TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Template Application
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:2
Column Tag: C Workshop

“Template” Application

By Robert B. Denny

This month’s C Workshop presents a “template” application. Most Macintosh programs share a common overall structure, dictated by the operating system environment. The purpose of the template program is to give you a framework for developing your own applications. It will also be used as the basis for topics discussed in future C Workshops. The functions that do the actual work of the program have been “stubbed”.

Since “a program is worth a thousand words”, most of this month’s column is the program itself, sprinkled liberally with comments. Please take the time to study the program. But first, a few introductory words.

Some C Basics for the Macintosh

Many data structures that you’ll be working with are stored in the “heap”, dynamic memory. Most of these struc- tures are accessed by a “handle” rather than a pointer. A handle is a pointer to a pointer. Why this extra level of indirection?

The heap is used for almost everything. Code goes there. Resources go there (code is really a resource). Data structures allocated at run time go there. Nothing is preallocated. The memory manager is rather dumb about allocating and deallocating blocks of space in the heap.

As a result, the heap can (and does) get chopped up into small pieces. When someone makes a request for a block of space that exceeds the size of the largest free block, the memory manager compacts the heap. It moves blocks of data around in an effort to collect enough contiguous space to satisfy the request. Blocks that are eligible to be moved are called relocatable. Most Mac data structures fall into this class. You can control whether or not your own data structures are relocatable. The tradeoff should be obvious.

Relocatable data structures are accessed via handles so that your references remain valid if the structure is moved. The handle points to a master pointer which in turn points to the relocatable structure. If the structure is moved, the memory manager updates the master pointer and your handle reference remains valid. Obviously, the area containing the master pointers is not relocatable.

Accessing data structures defined by struct statements via handles isn’t too difficult. The example is shown in figure 1 below:

The expression assigns the value contained in the relocatable structure via its handle to “intval”. The only safe way to access relocatable structures is to use the double-indirect access shown above at all times. Do not attempt to cache the pointer (*foo_handle) at any time. To do so is to defeat the purpose of handle access.

Template Application

Now to the template application. It is written for the Consulair Mac C system and Toolkit. Changes to the details of the program will probably be necessary for other languages since there is little consistency in the toolbox interface.

/*
 * *************
 * *  TEMPL.H  *
 * *************
 *
 * Common stuff for template program
 *  (C) 1984, MacTech  by Robert B. Denny
 *
 * NOTE:Dependent on the menu                 
 *   structure defined in the resources.
 */

// Toolbox traps must start with ‘#’ now.
#Options -N

//
// Include Macintosh data structure 
// definitions.  These files are included 
// with the Mac C Toolkit, or from the 
// Stanford University Macintosh C 
//  Programming system (SuMacC).
//

#include  <MacDefs.H>
#include<QuickDraw.H>
#include<Control.H>
#include<Events.H>
#include<Menu.H>
#include<TextEdit.H>

#define MAX_WINDOWS8
#define MAX_MENUS8

#define TRUE1
#define FALSE    0
#define NULL0

/*
*  Each window requires a window                
*  control block to define it’s structure. 
*  Note which things are handles and           
*  which are pointers.
*
* wcb = Window Control Block
 */
struct wcb
 {
 WindowPtrwp;  // Pointer to window rec in heap
 Rect drag_rect; // Dragging limits
 Rect grow_rect; // Window size limits
 TEHandle te_handle; // Handle to textEdit rec in heap
 Point  te_origin; // Text origin
 ControlHandle vs_handle; // Vert scroller’s handle
 ControlHandle hs_handle; // Horiz scroller’s handle
 };

//
// Supress extern declarations in module 
// containing the real declarations.
//
#ifndef GLOB_DATA
extern struct wcb dw[MAX_WINDOWS];
extern struct wcb *dwp;   // --> Current doc-window
extern unsigned n_windows;// No. of open windows
extern EventRecord Event; // Our event record (duh)
extern short EvType; // Event result type
extern WindowPtr EvWindow;// Event window
/*
 * Array of menu handles 
 */
extern MenuHandle menus[];// Our menu contexts
#define APPLE    1
#define FILE2
#define EDIT3
#define OPTIONS  4
#endif

/*
 * Resource ID’s of menus in rsrc file.
 */
#define APPLE_ID 1
#define FILE_ID  256 
#define EDIT_ID  257
#define OPTIONS_ID 258 //Add more menu resource ID’s here

/*
 * File menu item numbers
 */

#define FM_EXIT  // This should reflect file menu rsrc

/*
 * Edit menu item numbers
 *
 * Note that SystemEdit expects the Edit    
 *  menu items as follows:
 *
 * 0: undo (** YES, zero-based **)
 * 1: --------
 * 2: cut 
 * 3:  copy
 * 4: paste
 *
 * The rest of the items may be chosen 
 *    at will by the application.
 */

#define EM_UNDO  1
#define EM_CUT 3
#define EM_COPY  4
#define EM_PASTE 5
#define EM_CLEAR 6

/*
 * Options menu assignments
 */
#define MM_EDIT_WINDOW  1
#define MM_SCRAWL_WINDOW  2
#define MM_MUSIC  4

/*
 *   Other resource ID’s
 */
#define ABOUT_ID 256
#define WINDOW_ID256

/*
 * Macro to hack the Point struct,               
 * composed of 2 short (16-bit) ints
 * into a long, which can be passed by         
 * value to toolbox routines.
 * Takes address of a Point and turns it      
 * into a scalar long.  NOTE
 * this generates NO runtime code.
 */
#define PtLong(ptr) *((long *)ptr)

MAIN PROGRAM

A Template Application in C

Template program for the C Workshop. Has hooks for multiple dynamically allocated windows (to be added in future columns), supports desk accessories, has a menu bar with 4 menus and an “about” dialog in the Apple menu. The program will eventually support multiple dynamically allocated text edit and drawing windows. The text edit windows will have scroll bar controls and resizing (“grow”) capability. Also, an interface to the sound system will be added. The components of this program are:

TMAIN.C This module, the main program & global data.

TMENU.C Menu handling functions, fig. 6.

TEMPL.H Common “include” file of definitions, fig. 4.

TEMPL.R RMAKER source for program resources, fig. 5.

TEMPL.LINK Linker command file, fig. 3.

TEMPL.JOB Exec command procedure to build template, fig. 2.

Additional modules will be added in future C Workshop columns. This program was written for the MAC C system by Consulair Corp. Changes will be needed for other C systems. Also, prerelease versions of MAC C and RMAKER may not work with this program. [Note: one or two obscure Mac C statements may have been changed in the current Mac C so that a change may be needed to fully compile this program using present Mac C systems. This program was written with an early version of Mac C. Any offending lines should be obvious at compile time. -Ed.]

/*
 * TMAIN.C - Template application
 * (c) 1984 MacTech by Robert B. Denny
 */
 *     GLOBALS DEFINITIONS
#define GLOB_DATA
#include <Templ.H>
/*
 Define window control block for window   management. See Templ.H file.
 */
struct wcb dw[MAX_WINDOWS];  // our windows
struct wcb *dwp = NULL; // --> Current window
unsigned n_windows = 0; // Number of open windows
EventRecord Event; // Our event record
short EvType;    // Event result type
WindowPtr EvWindow;// Event window
MenuHandle menus[MAX_MENUS]; // Our menus
 
/*
 *   MAIN PROGRAM  
 *
 * Link with MacCLib, which does 
 * Quickdraw and Window initialization.
 *
 */
main()
 {
 register WindowPtr wp; // Try to save space/time
 int i;
 #InitFonts();   // Not done in MacCLib ...
 #InitDialogs(0);// No restart function
 #OpenResFile(“\011TemplRsrc”);// Open resfile (Pstring)
 setup_menu();   // Set up our menus
 #TEInit(); // Initialize TextEdit
 #FlushEvents(-1,0); // Flush all events
 #InitCursor();  // Make arrow cursor
 for(i=0; i<MAX_WINDOWS; i++) // Mark all WCB’s free
 dw[i].wp = NULL;
 dwp = NULL;// No windows
 n_windows = 0;

 //   -- EVENT LOOP --
 // This is the “outer loop” of a typical    // application.  All event 
types
 // are dequeued, most are processed.  // Those not processed are ignored.
 // 
 while(TRUE)// Loop here forever
 {
 #SystemTask();  // Handle desk accessories
 // dwp always points to the WCB   //for the active (front) window.
 // If dwp = NULL, than it’s not   //”our” window.
 // (Is this possible??)

dwp = (struct wcb *)find_wcb(#FrontWindow());
if(dwp != NULL && dwp->te_handle != 0) // If active wind & text
#TEIdle(dwp->te_handle);  // Flash the insertion mark
if(!#GetNextEvent(-1, &Event)) // Process only our events
continue;
 switch(Event.what)// Dispatch on event type
 {
 case mouseDown: // Mouse click
 do_mouse();// Dispatch on mouse location
 break;
 case keyDown: // Keypress
 case autoKey:  // Repeat-key generator
 do_key();
 break;
 case updateEvt: // window needs refresh
EvWindow = (WindowPtr)Event.message; // Which window?
 upd_wind(EvWindow); // Do the update
 break;
 case activateEvt: // Activate/deactivate
EvWindow = (WindowPtr)Event.message; // Which window?
 if(Event.modifiers & 1) // If Activate
 act_wind(EvWindow); // Activate window
 else // If Deactivate
 deact_wind(EvWindow); // Deactivate window
 
// Additional cases for other event types 
 default: // Do nothing for other events
 }
 }
 //
 // -- END OF EVENT LOOP --
 //
 }

/*
 * *  LOCAL FUNCTIONS  *
 *     Handle mouse-down events
 */
do_mouse()
 {
 short window_part;// FindWindow result code //
 // Following fills in EvWindow with //--> window in which the click
 // occurred (or NULL if none).
 //
 window_part = #FindWindow(PtLong(&Event.where), &EvWindow);
 
 switch(window_part) // Dispatch on where clicked
 {
 case inMenuBar: do_menu(#MenuSelect(PtLong(&Event.where))); 
 break;
 case inSysWindow:
 #SystemClick(&Event, EvWindow);
 break;
 case inContent: // Click in content of a window
 #SelectWindow(EvWindow); // Activate window
 #SetPort(EvWindow); // Hook QuickDraw up
 break;
 case inDrag:
 #SelectWindow(EvWindow); // Activate 
 #SetPort(EvWindow); // Hook QuickDraw up 
 break;
 case inGoAway:  // Go-away handling
 break;
 case inGrow:  // Grow handling
 break;
// Add dispatches for other area types
 default:
 }
 }

/*
 *  - Handle keypress and command keys
 *     Handles edit command keys 
 */
do_key()
 {
 unsigned short ch;
 ch = (unsigned short)Event.message; // Isolate key codes
 if(Event.modifiers & cmdKey) // If command character
 do_menu(#MenuKey(ch)); // Try menu shortcut cmd
 }
// Stub functions
upd_wind(wp)
WindowPtr wp;
 {
 return(0);
 }
act_wind(wp)
WindowPtr wp;
 {
 return(0);
 }
deact_wind(wp)
WindowPtr wp;
 {
 return(0);
 }
find_wcb(wp)// Never one of our windows
WindowPtr wp;
 {
 return(0);
 }

MENU SUB-PROGRAM IN C

/*
 * TMenu.C - Handle menu selections for 
 * template program
 *
 *  (c) 1984, MacTutor  by Bob Denny
 */
#include<Templ.H>
/*
 * SETUP_MENU() - Initialize menu system 
 *
 * Fills in an array of menu handles.  Not     
*  used in this version of the program. 
 */
setup_menu()
 {
 #InitMenus();
 #InsertMenu(menus[APPLE] = (MenuHandle)#GetMenu(APPLE_ID), 0);
 #AddResMenu(menus[APPLE], ‘DRVR’);
 #InsertMenu(menus[FILE] = (MenuHandle)#GetMenu(FILE_ID), 0);
 #InsertMenu(menus[EDIT] = (MenuHandle)#GetMenu(EDIT_ID), 0);
 #InsertMenu(menus[OPTIONS] = (MenuHandle)#GetMenu(OPTIONS_ID), 0);
 #DrawMenuBar();
 }
 
/*
 * DO_MENU() - Handle menu selection
 *
 * Input:
 * Result longword from MenuSelect       
 *        or MenuKey
 */
do_menu(result)
unsigned result;
 {
 unsigned short menu_id; // Resource ID of selected menu
 unsigned short item_no; // Item number selected
 char item_name[64]; // Item name (for desk acc.)
 Ptr dp;// Dialog pointer for “about ...”
 unsigned short item_hit; // Dialog item that was hit 
 if(result == 0) // Just for safety with MenuKey
 return;// Ignore zero results
 menu_id = (short)#HiWord(result); // Use toolbox 
 item_no = (short)#LoWord(result);
 
 switch(menu_id)
 {
 case APPLE_ID: // “Apple” menu
 if(item_no > 1) // If desk accessory
 {
 #GetItem(menus[APPLE], item_no, item_name);
 #OpenDeskAcc(item_name);
 }
 else  // Our About ... dialog
 {
 dp = #GetNewDialog(ABOUT_ID, 0, -1); 
 // Bring in dialog to front
 #SetPort(dp); // Hook QuickDraw up to dialog
 #ModalDialog(0, &item_hit); // dialog item hit
 #DisposeDialog(dp); // Close & free heap 
 }
 break;

 case FILE_ID: // File menu
 if(item_no == FM_EXIT)
 #ExitToShell(); // Ugly exit
 break;
 
 case EDIT_ID:
 //
 // First we must hand off any   // desk-accessory edit commands.
 // Note the comments in Demo.H 
 // regarding implicit assumptions
 // in numbering items in Edit menu.
 //
 if(#SystemEdit(item_no - 1)) // Relies on item no.!!
 break;
 //
 // Do the requested edit function only      // if this is an editing 
window and there // is a window open.  For now, we have  // no windows, 
so we just return.
 //
 break;
 
 case OPTIONS_ID: // Options menu.
 switch(item_no)
 {
 case MM_MUSIC:
 play_tune();
 break;
 case MM_EDIT_WINDOW:
 edit_window();
 break;
 case MM_SCRAWL_WINDOW:
 scrawl_window();
 break;
 
 default:
 }
 break;
 
 default:
 }
 #HiliteMenu(0); // Turn off highlighted title
 }
// Stub functions
play_tune() // Make crude music -- demo driver 
 {
 return(0);
 }
edit_window()  // Create a new editing window
 {
 return(0);
 }
scrawl_window()  // Create a new “scrawling” window
 {
 return(0);
 }

Resource File

This is the RMAKER source for the Mac C template application. The dialog box will not come out right with the version of the RMAKER that I have. The \0D entries in the staticText item are supposed to be “hard” carriage returns in the text. Instead, they come out as “D”. To fix this, use the AlertDialog Editor on the file after building it to put the 2 carriage returns in and remove the “D”s. Perhaps RMAKER (or it’s successor) will work some day ...

The menu items for things that aren’t in the template (yet) have been dimmed. As things are filled in, you’ll have to edit this file to un-dim & thus activate the corresponding menu items. Note that the Edit menu is enabled to support SystemEdit editing in desk accessories.

* Templ.R  --  Resources for the 
*                     template program
*
*  (C) 1984, MacTech by R. B. Denny 

TemplRsrc
RSRCXXXX

TYPE WIND
  ,256
Please Wait ...
50 50 250 250
Visible GoAway
0
0

TYPE MENU
  ,1
\14
About Template ...
(-

  ,256
File
Quit

  ,257
Edit
(Can’t Undo
(-
Cut/X
Copy/C
Paste/V
Clear/D

  ,258
Options
(New Edit Window
(New Scrawl Window
(-
(Play a tune

TYPE DLOG
  ,256

54 145 203 376
Visible NoGoAway
1
0
256


TYPE DITL
  ,256
2

button
116 58 142 174
RESUME DEMO

staticText Disabled
9 9 105 228
This program was written as an example of native Macintosh ++ 
application programming in the C language, using Mac C. 
\0D \0D ++ 
Bob Denny            October, 1984

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Adobe Creative Cloud 2.2.0.129 - Access...
Adobe Creative Cloud costs $49.99/month (or less if you're a previous Creative Suite customer). Creative Suite 6 is still available for purchase (without a monthly plan) if you prefer. Introducing... Read more
Tower 2.2.3 - Version control with Git m...
Tower is a powerful Git client for OS X that makes using Git easy and more efficient. Users benefit from its elegant and comprehensive interface and a feature set that lets them enjoy the full power... Read more
Apple Java 2015-001 - For OS X 10.7, 10....
Apple Java for OS X 2015-001 installs the legacy Java 6 runtime for OS X 10.11 El Capitan, OS X 10.10 Yosemite, OS X 10.9 Mavericks, OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, and OS X 10.7 Lion. This package is... Read more
Adobe Muse CC 2015 2015.0.1 - Design and...
Muse CC 2015 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $14.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Muse customer). Muse CS6 is still available for purchase (without a... Read more
Adobe Illustrator CC 2015 19.1.0 - Profe...
Illustrator CC 2015 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Illustrator customer). Illustrator CS6 is still available for... Read more
Corel Painter 14.1.0.1105 - Digital art...
Corel Painter helps you create astonishing art in a variety of media. Paint with vivid oil paints, fluid water colors, and earthy charcoals. Corel Painter flawlessly recreates the tones and textures... Read more
Pacifist 3.5.4 - Install individual file...
Pacifist opens up .pkg installer packages, .dmg disk images, .zip, .tar. tar.gz, .tar.bz2, .pax, and .xar archives and more, and lets you extract or install individual files out of them. This is... Read more
Merlin Project 3.1.0.40305 - Project man...
Merlin Project is for those of you who are responsible for complex projects. Simple lists of tasks won't suffice. Good planning raises questions about the dependencies of activities on each other,... Read more
DM1 2.0 - Advanced drum machine. (Commer...
DM1 is an advanced Drum Machine. It turns your computer into a fun and creative beat making machine. Easy and fast to use, loaded with 86 superb electronic drum kits and beautiful hyper-realistic... Read more
Posterino 3.2.1 - Create posters, collag...
Posterino offers enhanced customization and flexibility including a variety of new, stylish templates featuring grids of identical or odd-sized image boxes. You can customize the size and shape of... Read more

Mazes of Karradash (Games)
Mazes of Karradash 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The city of Karradash is under attack: the monsters of the Shadow Realms are emerging from the depths.No adventurer is... | Read more »
Battle Golf is the Newest Game from the...
Wrassling was a pretty weird - and equally great - little wressling game. Now the developers, Folmer Kelly and Colin Lane, have turned their attention to a different sport: golfing. This is gonna be weird. [Read more] | Read more »
Qbert Rebooted has the App Store Going...
The weird little orange... whatever... is back, mostly thanks to that movie which shall remain nameless (you know the one). But anyway it's been "rebooted" and now you can play the fancy-looking Qbert Rebooted on iOS devices. [Read more] | Read more »
Giant Monsters Run Amok in The Sandbox...
So The Sandbox has just hit version number 1.99987 (seriously), and it's added a lot more stuff. Just like every other update, really. [Read more] | Read more »
Fish Pond Park (Games)
Fish Pond Park 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Nurture an idyllic slice of tourist's heaven into the top nature spot of the nation, furnishing it with a variety of... | Read more »
Look after Baby Buddy on your Apple Watc...
Parigami Gold is the new premium version of the match three puzzler that includes Apple Watch support and all new content. You won't simply be sliding tiles around on your wrist, the Apple Watch companion app is an all new mini-game in itself. You'... | Read more »
Swallow all of your opponents as the big...
Eat all of the opposition and become the largest ball in Battle of Balls now available in the App Store and Google Play. Battle of Balls pits you against other opponents in real time and challenges you to eat more balls and grow larger than all of... | Read more »
PAC-MAN Championship Edition DX (Games)
PAC-MAN Championship Edition DX 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: It’s Your World. EAT IT! Get ready for more ghost chain gobbling and frantic action in PAC-MAN® CE-DX! The... | Read more »
incurve (Games)
incurve 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Get ready for 2 different gravities Goal is to hit as many white dots on your way up.When you're touching the screen, the dots have a... | Read more »
Crossy Road has its Own Merch Store Now....
Do you like Crossy Road? I mean do you really like Crossy Road? Well then you're in luck! Hipster Whale has opened up a Crossy Road store, so you can show off your fandom via official T-shirts. [Read more] | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple restocks refurbished Mac minis for up t...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 Mac minis, with models available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $899,...
Best Buy has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro available for $899.99 on their online store. Choose free shipping or free instant local store pickup (if available). Their price is $200 off MSRP. Price is... Read more
21-inch 2.9GHz iMac on sale for $1299, save $...
Best Buy has the 21″ 2.9GHz iMac on sale today for $1299.99 on their online store. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest... Read more
Free Image Sizer 1.3 for iOS Offers Photo Edi...
Xi’An, China based G-Power has announced the release of Image Sizer 1.3 for the iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch, an important update to their free photo editing app. Image Sizer’s collection of easy to... Read more
Sale! 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air for $899,...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $899 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Read more
13-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for $100...
Best Buy has 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for $100 off MSRP on their online store. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Prices are for online orders only, in-store... Read more
Will BMW’s i3 Electric Vehicle Be The Automo...
The German-language business journal Manager Magazin’s Michael Freitag reports that Apple and the German performance/luxury automaker Bayerishe Motoren Werke (BMW) are back at far-reaching... Read more
Sale! $250 off 15-inch Retina MacBook Pro, $2...
B&H Photo has lowered their price for the 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro to $1749, or $250 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. They have the 27″ 3.3GHz 5K iMac on... Read more
Global Smartphone Market Posts 11.6% Year-Ove...
According to the latest preliminary data released from the International Data Corporation (IDC) Worldwide Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker, smartphone vendors shipped a total of 337.2 million units... Read more
15-inch and 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sa...
B&H Photo has 15″ & 13″ Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to $180 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1819 save $180 - 15″ 2.... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Customer Experience (ACE) Leader - A...
…management to deliver on business objectives Training partner store staff on Apple products, services, and merchandising guidelines Coaching partner store staff on Read more
Project Manager - *Apple* Pay Security - Ap...
**Job Summary** The Apple Pay Security team is seeking a highly organized, results-driven Project Manager to drive the development of Apple Pay Security. If you are Read more
*Apple* TV Product Design Internship (Spring...
…the mechanical design effort associated with creating world-class products with the Apple TV PD Group. Responsibilities will include working closely with manufacturing, Read more
*Apple* Watch SW Application Project Manager...
**Job Summary** The Apple Watch software team is looking for an Application Engineering Project Manager to work on new projects for Apple . The successful candidate Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.