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File Package
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:MacPascal

Standard File Package, unpack & copy the bits

By Alan Wootton

Here is a program to view MacPaint documents from MacPascal (like “showpage”). I use the File Manager, the Standard File Package, the toolbox procedure UnPackBits, and QuickDraw’s CopyBits to display the image loaded in memory.

In MacTutor #5, Gary Palmer asked about loading MacPaint files in MacPascal. Well, I remembered once running across a description of MacPaint docs by Bill Atkinson. After some digging, I found the description in part of a mailing from tech support to developers dated Dec. 1983.

Atkinson explains that the resource fork is not used and that a 512 byte header precedes the packed bitmap data. The header is an array of patterns and some empty space. To simply view the picture we can ignore the header. The MacPaint ‘page’ is 720 lines of 72 bytes each. This is almost 51K and since we wish to load this into memory, a FatMac will probably be required. Atkinson gives a short routine to decode the data into a page. He uses UnpackBits, which is on page 7 of ToolBox Utilities.

Reading the data was a problem. I tried to use the file I/O routines provided with MacPascal. One must either read data byte-at-a-time, which takes forever, or, if you read large blocks, you can never get the last partially filled block. At this point I decided that Real Programmers use the low level File Manager routines. In other words PBOpen, PBRead, and then PBClose.

Another MacPascal shortcoming is the GetOldFile function. Once again, Real Programmers go straight past the limitations of the language and consult the bible (Inside Mac). We shall use the Standard File Package.

The Standard File Package

MacPascal’s function GetOldName will only select files of type TEXT. To select MacPaint docs it will be necessary to call the Standard File Package directly (OldPaintName in following program). On page 30 of Packages in “Inside Macintosh”, the procedure SFGetFile is described. To call it, use trap $A9EA, which is Pack3, and be sure to push a 2, the ‘selector’, on the stack last. You must type in the SFReply record on page 25. [For a complete description of SFReply, see the Assembly Column in this issue.] Since our type list will just be one type (PNTG) it will not be necessary to declare an array. Pass nil for filefilter and dlghook. There is an argument to pass a prompt string that Inside Mac says is historical only. I find that it works fine.

Low Level File Manager

The filecall interface in the following program simulates the PB calls of the File Manager. This is an example of the OS call I presented in MacTutor #6. [Please refer to issue #6 for details on calling OS routines from Pascal.] Before you can use the the PB routines, you must type the lengthy Parameter Block declarations. There are four variant parts to this record. I have only used the ioParam part here because that is all that was needed in this example. You should type the whole thing and save it somewhere for later use. Note that 8 bit types do not come out right, so one must take care that the declaration has the correct length. The routine descriptions (starting on page 31 of the File Manager) give a nice list of those parameters that must be set before calling (assembly programmers note: in some places ioRefNum is listed as 22, but the correct number is 24). You should carefully check that each parameter is set correctly before calling. The exception is ioCompletion, which can be ignored since we will be making synchronous calls. If ioNamePtr is not nil then the File Manager assumes that its value is the address of a string. This could badly mess up memory. In MacPascal, declared variables are cleared to 0’s so you can get away with this, but later, when you compile, nasty bugs pop up (this actually happened to me).


UnPackBits is actually very simple. I have complicated things by not reading all the data into memory at once. The scheme used is to read 1024 bytes into memory (skipping the header) and when the first 512 bytes are used I slide the upper 512 bytes down and add 512 bytes onto the end. The program unpacks 72 bytes at a time for 720 lines. For faster operation you can unpack 4 lines at a time. Change 720 to 180 and 72 to 288.

After the page array is filled, it would be nice to take a look at it. Copybits is used to move the image onto the drawing window. The nice thing about copybits is that it will scale the image to fit. Simply setup a Quickdraw Bitmap record for page, set destrect to the desired size, and call copybits as shown. If you change 144 to 576 and 180 to 720 you can see the painting full size.

To write a MacPaint document (not done in this program) it is necessary to know the format of the header. The header is a 4 byte version number (default = 2) and then 38*8 = 304 bytes of patterns and then 204 unused bytes for a total of 512. However, Atkinson’s example writes 512 zeros for a header so I guess that would work. To pack the data you use the reverse of the unpack procedure. Things can be made simpler though because you can use one destination buffer and then write it out after every PackBits.

It is my contention that everything in Inside Mac can be demonstrated and used from MacPascal (except things like Vertical Retrace routines). If there is anything that you have trouble with and would like to see in MacTutor, write a letter to MacTutor and I will see if there isn’t a way to do it.

program Read_MacPaint_doc;{by Alan Wootton 4/85}
           { This program reads a MacPaint file and shows            
        the picture 1/4 size in Drawing }
  ptr = ^integer;
  OStype = longint;

  SFReply = record { this is used by the standard file               
                           package, see Packages }
    good : integer;
    ftype : OSType;
    vrefNum : integer;
    version : integer;
    fname : string[63];

{ Parameter Block information contained in File Manager 
chapter of Inside Macintosh.  Note that MacPascal won’t do 8 bit fields 
right }

  ParamBlkPtr = ^ParamBlockRec;
  ParamBlockRec = record
{ data structure of File Manager }
    qLink : Ptr;
    qType : integer;
    ioTrap : integer;
    ioCmdAddr : ptr;
    ioCompletion : ptr;
    ioResult : integer;
    ioNamePtr : ^str255;
    ioVrefNum : integer;
{  case ParamBlkType of  ...  ioParam:  }
    ioRefNum : integer;
{       ioVersNum : byte;  }
    ioPermssn : integer;{ byte }
    ioMisc : ptr;
    ioBuffer : ptr;
    ioReqCount : longint;
    ioActCount : longint;
    ioPosMode : integer;
    ioPosOffset : longint;

  diskBlock = packed array[0..511] of char;

  paintPage = array[0..35, 0..719] of integer;
{  576*720 bitmap  = 72 bytes * 720 lines =  51,840           bytes }

  reply : SFReply;{ used by OldPaintName, declared here              
                   to access vRefNum }
  filename : str255;
  fileblock : ParamBlockRec;
  buff : array[0..1] of diskblock;{ 1K }

  Page : paintPage;{ Huge variable, almost 52K  }

  srcPnt : ^diskBlock;
  destPnt : ^paintPage;

  lines, err : integer;

  curport : Grafptr;
  pageBits : bitmap;
  destRect : Rect;

{ common OS trap code, could be done with ‘Generic’ call}
{see MacTutor Vol. 1 No. 6 for assembly source code}
 function filecall (Pb : ParamBlkPtr;
         trap : integer) : integer;
   access : array[0..12] of integer;
   d0, a0 : longint;
  stuffHex(@access, ‘2848548C41FA000C309F245F265F20522013FFFF224826804ED4’);
  a0 := ord(pb);
  inlineP($4E75, @d0, @a0, trap, @access);
  filecall := loword(d0);

{ The following File Manager calls work just like   }
{ those described in Inside Macintosh for the Lisa Pascal Workshop.  
{ Except that the async parameter is a dummy; all calls are sync }

 function PBOpen (Pb : ParamBlkPtr;
         async : boolean) : integer;
  PBOpen := filecall(pb, $A000);

 function PBClose (Pb : ParamBlkPtr;
         async : boolean) : integer;
  PBClose := filecall(pb, $A001);

 function PBRead (Pb : ParamBlkPtr;
         async : boolean) : integer;
  PBRead := filecall(pb, $A002);

{  same as OldFileName, only for MacPaint docs }
 function OldPaintName (prompt : str255) : str255;
   where : point;
   typelist : longint;
  reply.good := 0;
  typelist := $504E5447;{ ‘PNTG’ }
  setPT(where, 100, 100);
  inlineP($A9EA, where, @prompt, nil, 1, @typelist, nil, @reply, 2);
{ $A9EA is pack3 ,  2 is SFGetFile, see Packages  }
  if reply.good <> 0 then
   OldPaintName := reply.Fname
   OldPaintName := ‘’;

{  This procedure moves buff[1] down onto buff[0], adjusts srcPnt to 
point at it’s same data and tacks more data on end in buff[1].     }
 procedure Refill_Buffer;
  blockmove(@buff[1], @buff[0], 512);
  srcPnt := pointer(ord(srcPnt) - 512);
  fileBlock.ioBuffer := @buff[1];
  fileBlock.ioReqCount := 512;
  fileBlock.ioPosMode := 0;
  err := PBRead(@fileBlock, false);{ fill buff[1] }

begin { main }
 fileName := OldPaintName(‘ Select Painting to examine’);
 while filename <> ‘’ do
   fileBlock.ioVrefNum := reply.vrefnum;
   fileBlock.ioNamePtr := @fileName;
   fileBlock.ioPermssn := 1;{ read only, version number              
                                   is in upper byte and is 0 }
   fileBlock.ioMisc := nil;
   if PBOpen(@fileBlock, false) = 0 then
     refill_buffer;{  first block is skipped }
     refill_buffer;{   fill 1 }
     refill_buffer;{ 1 onto 0, refill 1 }

     srcPnt := @buff[0];{ <-- pointer to start of data }
     destPnt := @Page;{ <----  pointer to Page bitmap }

{------> This is the part that actually decodes the packed MacPaint data 
{ $A8D0 is UnPackBits, see page 7 in Toolbox Utilities   }
{ srcPnt and destPnt are updated by UnPackBits so use @}
     for lines := 1 to 720 do{ 720 lines in paint doc }
       inlineP($A8D0, @srcPnt, @destPnt, 72);
                                     { UnPackBits for 72 bytes }
       if ord(srcpnt) >= ord(@buff[1]) then
        Refill_Buffer; { if src no longer in buff[0] }
      end;{ of 720 lines }

     if PBClose(@fileBlock, false) <> 0 then
      writeln(‘close error’);

{  now show drawing  in current port  (drawing window) }

{  set up bitmap record }
    pagebits.baseaddr := pointer(ord(@page));
    pagebits.rowbytes := 72;
    setRect(pagebits.bounds, 0, 0, 576, 720);

     setRect(destRect, 0, 0, 144, 180);
{ 144,180 =1/4 normal, image will be squashed to fit }

     copyBits(pagebits, curport^.portbits, pagebits.bounds,          
           destRect, srcCopy, nil);
     moveto(4, 190);
     drawstring(‘Click to open another MacPainting’);
     until button;

    end;{ if no Open error }
   fileName := OldPaintName(‘ Select another Painting ?’);
  end;{ if name<>’’ loop }

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