Rose
 Volume Number: 3 Issue Number: 1 Column Tag: Assembly Language Lab

# Rose Curve Generator

By Victor Barger, Waunakee, WI

An application of mathematics which produces fascinating designs is the graphing of trigonometric functions using polar coordinates. Each function leads to a beautiful design which bears a strong resemblance to a flower, such as the rose. With its excellent graphics capabilities and superior user interface, the Macintosh is perfect for quickly plotting “rose” functions on the screen with a program simple enough that anyone can use it. The application described in this article takes full advantage of these capabilities to allow the user to experience the graphic beauty of trigonometry.

## Using Rose Curves

After launching Rose Curves, a window will open in the center of the screen and the default function will be drawn inside. (See Figure 1) Both the standard apple menu and a Control menu will be in the menu bar. The apple menu contains the item “About Rose Curves...” and the names of all desk accessories available to the user from the System file. Under the Control menu are two options: Change Parameters and Quit. When the Change Parameters item is selected a window similar to the one in Figure 2 is opened in the center of the screen. With this window the user can select the function to be drawn, choose the size of the drawing and indicate whether the drawing should be multilayered. Function and size are selected by clicking on the appropriate function name or size. For example, selecting cos (sin 100r) gives the design in Figure 3. If multilayered is selected, the function will be drawn at the original size and then shrunk repeatedly to create a “layered” effect, making the design more interesting: See Figure 4.

## Entering the Program

Start up the Macintosh 68000 Development System. The startup disk should be titled ‘MDS1’ and the external disk ‘MDS2.’ The applications Edit, Asm, Link, Exec and RMaker should be on MDS1 and a folder entitled ‘.D Files’ with SysEqu.D, ToolEqu.D, QuickEqu.D, and MacTraps.D inside on MDS2. To make Rose Curves work on a Macintosh 512 with the old ROM, FixMath.Txt and FixMath.Rel must also be in the .D Files folder (The information on where to get these two files is under How Rose Curves Works). FixTraps.Txt and FixTraps.Rel are files which were distributed by Apple Computer under the Apple Software Supplement to aid assembly language programmers in calculating basic arithmetic and trigonometric functions. As the program is presented here, you have everything you need to type the program in and run it on a new ROM machine, since the FixTraps necessary for this program are explicitly defined with the ".TRAPS" statement at the start of the program. The program may also be entered into the new MPW assembler, or assembled with the Consulair C system, which includes the complete MDS assembler built-in.

To create the program, simply assemble the Rose.Asm listing. Then compile the resource file with RMaker. Finally execute the linker on the link file listing and the program object file and resource object file (both ".REL" files) will be linked together, an application generated, and the cute rose application icon should appear on the disk. Double click "Rose Curves" and your in business making fascinating polar coordinate art.

## How Rose Curves Works

The program begins by initializing the standard managers, initializing its variables, setting up the menu bar and opening the window. The initialized variables are Equation, Scale, RealScale, Multilayered and drawn. Equation contains the item number of the selected function in the Change Parameters dialog. To obtain the real equation number, subtract 3 from Equation. Scale is the item number of the selected scale or “size” and RealScale is the actual scalar multiplied on each point before drawing it. Multilayered determines whether the rose will be layered. Finally, drawn is a boolean expression which determines whether the window needs to be updated by redrawing the rose (false) or simply by copying the rose from the offscreen bitmap (true). The offscreen bitmap is also created in this routine. To create a bitmap, create an area in memory with space for a pointer, a word and a rectangle. In Rose Curves, this appears at the end of the program under the label windowBitMap. Now select the rectangle of the bitmap and calculate the rowbytes with the equation

```       rowbytes = int((xright - xleft)/8+1)
```

If rowbytes is odd, round it up. Suppose our rectangle is 0, 0, 50, 96 (remember that a QuickDraw rectangle is stored as y1, x1, y2, x2). Then rowbytes would be 14 and the bitmap would look like this:

```myBitMapDC.L0  ;pointer to bitmap storage
DC14 ;rowbytes
DC0, 0, 50, 96  ;boundsRect
```

The size of the bitmap storage must be determined before it can be created. Use the equation

``` size = rowbytes * (ybottom - ytop)
```

To create the bitmap, use the following routine.

``` move.l #size,D0
_NewPtr;allocate new pointer
lea  myBitMap,A1
move.l A0,(A1)  ;put the pointer to the
;storage in myBitMap
```

To copy a picture from the current window to myBitMap, use this routine

``` pea  aPort(A5)  ;storage for the port
_GetPort ;get the current port
move.l aPort(A5),A0 ;put the port pointer in A0
pea  portBits(A0) ;push ptr to port’s bitmap
pea  myBitMap ;push ptr to our bitMap
pea  srcRect  ;push srcRect
pea  dstRect  ;push dstRect
clr  -(SP) ;srcCopy
_CopyBits;copy the bits
```

Finally, remember to dispose of the bitmap’s storage after finishing with it. This is accomplished simply with

```move.l  myBitMap,A0
_DisposPtr
```

The EventLoop allows desk accessories to perform their periodic events by calling _SystemTask and, if an event occurs, branches to HandleEvent which transfers execution to the appropriate routine: Activate, Update, KeyDown or MouseDown. The Activate routine activates or deactivates the Rose Curves window depending on what the user requested. Update updates the window by either drawing the curve or using _CopyBits, depending on whether the curve had been drawn previously. KeyDown checks if the command-key was down when the KeyDown event occurred by testing bit eight of the ModifyReg. If bit eight equals one, a command-key was pressed and _MenuKey is called to determine the appropriate menuNumber and itemNumber for Choices, the routine which handles menu selections. MouseDown finds the area the mouse was clicked in using _FindWindow and jumps to the appropriate routine to handle the click.

The heart of the program lies in the DrawRose subroutine. Before outlining how it operates, an explanation of the fixed-point math routines is needed. Fixed-point math is not as accurate as floating-point math, but much faster. With graphics programs, speed is often much more important than accuracy, especially when there is the possibility of losing the user’s attention. Since Apple elected not to implement the fixed-point routines into the old toolbox, they released the file's FixTraps. Txt and FixMath.Rel in the Apple Software Supplement of May 6, 1985. These files are available from local user groups, bulletin boards, Apple dealerships or directly from Apple. FixTraps.Txt includes a nice description of the “toolbox additions” and FixMath.Rel contains the actual routines. To use the fixed-point routines on a Macintosh with the old ROM, type ‘INCLUDE FixTraps.Txt’ at the beginning of your .Asm file. Also include the line ‘FixTraps’ after the name of the application under development in the .Link file. To use the fixed-point routines on a Macintosh with the new ROM, simply define the trap using .TRAP at the beginning of the ASM file as we did in our listing here. The complete list of new fixed-point traps is as follows:

Long2Fix \$A83F

FracSin \$A848

FracSqrt \$A849

FracMul \$A84A

FracDiv \$A84B

FixAtan2 \$A818

FixDiv \$A84D

Fix2Long \$A840

Fix2Frac \$A841

Frac2Fix \$A842

Fix2X \$A843

X2Fix \$A844

Frac2X \$A845

X2Frac \$A846

FracCos \$A847

The fixed-point routines support three types of numbers: longint (long integer), fixed, and fract (fractional). Type longint represents integers between ±2147483647, type fixed represents fractional quantities between ±32768 with about 5 digits of accuracy and type fract represents fractional quantities between ±2 with about 9 digits of accuracy. Rose Curves uses _FracSin, _FracCos, _FixMul and _FracMul to perform its arithmetic operations. These routines work like any other toolbox trap: space is cleared on the stack for the result, the parameters are pushed on the stack and the trap is called. The Pascal definitions for these routines are

```function FracSin( x : Fixed ) : Fract
function FracCos( x : Fixed ) : Fract
function FixMul( x, y : Fixed ) : Fixed
function FracMul( x, y : Fract ) : Fract
```

With _FixMul and _FracMul it is possible to pass parameters of different types than specified. For example, one could pass x as type longint and y as type fixed to _FixMul and the result would be type longint. The following table contains the result types for multiplying different types using _FixMul and _FracMul.

_FixMul _FracMul

x y result x y result

fixed fixed fixed fract fract fract

longint fixed longint longint fract longint

fixed longint longint fract longint longint

fract fixed fract fixed fract fixed

fixed fract fract fract fixed fixed

Note: To convert a number to type Fract, multiply it by 65536. To convert a number to type Fixed, multiply it by 32768.

DrawRose begins by changing the cursor to a watch, setting the counter to 721 steps (1 + 360° x 1/increment), the increment to 572 (.5° in fixed-point radians) and the present angle to 0. It then loops until the counter is zero, evaluating the current function (bsr EvalFunction), converting the function result to rectangular coordinates and scaling and centering the points. After completing each layer, the program decreases the scale by 20 and redraws the curve if multilayered was selected. After drawing all of the layers, the variable drawn is set to true and the image in the window is copied onto the offscreen bitmap for future update events.

## Possible Modifications

Rose Curves could be improved in several ways. The most obvious way would be to add more functions to the program. To accomplish this, add the “function” buttons in the Rose.R file and add the subroutines to evaluate the new functions to Rose.Asm. Note that the displacement to the function must be included in the equation table for the new subroutine to be executed. To do this, add the line DC functionLabel-EquationTable after the line DC Six-EquationTable. As more functions are added, keep adding the labels to the equation table. The second improvement would be to decrease the time required to draw the rose when multilayered is on. To do this, copy the image of the rose into an offscreen bitmap using _CopyBits after the first rose has been drawn. Then shrink CopyBits’ dstRect and copy the rose from the offscreen bitmap onto the screen. Although many times faster, this method greatly reduces the accuracy with which layers are drawn since they are being scaled by _CopyBits, not mathematically graphed. An option to this problem would be to include a checkbox in the Change Parameters dialog titled ‘Accurate Multilayers.’ If selected, Rose Curves would draw the layers using its normal drawing routine. If not, Rose Curves would use the copy-and-shrink method, thus giving the user the choice of accuracy or speed.

```;File: Rose.Asm
;---------------------------------------------
;Rose Curves draws curves expressed as a
; function of r and theta.
;Written by Victor Barger on April 2, 1986.
;---------------------------------------------
INCLUDEMacTraps.D
INCLUDEQuickEqu.D
INCLUDEToolEqu.D
;---------------------------------------------
.trap  _FracMul \$A84A  ;New Roms
.trap  _FracCos \$A847
.trap  _FracSin \$A848
;----------------------------------------------
TopButton EQU  D3
BottomButtonEQU  D4
ModifyReg EQU  D4
Increment EQU  D4
Counter EQU D5
CheckBoxEQU D6
FuncResultEQU  A4

ParamDlgIDEQU  2000
DrawWindIDEQU  2001

InitialScaleEQU  13
RealInitScale  EQU 460
;-------------------------------------------------
Start
bsr  InitManagers ;initialize managers
bsr  InitVariables;initialize variables
bsr  SetupWindow;draw the window

EventLoop
clr  -(SP)
move #\$0FFF,-(SP)
pea  EventRecord
_GetNextEvent   ;get the next event
move (SP)+,D0
beq.s  EventLoop;no event, loop back
bsr  HandleEvent;handle the event
beq.s  EventLoop;if 0, continue; else quit
rts

Beep
move #12,-(SP)
_SysBeep
rts
;---------------------------------------------------
InitManagers
pea  -4(A5)
_InitGraf
_InitFonts
move.l #\$0000FFFF,D0
_FlushEvents
_InitWindows
clr.l  -(SP)
_InitDialogs
_TEInit
_InitCursor
rts
;---------------------------------------------------
InitVariables
move #3,Equation(A5)
move #InitialScale,Scale(A5)
move.l #RealInitScale,RealScale(A5)
clr  Multilayered(A5)  ;not multilayered
move.l #11520,D0
_NewPtr;create a new bit map
lea  windowBitMap,A1
move.l A0,(A1)  ;remember the pointer
clr  drawn(A5)  ;not drawn yet
rts
;-----------------------------------------------------
clr.l  -(SP)
move.l (SP),-(SP)
clr  -(SP)
move.l #'DRVR',-(SP)

clr.l  -(SP)
clr  -(SP)

rts
;------------------------------------------------------
SetupWindow
clr.l  -(SP)
move #DrawWindID,-(SP)
pea  WindowStorage(A5)
move.l #-1,-(SP)
_GetNewWindow   ;get the RoseCurves Window
move.l (SP),DrawPtr(A5)
_SetPort ;set the new grafport
rts
;------------------------------------------------------
HandleEvent
move Modify,ModifyReg
move What,D0
move EventTable(D0),D0
jmp  EventTable(D0)

EventTable
DCNextEvent-EventTable
DCMouseDown-EventTable
DCNextEvent-EventTable
DCKeyDown-EventTable
DCNextEvent-EventTable
DCKeyDown-EventTable
DCUpdate-EventTable
DCNextEvent-EventTable
DCActivate-EventTable
DCNextEvent-EventTable
DCNextEvent-EventTable
;-------------------------------------------------------
Activate
move.l DrawPtr(A5),D0
cmp.l  Message,D0 ;was it our window?
bne  NextEvent  ;no, get next event
btst #0,ModifyReg ;activate?
beq  NextEvent  ;no, deactivate

SetOurPort
move.l DrawPtr(A5),-(SP) ;push pointer to draw window
_SetPort ;set our port
bra  NextEvent
;-------------------------------------------------------
Update
move.l Message,D0 ;get the window ptr
cmp.l  DrawPtr(A5),D0
bne  NextEvent

tst  drawn(A5)
bne.s  copyIt
move.l DrawPtr(A5),-(SP) ;push window ptr
_SetPort ;set the port
move.l DrawPtr(A5),-(SP)
_BeginUpdate
move.l DrawPtr(A5),-(SP)
_EndUpdate
pea  windowRect
_EraseRect
bsr  DrawRose   ;draw the rose
bra  NextEvent

copyIt
move.l DrawPtr(A5),-(SP) ;push window ptr
_SetPort ;set the port
move.l DrawPtr(A5),-(SP)
_BeginUpdate
pea  windowBitMap ;get the rose from the bitMap
move.l drawPtr(A5),A0
pea  portBits(A0) ;put the rose in our window
pea  windowRect ;same rect for src and dest
pea  windowRect
clr  -(SP) ;srcCopy
_CopyBits;copy It
move.l DrawPtr(A5),-(SP)
_EndUpdate
bra  NextEvent
;-----------------------------------------------------
KeyDown
btst #8,ModifyReg ;is the command key down?
beq  NextEvent  ;no, exit
clr.l  -(SP)    ;space for menu and item
move Message+2,-(SP);get character
_MenuKey ;see if its a command
bra.s  Choices
;------------------------------------------------------
MouseDown
clr  -(SP) ;space for result
move.l Point,-(SP);get mouse coordinates
pea  WWindow    ;push event window
_FindWindow;find the window
move (SP)+,D0   ;get region number
add  D0,D0 ;*2 for index into table
move WindowTable(D0),D0  ;point to routine offset

WindowTable
DCNextEvent-WindowTable  ;in desk (not used)
DCSystemEvent-WindowTable;in system window
DCNextEvent-WindowTable  ;in content (not used)
DCNextEvent-WindowTable  ;in drag (not used)
DCNextEvent-WindowTable  ;in grow (not used)
DCQuitRoutine-WindowTable;in go away
;-----------------------------------------------------
SystemEvent
pea  EventRecord;ptr to the event record
move.l WWindow,-(SP);push window ptr
_SystemClick    ;let system take care of it
bra  NextEvent  ;next event
;-------------------------------------------------------
clr.l  -(SP)    ;space for menu choice
move.l Point,-(SP);mouse at time of event

Choices
bne.s  NotQuit  ;no
bne.s  NotQuit  ;no, continue
QuitRoutine
move.l DrawPtr(A5),-(SP) ;push ptr to draw window
_CloseWindow    ;close the window
move.l windowBitMap,A0
_DisposPtr ;dispose of the bitmap
move #-1,D0;say it was Quit
rts

NotQuit
beq  ParameterChange;yes

ChoiceReturn
;fall through get next event
;---------------------------------------------------------
NextEvent
moveq  #0,D0    ;say it's not Quit
;--------------------------------------------------------
rts
;--------------------------------------------------------
beq.s  Info

pea  DeskName
_GetItem ;get name of the desk accessory
clr  -(SP)
pea  DeskName
_OpenDeskAcc    ;open the desk accessory
move (SP)+,D0

RestoreOurPort
bsr  SetOurPort
bra  ChoiceReturn

Info
clr  -(SP)
clr.l  -(SP)
move (SP)+,D0
bra  RestoreOurPort
;---------------------------------------------------------
ParameterChange
clr.l  -(SP)
move #ParamDlgID,-(SP)
pea  DStorage
move.l #-1,-(SP)
_GetNewDialog   ;get the dialog
move.l (SP),ParamDlgPtr(A5);preserve the dialogPtr

_SetPort ;set the port

move Equation(A5),TopButton;TopButton = current button
;highlighted in top section
move TopButton,D0
bsr  FindButton ;sub. to return handle
move.l itemHandle(A5),-(SP)
move #1,-(SP)
_SetCtlValue    ;highlight the button

move Scale(A5),BottomButton;BottomButton = current
; button in bottom section
move BottomButton,D0
bsr  FindButton
move.l itemHandle(A5),-(SP)
move #1,-(SP)
_SetCtlValue    ;highlight the button

move Multilayered(A5),CheckBox
move #17,D0
bsr  FindButton ;get handle to check-box
move.l itemHandle(A5),-(SP)
move CheckBox,-(SP)
_SetCtlValue    ;check or uncheck it

RepeatLoop
clr.l  -(SP)
pea  ItemHit
_ModalDialog    ;modal dialog

move ItemHit,D1
cmp  #2,D1 ;was it Cancel?
beq  Done;yes
cmp  #1,D1 ;was it OK?
beq  SetNewParams ;yes
cmp  #9,D1 ;was it in the bottom set?
bge.s  BottomSet;yes

move TopButton,D0
move D1,TopButton ;set new button number
bsr  FindButton ;get handle to last button
move.l itemHandle(A5),-(SP)
clr  -(SP)
_SetCtlValue    ;unhighlight last button

move TopButton,D0
bsr  FindButton
move.l itemHandle(A5),-(SP)
move #1,-(SP)
_SetCtlValue    ;highlight new button
bra.s  RepeatLoop

BottomSet
cmp  #14,D1;in bottom set?
bge.s  CheckForBox;no

move BottomButton,D0
move D1,BottomButton
bsr  FindButton ;get handle to last button
move.l itemHandle(A5),-(SP)
clr  -(SP)
_SetCtlValue    ;unhighlight last button

move BottomButton,D0
bsr  FindButton
move.l itemHandle(A5),-(SP)
move #1,-(SP)
_SetCtlValue    ;highlight new button
bra  RepeatLoop

CheckForBox
cmp  #17,D1;click in the check box?
bne  RepeatLoop
cmp  #1,CheckBox
bne.s  NotOne
move #0,CheckBox
bra.s  SetCheck

NotOne
move #1,CheckBox
SetCheck
move #17,D0
bsr  FindButton ;get handle to check-box
move.l itemHandle(A5),-(SP)
move CheckBox,-(SP)
_SetCtlValue    ;check or uncheck it
bra  RepeatLoop

SetNewParams
clr  drawn(A5)
move TopButton,Equation(A5);set new equation number
move BottomButton,Scale(A5);set new scale
move CheckBox,Multilayered(A5)  ;set multilayered
move Scale(A5),D0
sub  #9,D0
asl.l  #2,D0
move.l ScaleTable(D0),RealScale(A5) ;look up real scale

Done
move.l ParamDlgPtr(A5),-(SP)
_CloseDialog    ;close the dialog
bra  RestoreOurPort

ScaleTable
DC.L 140,220,300,380,460
;------------------------------------------------------
FindButton
move.l ParamDlgPtr(A5),-(SP)
move D0,-(SP)
pea  itemType
pea  itemHandle(A5)
pea  dispRect
_GetDItem;get handle to itemnumber in D0
rts
;-------------------------------------------------------
;to convert a fract number to type fract, multipy by 65536
DrawRose
clr.l  -(SP)
move #4,-(SP)
_GetCursor ;get the watch cursor (ID=4)
move.l (SP)+,D0
move.l D0,A0
move.l (A0),-(SP)
_SetCursor ;set the new cursor

move.l RealScale(A5),-(SP) ;preserve the realScale
DrawRose1
move #720,Counter ;721 steps (360 x 2)
move.l #572,Increment    ;572 = .5° increment in radians
;(.5Π/180)*65536

nextDegree

sub  #14,SP
_FracSin
move.l FuncResult,-(SP)
move.l RealScale(A5),-(SP)
_FixMul;y = y * realScale
_HiWord
move (SP)+,y(A5);y = int(y)

sub  #14,SP
_FracCos
move.l FuncResult,-(SP)
move.l RealScale(A5),-(SP)
_FixMul;x = x * realScale
_HiWord
move (SP)+,x(A5);x = int(x)

move x(A5),D0
move D0,-(SP)   ;x = x + 154

move y(A5),D0
move D0,-(SP)   ;y = y + 144

bne.s  NotFirst
_MoveTo;moveto x,y if first point
bra.s  Skip

NotFirst
_LineTo;else lineto x,y
Skip
dbra Counter,nextDegree  ;loop back
cmp  #1,Multilayered(A5) ;another layer?
bne.s  NoExtraLayers;no
move.l #20,D0
sub.l  D0,RealScale(A5)  ;decrease the real scale by 20
cmp.l  RealScale(A5),D0  ;is the real scale = 20?
bne  DrawRose1  ;no, do next layer

NoExtraLayers
move #1,drawn(A5) ;the rose has been drawn
move.l drawPtr(A5),A0
pea  portBits(A0) ;put the rose in our window
pea  windowBitMap ;get from offscreen bitmap
pea  windowRect ;same size windowRect
pea  windowRect
clr  -(SP) ;srcCopy
_CopyBits;copy the bits
move.l (SP)+,RealScale(A5)
_InitCursor
rts
;----------------------------------------------------
EvalFunction
move Equation(A5),D0
sub  #3,D0
move EquationTable(D0),D0
jmp  EquationTable(D0)

EquationTable
DCOne-EquationTable ;sin 4r
DCTwo-EquationTable ;cos (2 sin r)
DCThree-EquationTable  ;cos (2 sin 2r)
DCFour-EquationTable;cos (sin 100r)
DCFive-EquationTable;cos (sin 8 r)
DCSix-EquationTable ;cos (4 sin 2r)
;-------------------------------------------------------
None
move.l #0,FuncResult
rts
;-------------------------------------------------------
One
;sin 4r
clr.l  -(SP)
asl.l  #2,D0
move.l D0,-(SP)
_FracSin
rts
;-------------------------------------------------------
Two
;cos (2 sin r)
subq #8,SP
_FracSin
move.l (SP),D0
asr.l  #7,D0
asr.l  #6,D0    ;convert to fixed x 2
move.l D0,(SP)
_FracCos
move.l (SP)+,FuncResult  ;fn r(Radians) = cos (2 sin r)
rts
;--------------------------------------------------------
Three
;cos (2 sin 2r)
subq #8,SP
asl.l  #1,D0
move.l D0,-(SP)
_FracSin
move.l (SP),D0
asr.l  #7,D0
asr.l  #6,D0    ;convert to fixed x 2
move.l D0,(SP)
_FracCos
move.l (SP)+,FuncResult  ;fn r(Radians) = cos (2 sin 2r)
rts
;-------------------------------------------------------
Four
;cos (sin 100r)
sub  #12,SP
move.l #3276800,-(SP)
_FixMul
_FracSin
move.l (SP),D0
asr.l  #7,D0
asr.l  #7,D0    ;convert to fixed
move.l D0,(SP)
_FracCos
move.l (SP)+,FuncResult  ;fn r(Radians) = cos (sin 100r)
rts
;--------------------------------------------------------
Five
;cos (sin 8 r)
subq #8,SP
asl.l  #3,D0
move.l D0,-(SP)
_FracSin
move.l (SP),D0
asr.l  #7,D0
asr.l  #7,D0
move.l D0,(SP)
_FracCos
move.l (SP)+,FuncResult  ;fn r(Radians) = cos (sin 8r)
rts
;---------------------------------------------------------
Six
;cos (4 sin 2r)
subq #8,SP
asl.l  #1,D0
move.l D0,-(SP)
_FracSin
move.l (SP),D0
asr.l  #7,D0
asr.l  #5,D0
move.l D0,(SP)
_FracCos
move.l (SP)+,FuncResult  ;fn r(Radians) = cos (4 sin 2r)
rts
;------------------ Local Variables -----------------
EventRecord
What:  DC0
Message: DC.L 0
When:  DC.L0
Point: DC.L0
Modify:DC0
WWindow: DC.L 0

windowRectDC0,0,288,308
windowBitMapDC.L 0
DC40
DC0,0,288,308

ItemHit DC0
itemTypeDC0
dispRectDC0,0,0,0
DStorageDCB DWindLen,0
DeskNameDCB 16,0
;-------------- Application Globals ----------------
WindowStorage  DSWindowSize ;storage for draw window
DrawPtr DS.L1    ;pointer to draw window
EquationDS1 ;equation number
Scale   DS1 ;scale
RealScale DS.L 1 ;longint real scale
MultiLayeredDS 1 ;multilayered (0 = false, 1 = true)
ParamDlgPtr DS.L 1 ;pointer to the parameter dialog
itemHandleDS.L 1 ;itemHandle
yDS1    ;y-value
xDS1    ;x-value
drawn   DS1
;--------------------------------------------------------
END
```

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Carbon Copy Cloner backups are better than ordinary backups. Suppose the unthinkable happens while you're under deadline to finish a project: your Mac is unresponsive and all you hear is an ominous,... Read more
OmniGraffle Pro 6.3.1 - Create diagrams,...
OmniGraffle Pro helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use... Read more
Monosnap 3.1.2 - Versatile screenshot ut...
Monosnap lets you capture screenshots, share files, and record video and .gifs! Capture: Capture full screen, just part of the screen, or a selected window Make your crop area pixel perfect with... Read more
Alfred 2.7.2 - Quick launcher for apps a...
Alfred is an award-winning productivity application for OS X. Alfred saves you time when you search for files online or on your Mac. Be more productive with hotkeys, keywords, and file actions at... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.19 - Connec...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more

## Latest Forum Discussions

We're Sorry to Report that Moonrise...
Moonrise is a very promising-looking, Pokemon-esque monster collecting and battling game that we were really looking forward to reviewing, but unfortunately it looks like that's never going to happen. [Read more] | Read more »
The Latest Update for The Sims FreePlay...
Commerce has gotten a little more active with the newest update for The Sims FreePlay, making Sunset Mall more of a hangout than ever before. [Read more] | Read more »
This Week at 148Apps: August 24-28, 2015
The Apps of August With 148Apps How do you know what apps are worth your time and money? Just look to the review team at 148Apps. We sort through the chaos and find the apps you're looking for. The ones we love become Editor’s Choice, standing out... | Read more »
NASCAR in Real Racing 3? Sure, Why Not?
I have to give Firemonkeys credit - it's very cool of them to add NASCAR to Real Racing 3 via an update rather than making a separate game for it. But that's a different discussion for another time; for now let's sit back and enjoy driving in... | Read more »
The nuyu is an Inexpensive Activity Moni...
Today, Health o Meter nuyu has announced a series of health and fitness-related products, including the aforementioned activity monitor along with a wireless scale. All at a decent pricepoint, no less. [Read more] | Read more »
The Makers of Overkill are Trying Someth...
Craneballs, the studio responsible for the Overkill series, is taking a little break from all that violence (a little break) to bring us Cube Worm - a 3D take on one of the most classic PC/calculator games in existence. [Read more] | Read more »
The Sandbox Welcomes Cutethulu in its La...
Another month, another update to Pixowl's The Sandbox. This time players can say hello to "Cutethulu" - an adorable little rendition of perhaps the most well known (and infamous) of the Elder Gods. [Read more] | Read more »
ReBoard: Revolutionary Keyboard (Utilit...
ReBoard: Revolutionary Keyboard 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Utilities Price: \$1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Do everything within the keyboard without switching apps! If you are in WhatsApp, how do you schedule a... | Read more »
Tiny Empire (Games)
Tiny Empire 1.1.3 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: \$2.99, Version: 1.1.3 (iTunes) Description: Launch cannonballs and blow tiny orcs into thousands of pieces in this intuitive fantasy-themed puzzle shooter! Embark on an... | Read more »
Astropad Mini 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Productivity Price: \$4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: *** 50% off introductory price! ​*** Get the high-end experience of a Wacom tablet at a fraction of the price with Astropad... | Read more »

## Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

eFileCabinet Announces SMB Document Managemen...
Electronic document management (EDM) eFileCabinet, Inc., a hosted solutions provider for small to medium businesses, has announced that its SecureDrawer and eFileCabinet Online services will be... Read more
San Francisco’s WaterField Designs today unveiled their all-leather Cozmo 2.0 — an elegant attach laptop bag with carefully-designed features to suit any business environment. The Cozmo 2.0 is... Read more
Apple’s 2015 Back to School promotion: Free B...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad at The Apple Store for Education and take up to \$300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free,... Read more
128GB MacBook Airs on sale for \$100 off MSRP,...
B&H Photo has 11″ & 13″ MacBook Airs with 128GB SSDs on sale for \$100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 11″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air: \$799.99, \$100 off MSRP... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro (refurbished) avai...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pros available for \$829, or \$270 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.... Read more
27-inch 3.2GHz iMac on sale for \$1679, save \$...
B&H Photo has the 27″ 3.2GHz iMac on sale for \$1679.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is \$120 off MSRP. Read more
Apple and Cisco Partner to Deliver Fast-Lane...
Apple and Cisco have announced a partnership to create a “fast lane” for iOS business users by optimizing Cisco networks for iOS devices and apps. The alliance integrates iPhone with Cisco enterprise... Read more
Apple offering refurbished 2015 13-inch Retin...
The Apple Store is offering Apple Certified Refurbished 2015 13″ Retina MacBook Pros for up to \$270 (15%) off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and... Read more
Apple refurbished 2015 MacBook Airs available...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 2015 11″ and 13″ MacBook Airs (the latest models), available for up to \$180 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with... Read more
21-inch iMacs on sale for up to \$120 off MSRP
B&H Photo has 21″ iMacs on sale for up to \$120 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 21″ 1.4GHz iMac: \$999.99 \$100 off - 21″ 2.7GHz iMac: \$1199.99 \$100 off - 21″ 2.9GHz iMac... Read more

## Jobs Board

*Apple* Desktop Analyst - KDS Staffing (Unit...
…field and consistent professional recruiting achievement. Job Description: Title: Apple Desktop AnalystPosition Type: Full-time PermanentLocation: White Plains, NYHot Read more
Simply Mac- *Apple* Specialist- Store Manag...
Simply Mac is the largest premier retailer for Apple products and solutions. We're looking for dedicated individuals with a passion to simplify and enhance the Read more
*Apple* Evangelist - JAMF Software (United S...
The Apple Evangelist is responsible for building and cultivating strategic relationships with Apple 's small and mid-market business development field teams. This Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Desktop Analyst - KDS Staffing (Unit...
…field and consistent professional recruiting achievement. Job Description: Title: Apple Desktop AnalystPosition Type: Full-time PermanentLocation: White Plains, NYHot Read more