TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Tic-Tac-Toe
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:12
Column Tag:Lisp Listener

Windows and Tic-Tac-Toe!

By Andy Cohen, Human Factors Engineer, MacTutor Contributing Editor

This month the Lisp Listener will feature a program written by Dean Ritz of ExperTelligence. The program is a Tic-Tac-Toe game which uses all of the functions described in previous issues. However, before discussing the game I'd like to present a subject long overdue.

Menus In ExperLisp

Creating a menu on the menu bar is actually a pretty straight forward, though nonintuitve, operation. In creating a menu one must use one of the special "hooks" in ExperLisp. There are also hooks for printing. Those will eventually be covered in future installments. The first step in creating a menu must be the identification of what the menu items will do. Menu items can call functions or perform assignment. If the items call defined functions, these functions should already be defined and the function names known. One then defines a function which returns a menu and a menu item on the condition that a certain menu and item position is selected. One easy way to do this uses a conditional which has not yet been discussed.

SELECTQ acts like COND since it has a clause and returns something based on the value of the clause. The first item following the term SELECTQ is the key-form . Each of the test items which follow are evaluated and the one which is the equivalent of the key-form causes the return of it's corresponding value or list. For example;

(defun what (x)
  (selectq x
           (1 'one)
           (2 'two)
           (t 'all)))

(what 1)
one
(what 3)
all

In the above, the selectq evaluates the passed value (x) for equality with the first atoms of each of the three following lists. If the atom is equal to the passed value, the atom following the first is returned. As in COND the "t" forces the return of the atom "all". In assigning menu item positions one may have a SELECTQ within a SELECTQ. The first level SELECTQ finds the menu, the second finds the menu item. For example:

(defun menuselect (themenu theitem)
  (selectq themenu
     (10 (selectq theitem
           (1 (function1B))
           (2 (function2B))
           (3 (function3B))))
     (11 (selectq theitem 
           (1 (function1A))
           (2 (function2A))
           (3 (function3A))))))

The first SELECTQ locates which group of items belong to the menu number assigned to "themenu". The second SELECTQ locates the item belonging to the item number assigned to "theitem". After one generates the above defined function one must assign the values returned by the function to the special menu-hook;

(setq ªmenuhook menusel)

One then assigns a label to the "NEWMENU" function (It is a built in function) and it's elements. This must be done with the ID number that one wants to assign to the menu as well as the menu title. For example:

(setq mymenu (newmenu 10 "menu B"))

Using this label one then assigns the item labels to the menu as follows:

(appendmenu mymenu "function1B")
(appendmenu mymenu "function2B")
(appendmenu mymenu "function3B")

or one may do it all in one list as follows:

(appendmenu mymenu " function1B; function2B;
function3B")

One then inserts the menu with:

(insertmenu mymenu 0)

Then draws it with:

(drawmenubar)

The entire sample with dummy functions follows:

(defun function1A ()
  (print "function 1A"))

(defun function2A ()
  (print "function 2A"))

(defun function3A ()
  (print "function 3A"))

(defun function1B ()
  (print "function 1B"))

(defun function2B ()
  (print "function 2B"))

(defun function3B ()
  (print "function 3B"))




(defun menuselect (themenu theitem)
  (selectq themenu
     (10 (selectq theitem
           (1 (function1B))
           (2 (function2B))
           (3 (function3B))))
     (11 (selectq theitem 
           (1 (function1A))
           (2 (function2A))
           (3 (function3A))))))

(setq ªmenuhook menuselect)

(setq mymenu (newmenu 10 "menu B")
      grmenu (newmenu 11 "menu A"))

(appendmenu grmenu 
«function1A;function2A;function3A»)
(appendmenu mymenu
 "function1B;function2B;function3B")


(insertmenu grmenu 0)       ;0=the beforeID #
(insertmenu mymenu 0)

(drawmenubar)

Note that in the INSERTMENU lists I used "0" as the before ID number. The number zero indicates that I want to place the menu to the right of any already existing menus.

One may call any of the six defined functions by selecting a menu item rather then by typing the function name into the Listener Window. We can see now that an application in ExperLisp can consist of a large number of functions which do not necessarily call each other. A function, when called, can provide some service on data or graphics as a stand alone utility. The operator can then change the data or graphics by calling up another function from the menu.

Another menu example follows:

(Defun number (x)
   (cond ((= 1 x) '(the number is one))
          ((= 2 x) '(the number is two))
          ((= 3 x) '(the number is three))
          ((= 4 x) '(the number is four))
          ((= 5 x) '(the number is five))
          ((= 6 x) '(the number is six))
          ((= 7 x) '(the number is seven))
          ((= 8 x) '(the number is eight))
          ((= 9 x) '(the number is nine))
          ((= 10 x) '(the number is ten))))
          
(defun order (themenu theitem)
  (if (not (eq nil std_graf)) (std_graf 'selectwindow))
  (selectq themenu
     (10 (selectq theitem 
           (1 (number 1))
           (2 (number 2))
           (3 (number 3))
           (4 (number 4))
           (5 (number 5))
           (6 (number 6))
           (7 (number 7))
           (8 (number 8))
           (9 (number 9))
           (10 (number 10))))))
     
(setq ªmenuhook order)

(setq mymenu (newmenu 10 "numbers"))

(appendmenu mymenu «one; two; three; four;
              four; five; six; seven; eight; nine; ten»)

(insertmenu mymenu 0)

(drawmenubar)

Deleting A Menu

Deleting a menu is easily accomplished by using the built in DELETEMENU and DISPOSEMENU functions. DELETEMENU actually deletes the menu from the menu bar. DISPOSEMENU releases the memory used by the just deleted menu. One should then redraw the menu bar with DRAWMENUBAR.

(deletemenu 10)
(disposemenu mymenu)
(drawmenubar)

Tic-Tac-Toe

While the following has very little that has not been discussed in previous Lisp Listener installments, there is a lot which is in different form. For example the use of SETQ for multiple assignment. ExperLisp accepts the spaces between the symbols and the stuff assigned to them as dividers. However, these spaces are ignored by ExperLisp whether they consist of one space, mutiple spaces or one line. Therefore, one may make multiple assignment in a formatted manner for easier reading. See PLACES below.

In the function named "random.choice" MEMQ is used. MEMQ is similar to MEMBER. Where member tests to see if the given atom is a member of a list using EQUAL, MEMQ uses EQ. EQUAL test equality of characters regardless of whether they are upper case or lower case. EQ returns "t" only if the two items are virtually identical. MEMQ returns the same as MEMBER (that is, when the tested atom is contained in the tested list it is returned along with all the atoms which followed it in the list tested for the membership).

PUSH (used in defined function "Player2") is similar to APPEND. It does a CONS of the item following into a list.

Figure 1 is the functional breakdown of the Tic-Tac-Toe game. TOE calls WINNER? and PLAYERS which return values. TOE also calls DRAWBOARD which does what it's title suggests. Both WINNER? and PLAYERS refer to subfunctions which use subsubfunctions. WINNER? calculates whether or not the game was either won or was a draw by looking at the number of moves made. If WINNER? returns nil then there is no winner yet and PLAYERS is called. PLAYERS checks to the current player's turn and calls either PLAYER1 or PLAYER2 based on which turn it is. PLAYER1 is the computer's moves. It uses NEXT.MOVE, WINNIN.MOVE and RANDOM.CHOICE to generate the move. Player2 uses POSITION and PT.IN.RECT to allow the human player to enter a move using the mouse. To start the game enter "(TOE)" into the Listener Window.

;**************************
;Tic-Tac-Toe wrtten by Dean Ritz
;PLACES is a list of pairs.  The first element of each  
;list of pairs represents the position (1-9).  The last 
;second element in each list of pairs is a boundary
;list for the piece which fits into that position.
;TURN remembers whose turn it is (player 1 or 2).
;WINS is a list of the 8 possible winning sets.  The
;program checks possible moves against this list.
;*********************************
(defun toe ()
  (setq 
    p1 nil 
    p2 nil ;Set the chosen positions to empty lists.
    places '((1 (-85 -85 -35 -35)) (2 (-85 -25 -35 25)) 
             (3 (-85 35 -35 85)) (4 (-25 -85 25 -35 )) 
             (5 (-25 -25 25 25)) (6 (-25 35 25 85)) 
             (7 (35 -85 85 -35)) (8 (35 -25 85 25)) 
             (9 (35 35 85 85)))
    wins '((1 2 3) (4 5 6) (7 8 9) (1 4 7) (2 5 8) 
           (3 6 9) (1 5 9) (3 5 7))
    turn 1
    std_graf (newgrafwindow '(45 5 320 500)))
  (send std_graf 'setwtitle "Tic Tac Toe")
  (send std_graf 'showwindow)
  (send std_graf 'selectwindow)
  (textface 0)
  (drawboard)
  (while (not (winner?)) (players))
  (cond ((check wins p2)
         (fillrect '(-110 -201 10 -100) white)
         (moveto -200 0)
         (drawstring "You win!!"))
        ((check wins p1)
         (fillrect '(-110 -201 10 -100) white)
         (moveto -200 0) 
         (drawstring "The Macintosh wins!!"))
        (t
          (fillrect '(-110 -201 10 -100) white)
          (moveto -200 0) 
          (drawstring "Cat's game.")))
  (dotimes (i 1800) (add1 3))
  (std_graf 'closewindow)
  (setq std_graf nil))

;**************************************
(defun drawboard ()
 (pendown)
 (penpat gray)
 (framerect '(-90 -90 90 90))
 (framerect '(-90 -32 90 32))
 (framerect '(-32 -90 32 90))
 (penpat black))

;**************************************
;WINNER? uses brute force to see if their is a
; winner.  If turn is 1, then it checks
; to see if player 2 won the game
; with the last move.



(defun winner? ()
  (cond ((< 8 (+ (length p1) (length p2))) t)
        ((and (= turn 1)
              (check wins p2)) 2)
        (t 
          (and (check wins p1) 1))))

;**************************************
(defun check (for against)
  (cond ((null for) nil)
        ((members (car for) against) t)
        (t (check (cdr for) against))))

;**************************************
;MEMBERS works recursively to see if all of the
;elements of the list :L1
;are members of the list :L2.

(defun members (l1 l2)
  (cond ((null l1) t)
        ((memq (car l1) l2)
         (members (cdr l1) l2))))

;**************************************
;This toggles the variables which determines whose
; turn it is.

(defun players ()
  (cond ((= turn 1)
         (player1) 
         (setq turn 2))
        (t 
          (player2) 
          (setq turn 1))))

;**************************************
;This runs the computer player's move.

(defun player1 (&aux choice)
  (fillrect '(-110 -201 10 -100) white)
  (moveto -200 0) (drawstring "Macintosh")
  (setq choice (next.move)
        p1 (cons choice p1))
  (filloval (car (last (assq choice places))) ltgray))

;**************************************
;this is the psuedo brains of the whole thing.  The
; goal is first to select a move that wins, then
; select a move that blocks,
;otherwise just select any untaken shot.

(defun next.move ()
  (prog (tempo)
        (setq tempo (winning.move 1 p1))
        (if tempo (return tempo))
        (setq tempo (winning.move 1 p2))
        (if tempo (return tempo))
        (random.choice)))

;**************************************
(defun winning.move (count p)
  (prog ()
        begin
        (cond ((or (memq count p1) (memq count p2))
               (setq count (iadd count 1)) 
               (go begin))
              ((> count 9) (return nil))
              ((check wins (cons count p)) (return count))
              (t (winning.move (iadd 1 count) p)))))

;**************************************
;This returns a randomly chosen position that has not
;already been chosen.

(defun random.choice ()
  (prog (temp)
        loop
        (setq temp (iadd 1 (random 9)))
        (if (or (memq temp p1) (memq temp p2))
            (go loop)  ;If that position is chosen, get another.
            temp)))  ;Otherwise output the position.

;**************************************
;This manages the human player's move.

(defun player2 ()
  (prog (choice)
        (fillrect '(-110 -201 10 -100) white)
        (moveto -200 0) 
        (drawstring "You")
        loop
        (setq choice (position))
        (if (or (memq choice p1) (memq choice p2))
            (go loop))
        (push choice p2)
        (filloval (car (last (assq choice places))) gray)))

;**************************************
;This gets a position from the mouse.

(defun position ()
  (prog (pt count)
        begin
        (if (not (button)) (go begin))
        (setq pt (getmouse))
        (if (not (pt.in.rect 
                   (car pt) (car (last pt)) 
                   '(-85 -85 85 85)))
            (go begin))
        
        (setq count 1)  ;incremented for a position number
        pointer
        (if (pt.in.rect (car pt) 
                        (car (last pt))
                        (car (last (nth (isub count 1) places))))
            (return count)
            (progn 
              (setq count (iadd count 1))
              (go pointer)))))

;**************************************
;PT.IN.RECT tests to see whether a
;specific X and Y coordiate lies within 
;a given boundary rectangle :RECT.
;RECT should be a list of [TOP LEFT BOTTOM
; RIGHT] coordinates.

(defun pt.in.rect (x y rect)
  (and (< x (nth 3 rect))
       (  x (nth 1 rect))
       (¾ y (nth 2 rect))
       (  y (nth 0 rect))
       t))  ;returns T if true, NIL otherwise

Next month will include an indepth description of MacScheme, the first installment of an ExperOps5 tutorial and a couple more Lisp functions.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

OmniOutliner Pro 4.6 - Pro version of th...
OmniOutliner Pro is a flexible program for creating, collecting, and organizing information. Give your creativity a kick start by using an application that's actually designed to help you think. It's... Read more
Alfred 3.1 - Quick launcher for apps and...
Alfred is an award-winning productivity application for OS X. Alfred saves you time when you search for files online or on your Mac. Be more productive with hotkeys, keywords, and file actions at... Read more
OmniOutliner 4.6 - Organize your ideas,...
OmniOutliner is a flexible program for creating, collecting, and organizing information. Give your creativity a kick start by using an application that's actually designed to help you think. It's... Read more
Default Folder X 5.0.6 - Enhances Open a...
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click on... Read more
Adobe Creative Cloud 3.8.0.310 - Access...
Adobe Creative Cloud costs $19.99/month for a single app, or $49.99/month for the entire suite. Introducing Adobe Creative Cloud desktop applications, including Adobe Photoshop CC and Illustrator CC... Read more
MYStuff Pro 2.0.25 - Create inventories...
MYStuff Pro is the most flexible way to create detail-rich inventories for your home or small business. Add items to MYStuff by dragging and dropping existing information, uploading new images, or... Read more
Viber 6.2.0 - Send messages and make cal...
Viber lets you send free messages and make free calls to other Viber users, on any device and network, in any country! Viber syncs your contacts, messages and call history with your mobile device, so... Read more
Data Rescue 4.2.3 - Powerful hard drive...
Use Data Rescue to recover: crashed, corrupted or non-mounting hard drive deleted, damaged, or lost files reformatted or erased hard drive One powerful new feature found in Data Rescue 4 is... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.34 - Connec...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.34 - Connec...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more

Find out the story behind League of Ange...
If you’re looking for a new thrilling MMORPG to play with your friends then you’ll be excited to hear that there is a sequel to one of the most well known titles in the genre – namely League of Angels 2. With a brand new 3D engine offering... | Read more »
Naruto Shippuden: Ultimate Ninja Blazing...
I'm not sure if it's possible to say you are an anime fan but also never have seen one episode of Naruto. If it is, then I resemble that remark, and if not, I offer a hearty apology. [Read more] | Read more »
5 mobile games that let you explore spac...
No Man's Sky hasn't exactly turned out to be everything it was promised. Though its core concept of exploring an unimaginably vast universe of different planets is an intriguing one, the execution has left many PS4 and PC gamers feeling like they... | Read more »
Mummy madness in new action game Tomb He...
Hot on the tail of Bump Hero, ZPlay is giving gamers another reason to get screen bashing with a brand new release. Tomb Heroes is a challenging action game in which you battle enemies in various tombs around the world. You can select from nine... | Read more »
Siralim 2 (RPG / Roguelike) (Games)
Siralim 2 (RPG / Roguelike) 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Siralim 2 is an old-school monster catching RPG. Summon and customize hundreds of creatures to fight for you as... | Read more »
Clean Text (Productivity)
Clean Text 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Productivity Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Gemini - A Journey of Two Stars (Games)
Gemini - A Journey of Two Stars 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: *** SPECIAL LAUNCH SALE: $2.99 (25% off) *** "A mesmerizing and unexpectedly emotional journey." -- Los... | Read more »
How to get four NFL superstars for your...
Even though you're probably well on your way to building a top notch squad for the new season in Madden NFL Mobile, let's say you could beef it up by adding Rob Gronkowski, Antonio Brown, Von Miller, and Todd Gurley to your roster. That's... | Read more »
Cartoon Network Superstar Soccer: Goal!!...
Cartoon Network Superstar Soccer: Goal!!! – Multiplayer Sports Game Starring Your Favorite Characters 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Become a soccer superstar with your... | Read more »
NFL Huddle: What's new in Topps NFL...
Can you smell that? It's the scent of pigskin in the air, which either means that cliches be damned, pigs are flying in your neck of the woods, or the new NFL season is right around the corner. [Read more] | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

RESCUECOM 2016 Semi-Annual Computer Reliabili...
The beginning of a new school year is upon us again, in which students and parents have some very important choices to make, often including the purchase of a computer or tablet. Whether you are... Read more
VRS Design Damda Glide Series iPhone 7 and 7...
What makes the Damda Glide Series for the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus special? Case maker VRS Design says its Damda Glide Series is the first mobile case to incorporate a semi-automatic mechanism for... Read more
Apple refurbished iMacs available for up to $...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 21″ & 27″ iMacs available for up to $350 off MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free. The following models are available: - 21″ 3.... Read more
Clearance 2015 13-inch MacBook Airs available...
B&H Photo has clearance 2015 13″ MacBook Airs available for $350 off original MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 1.6GHz/4GB/128GB MacBook Air (MJVE2LL/A): $829... Read more
Check Apple prices on any device with the iTr...
MacPrices is proud to offer readers a free iOS app (iPhones, iPads, & iPod touch) and Android app (Google Play and Amazon App Store) called iTracx, which allows you to glance at today’s lowest... Read more
Save $120 with Apple refurbished Time Capsule...
Apple has certified refurbished Time Capsules available for $120 off MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each Time Capsule, and shipping is free: - 2TB Time Capsule: $179, $120 off (not... Read more
9-inch 32GB iPad Pros on sale for $70 off MSR...
B&H Photo has 9″ 32GB WiFi Apple iPad Pros on sale for $70 off MSRP, each including free shipping. B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 9″ Space Gray 32GB WiFi iPad Pro: $529 $70 off MSRP - 9... Read more
Mac minis on sale for up to $140 off MSRP
Adorama has Mac minis on sale for up to $100 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $449 $50 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac mini: $649 $50 off MSRP Amazon has the... Read more
Back To School with OtterBox Essentials
Back to school means back to an environment that is tough on tech. OtterBox has the back to school essentials you need to keep tech safe from drops, bumps, scratches and hallway havoc. Check out the... Read more
VRS Design Releases New iPhone 7 Plus Case Li...
With a device as large and costly as the iPhone 7 Plus, it is primal instinct to protect it from potential damage. According to a study by SquareTrade in 2012, iPhone damages cost Americans roughly $... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple (United...
# Apple Solutions Consultant Job Number: 51218354 Fredericksburg, Virginia, United States Posted: Aug. 18, 2016 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** As an Apple Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* /Mac Support Engineer - GFI Digital,...
FI Digital, Inc. is currently seeking candidates for a full time Apple Support Engineer to add to our Maryland Heights, Missouri IT team. Candidates must be dynamic Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple (United...
Apple Solutions ConsultantJob Number: 51218534Pleasant Hill, California, United StatesPosted: Aug. 18, 2016Weekly Hours: 40.00Job SummaryAs an Apple Solutions Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple (United...
# Apple Solutions Consultant Job Number: 51443201 Mishawaka, Indiana, United States Posted: Aug. 25, 2016 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** As an Apple Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.