling in RAM with a Mac is much faster than compiling from a hard disk.

In addition, in the IBM world one must compile and link before the code can be executed. The user must nurse the computer through the compiling, linking and execution process. In the Macintosh world, linking is dynamic and therefore automatic from a user point of view. The user simply double clicks on “compile and execute” and the source code compiles, links and runs.

The execution time for this complex root finding example for a variety of micros appears in Table 2. In this example all the micros with the exception of the Mac Plus had math coprocessors.

The Table shows that, for this example, the Prodigy 4 is about 10 times faster than a Mac Plus, more than 5 times faster than an IBM AT and 2.5 times faster than a Compaq 386. In the IBM world, with the exception of the PC, the math coprocessor never seems to run at the same clock rate as the CPU. That is why for this example, an AT and PC (where the math coprocessor is matched to the CPU at 4.77 MHz) have similar execution times. The Compaq 386 is only twice as fast as the AT even though the Compaq has 32 bits rather than 16 bits and runs at 16 Mhz rather than 6 Mhz. In principal, when the IBM operating system software is written and a 16 MHz Intel 80387 math coprocessor becomes available, it should be in the same speed class as the Prodigy 4. Interestingly enough, the Compaq 386 is rated at 3.5 MIPs while the Prodigy 4 is only rated at 2.0 MIPs. We can see that in numerical applications, MIP ratings may not tell the whole story (see Ref. 4 for example).

Often the user may only be interested in the turn around time, which is the sum of the compile, link and execution times. For this example we can see by comparing Tables 1 and 2 that the turn around times are significantly better in the Macintosh world. Table 3 summarizes the results for the complex root example.

The sample problem only had 144 lines of FORTRAN code. If we consider a “traveling salesman” program using 1500 lines of FORTRAN code, the comparison of compile and linking times are even more dramatic. Table 4 shows that the Macintosh and Prodigy 4 are considerably faster for larger programs than either the IBM AT or Compaq 386.

Whetstone Benchmarking

The Whetstone benchmark, devised in England by Curnow and Wichman in the Feb. 1976 issue of the Computer Journal, is an attempt to cover a typical mix of all floating point operations. This benchmark contains linear arrays, and add, subtract, multiply, divide and transcendental operations. Whetstones were originally written in ALGOL, but later translated to FORTRAN in 1979 by D. Frank. Since that time, many computer manufacturers have rated their machines in terms of thousands of Whetstones per second or kw/sec. Higher Whetstone ratings mean more powerful machines. Table 5 presents single and double Whetstone ratings for a variety of micro, mini and mainframe computers. In addition, ratios referenced to Prodigy 4 speed are indicated in the Table. A ratio of 1.7 means that the computer is 1.7 times faster than the Prodigy 4. All computers, with the exception of the Mac Plus, have math coprocessors or floating point accelerators. The poor double precision Whetstone rating of the Mac Plus may, relative to the IBM PC, may be one of the reasons there has been a scarcity of scientific software for the Mac. Of course, we can see from this Table that the Prodigy 4 and hence new Mac 2 changes all that.

The Whetstone results of Table 5 (with no I/O) can be compared to the Butterworth simulation results( with considerable I/O and more representative of a realistic engineering application) of Ref. 3. Figure 1 shows that all the benchmarks, whether they be Whetstones or Butterworth simulations, yield about the same relative machine performance. Only the Mac Plus seems to yields results which are significantly benchmark dependent. It yields worse performance on the Whetstones because of it’s lack of a math coprocessor.

Figure 1 - Relative Machine Performance is Approximately Independent of Benchmark

The performance comparison of Fig. 1 can be placed into proper perspective when the cost of the host computer is considered. For simplicity, computer cost can be considered to be the machines purchase price only. This neglects the cost of the small army of technicians required to operate the larger machines and the cost of software leasing agreements. We can see from Fig. 2 that generally higher cost computers yield faster performance. However the cost is not always commensurate with the performance. For example, a VAX 11/780 is only 1.5 times as fast as a Prodigy 4 and yet is 40 times more expensive. An IBM 3084Q is 11.7 times faster than a Prodigy 4 and is 500 times more expensive. On the micro side an IBM RT is 2.5 times slower than a Prodigy 4 and yet costs twice as much.

Figure 2 - Micros are More Cost Effective Than Larger Machines

If we normalize the computer performance as measured by double precision whetstones per second to the computer purchase price we can generate “bang for the buck” information. More “bang for the buck” means that the computer yields a higher double precision Whetstone rating for less cost. Figure 3 presents this cost effectiveness information and shows that the Compaq 386, Prodigy 4 and Micro Vax 2 are very cost effective, with the Prodigy 4 yielding the most “bang for the buck”. The curve also indicates that if a micro can do the job, it is more cost effective from a performance point of view than a mainframe.

Figure 3 - Prodigy 4 Outperforms Every Other Computer

Summary

The intent of this article was to show that FORTRAN runs very efficiently on the Prodigy 4 (and hence Mac 2) when compared to non Apple micros. When compilation and linking times are taken into account, the comparison is even more dramatic. A relative performance curve is presented quantifying “bang for the buck” information for a variety of micros, minis and mainframes. As expected, the new Mac 2 appears to out- perform every other computer.

Acknowledgements

I wish to thank Micro/Systems, Av Tetewsky and Dan Feenberg for permitting me to extract from Ref. 1 the benchmark timings on all the non Apple machines and for providing the technical explanation for the “features” of the various DOS machines. In addition, I would like to thank Owen Deutsch, for providing me with the “travelling salesman” FORTRAN code.

References

1) Tetewsky, A. and Feenberg, D. “A Survey of 6 FORTRAN Compilers” to appear in Sept. 1987 edition of Micro/Systems Journal.

2) Press, N. H. et al, “Numerical Recipes The Art of Scientific Computation”, Cambridge University Press, 1986.

3) Zarchan, P. “New Mac Workstation Potential”, MacTutor, Vol. 3, No. 3, March 1987, pp 15-21.

4) Boston Computer Society IBM PC Report, “PC Technical Report: MIPs, MFlops, Benchmarks and Other Half-Truths”, May-June 1987.

5) Marshall, T., Jones, C., and Kluger, S. “Definicon 68020 Coprocessor”, BYTE, July 1986, pp 120-144.

 
AAPL
$101.06
Apple Inc.
+0.10
MSFT
$47.06
Microsoft Corpora
-0.46
GOOG
$587.37
Google Inc.
-8.71

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Monosnap 2.2.2 - Versatile screenshot ut...
Monosnap allows you to save screenshots easily, conveniently, and quickly, sharing them with friends and colleagues at once. It's the ideal choice for anyone who is looking for a smart and fast... Read more
Tunnelblick 3.4beta36 - GUI for OpenVPN...
Tunnelblick is a free, open source graphic user interface for OpenVPN on OS X. It provides easy control of OpenVPN client and/or server connections. It comes as a ready-to-use application with all... Read more
SoftRAID 5.0.4 - High-quality RAID manag...
SoftRAID allows you to create and manage disk arrays to increase performance and reliability. SoftRAID's intuitive interface and powerful feature set makes this utility a must have for any Mac OS X... Read more
Audio Hijack Pro 2.11.3 - Record and enh...
Audio Hijack Pro drastically changes the way you use audio on your computer, giving you the freedom to listen to audio when you want and how you want. Record and enhance any audio with Audio Hijack... Read more
Airfoil 4.8.9 - Send audio from any app...
Airfoil allows you to send any audio to AirPort Express units, Apple TVs, and even other Macs and PCs, all in sync! It's your audio - everywhere. With Airfoil you can take audio from any... Read more
WhatRoute 1.13.0 - Geographically trace...
WhatRoute is designed to find the names of all the routers an IP packet passes through on its way from your Mac to a destination host. It also measures the round-trip time from your Mac to the... Read more
Chromium 37.0.2062.122 - Fast and stable...
Chromium is an open-source browser project that aims to build a safer, faster, and more stable way for all Internet users to experience the web. FreeSMUG-Free OpenSource Mac User Group build is... Read more
Attachment Tamer 3.1.14b9 - Take control...
Attachment Tamer gives you control over attachment handling in Apple Mail. It fixes the most annoying Apple Mail flaws, ensures compatibility with other email software, and allows you to set up how... Read more
Duplicate Annihilator 5.0 - Find and del...
Duplicate Annihilator takes on the time-consuming task of comparing the images in your iPhoto library using effective algorithms to make sure that no duplicate escapes. Duplicate Annihilator detects... Read more
jAlbum Pro 12.2 - Organize your digital...
jAlbum Pro has all the features you love in jAlbum, but comes with a commercial license. With jAlbum, you can create gorgeous custom photo galleries for the Web without writing a line of code!... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Kitty Powers’ Matchmaker – Tips, Tricks,...
Hey There, Kittens: | Read more »
Goblin Sword Review
Goblin Sword Review By Andrew Fisher on September 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: RETRO GOODNESSUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Fun visuals, good music, engaging level design, and lots of content make Goblin Sword an... | Read more »
Major New Update for CSR Racing Adds Fer...
Major New Update for CSR Racing Adds Ferrari and Multiplaye​r Posted by Jessica Fisher on September 22nd, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Veditor Review
Veditor Review By Jennifer Allen on September 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: PIMP YOUR VIDEOUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Want to add stickers and music to your videos? Veditor can do that easily.   | Read more »
1849′s Nevada Silver DLC is Still Search...
A few months ago, I took a look at 1849 from SomaSim. This Gold Rush-themed city builder for iPad had a fair bit going for it, but lacked in a few crucial areas to make it a true stand-out on the App Store. SomaSim has since added in a sandbox mode... | Read more »
Fruit Ninja Will be Reborn With a Massiv...
Fruit Ninja Will be Reborn With a Massive Update and Origins Animation Series Posted by Jessica Fisher on September 22nd, 2014 [ permalink ] Halfbrick Studios is rebuilding | Read more »
CloudMagic Updated for iOS 8 – Adds Inte...
CloudMagic Updated for iOS 8 – Adds Interactive Notifications, Share Extension, and More Posted by Jessica Fisher on September 22nd, 2014 [ | Read more »
Starbase Annex (Games)
Starbase Annex 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: "it’s really very clever... a little bit of Hearthstone and a dash of Eclipse" - PocketTactics.com From the creator of Starbase... | Read more »
Star Nomad Review
Star Nomad Review By Jordan Minor on September 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: BUMPY RIDEiPad Only App - Designed for the iPad Star Nomad will only appeal to the most hardcore space explorers.   | Read more »
Partyrs Review
Partyrs Review By Jordan Minor on September 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: LIFE OF THE PARTYUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Partyrs makes party planning as fun as partying itself.   | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple restocks some refurbished 2014 MacBook...
The Apple Store has restocked some Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 MacBook Airs, with prices starting at $769. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free. These... Read more
13-inch 128GB MacBook Air on sale for $949, s...
B&H Photo has the new 2014 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $949.99 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $50 off MSRP. B&H will also include free copies of... Read more
Apple offering free $25 iTunes Gift Card with...
The Apple Store is offering a free $25 iTunes Gift Card with the purchase of a $99 Apple TV for a limited time. Shipping is free. Read more
Apple refurbished iPod touch available for up...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 5th generation iPod touches available starting at $149. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free. Most colors are... Read more
iFixIt Tears Down iPhone 6; Awards Respectabl...
iFixit notes that even the smaller 4.7″ iPhone 6 is a giant among iPhones; so big that Apple couldn’t fit it into the familiar iPhone form factor. In a welcome reversal of a recent trend to more or... Read more
Phone 6 Guide – Tips Book For Both iPhone 6...
iOS Guides has announced its latest eBook: iPhone 6 Guide. Brought to you by the expert team at iOS Guides, and written by best-selling technology author Tom Rudderham, iPhone 6 Guide is packed with... Read more
How to Upgrade iPhone iPad to iOS 8 without D...
PhoneClean, a iPhone cleaner utility offered by iMobie Inc., reveals a solution for upgrading iPhone and iPad to iOS 8 without deleting photos, apps, the new U2 album or anything. Thanks to more than... Read more
Inpaint 6 – Photo Retouching Tool Gets Faster...
TeoreX has announced Inpaint 6, a simple retouching tool for end users that helps remove scratches, watermarks, and timestamps as well as more complex objects like strangers, unwanted elements and... Read more
Worldwide PC Monitor Market Sees Growth in To...
Worldwide PC monitor shipments totaled 32.5 million units in the second quarter of 2014 (2Q14), a year-over-year decline of -2.9%, according to the International Data Corporation (IDC) Worldwide... Read more
Updated Price Trackers
We’ve updated our Mac Price Trackers with the latest information on prices, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers: - 15″ MacBook Pros - 13″ MacBook... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Position Opening at *Apple* - Apple (United...
…customers purchase our products, you're the one who helps them get more out of their new Apple technology. Your day in the Apple Store is filled with a range of Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Position Opening at *Apple* - Apple (United...
**Job Summary** At the Apple Store, you connect business professionals and entrepreneurs with the tools they need in order to put Apple solutions to work in their Read more
Position Opening at *Apple* - Apple (United...
**Job Summary** The Apple Store is a retail environment like no other - uniquely focused on delivering amazing customer experiences. As an Expert, you introduce people Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.