TweetFollow Us on Twitter

May 92 - Software Review - Userland Frontier

Software Review - Userland Frontier

John W. Baxter

In late January, Dave Winer and the rest of the folks at Userland shipped version 1.0 of Frontier. Frontier is a tool with which you can operate the growing number of modern Macintosh applications which can be controlled by sending them suitable Apple Events. Frontier also provides a clean-looking method by which very easily changed menus can be added to an AppleEvent-savvy application (this feature is called "Menu Sharing"). Here is a brief look at Frontier.

Drive those Applications

Frontier has an easy-to-use scripting language which controls both Frontier and other AppleEvent-aware applications. The language is presented in outline form, and Frontier has a good outline editor. The structure of a script is created by the levels of the outline. For example, here is an if statement:
if people.JWB.age > 50
    msg ("John, you are getting old.")
else
    msg ("Come on, John, tell the truth")

The statements controlled by the true branch of the if statement (here, just a msg verb) are indented one outline level inferior to the if. The next statement at the same level as the if marks the end of the controlled statements. Here, that statement is an else. Again, the else controls those statements inferior to it in the outline. As with outlining programs in general, you can hide the details and see only the if and else lines if you like.

The supplied language verbs include many which are implemented in the Frontier kernel and many others which are simply scripts themselves. A full list is well beyond the scope of this column, but one handy structure for script writing is

   on explore(path)
    fileloop (aFile in path)
        if (file.isFolder(aFile))
            explore(aFile)
        else
            « do something to each aFile
            « the « introduces comments

where path identifies an HFS directory, and aFile takes on the path to each file and directory contained in that directory. You can easily recurse down through the directory levels, as shown. The on construct introduces a script (routine).

The outlining capability is useful in its own right, but is limited to single-line headers. The outline editor is fully scriptable. There is also a simple word processing editor, and word processing documents can be maintained within Frontier. That editor is suitable for writing documentation about your Frontier scripts-it is not suitable for the next great novel. The word processing editor is also fully scriptable.

Things are stored in Frontier in a database, managed as a hierarchy of tables starting at a table called root. One of the items in the root table is a table called people, which has items named with the initials of each user of a given Frontier. The first example above assumes that my table, whose full address is root.people.JWB, contains an entry named age whose value is a number. A table entry consists of a name and a value. The value may be as simple as a number or string or as complex as a word processing document, an outline or script, or any Macintosh structure stored in binary form. The set of table manipulation verbs is fully scriptable.

Whose Menus are They, Anyhow

Using AppleEvents, an application can arrange for Frontier to supply one or more menus (which can include hierarchical submenus). A simple but solid-looking protocol provides for the application to inform Frontier of selections of the items in the menus Frontier has defined. The user provides a Frontier script for each such item. That script will usually send one or more AppleEvents to the application requesting services or directing actions. Provision is made for the user to edit the menus within Frontier and for the menus to be adjusted before the next time they are pulled down by the user if they have been edited. If Frontier shuts down, the application is notified and deletes the shared menus; if Frontier launches while a menu-sharing application is running, the menus get added.

Additionally, most of Frontier's own menus are fully editable by the user. Again, each item has a script associated with it. The outline editor (slightly modified) is used to edit menus and assign the scripts.

Userland supplies source code in C for the routines that need to be added to an application to support menu sharing. I've looked at MacApp 3.0, and at this writing I have a working subclass of TApplication which supports Frontier menu sharing. Unfortunately, that subclass is not yet ready for publication.

Agent 86

One of the tables in Frontier contains "agents". These agents are scripts which receive time periodically from Frontier. Frontier ships with an agent which updates a clock in Frontier's main window. An agent can trigger arbitrarily complex scripts. Frontier is pretty good about giving processing time to agents-for example, the agents are given time while Frontier is in the background awaiting a reply to an AppleEvent it sent out as requested by a script.

Almost Faceless Mini-Applications ("Appletts")

Frontier makes sense as a controller for small, nearly faceless applications which provide simple services. This is one of the directions software is moving at the moment, the do-one-thing-and-do-it-well idea. Userland practices what they preach in this area: Frontier's on-line documentation is provided by a separate DocServer application. A control-double-click on any Frontier verb ensures that DocServer is running, sends it AppleEvents directing that the appropriate documentation be displayed, and brings DocServer to the front. There is no technical reason why DocServer wouldn't be available to your application, too. I don't know the legal details at this time.

Paper Documentation

Yes, there is some. A user manual and a scripting language ("UserTalk") reference guide were written by Dan Shafer. They explain Frontier pretty clearly, though some of the more obscure verbs are only referenced, with the DocServer material (also prepared by Dan) being the only documentation.

Apple Object Model

Frontier scripts have the power to create and send AppleEvents which make use of the Object Model. This capability should be highly useful in testing MacApp-based applications which support the Object Model and the Object Support Library. A developer may also wish to supply a suitable "suite" of Frontier scripts to the users of an application.

What's In It for Me?

If you are writing an AppleEvent-driven application, Frontier represents a potentially valuable testing and debugging tool. If your application might benefit from the shared menu idea, that is easy to add. With or without Frontier, you were going to support AppleEvents for commanding your application, weren't you? There is no extra work there (and Userland will help you prepare the file which sets up the necessary verbs in Frontier to drive your application the way you want it driven).

Besides all that, Frontier is an amusing "toy", too. I have a script which runs my FarSide calendar the first time each day that Frontier starts up (I have Frontier starting from my Startup Items folder).

Availability

Frontier is available direct from Userland. Recently, Frontier has also found its way into the mail order and retail distribution system. Userland can be found in the Third Party area on AppleLink and in their own forum on CompuServe. Their address is UserLand Software, Inc., 490 California Ave, Palo Alto, CA 94306. Telephone (415) 325-5700; fax (415) 325-9829.
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

EtreCheck 3.1.5 - For troubleshooting yo...
EtreCheck is an app that displays the important details of your system configuration and allow you to copy that information to the Clipboard. It is meant to be used with Apple Support Communities to... Read more
WALTR 2 2.0.8 - $39.95
WALTR 2 helps you wirelessly drag-and-drop any music, ringtones, videos, PDF, and ePub files onto your iPhone, iPad, or iPod without iTunes. It is the second major version of Softorino's critically-... Read more
Carbon Copy Cloner 4.1.12 - Easy-to-use...
Carbon Copy Cloner backups are better than ordinary backups. Suppose the unthinkable happens while you're under deadline to finish a project: your Mac is unresponsive and all you hear is an ominous,... Read more
Dropbox 16.3.27 - Cloud backup and synch...
Dropbox is an application that creates a special Finder folder that automatically syncs online and between your computers. It allows you to both backup files and keep them up-to-date between systems... Read more
Microsoft OneNote 15.29 - Free digital n...
OneNote is your very own digital notebook. With OneNote, you can capture that flash of genius, that moment of inspiration, or that list of errands that's too important to forget. Whether you're at... Read more
Spotify 1.0.44.100. - Stream music, crea...
Spotify is a streaming music service that gives you on-demand access to millions of songs. Whether you like driving rock, silky R&B, or grandiose classical music, Spotify's massive catalogue puts... Read more
SpamSieve 2.9.27 - Robust spam filter fo...
SpamSieve is a robust spam filter for major email clients that uses powerful Bayesian spam filtering. SpamSieve understands what your spam looks like in order to block it all, but also learns what... Read more
VueScan 9.5.62 - Scanner software with a...
VueScan is a scanning program that works with most high-quality flatbed and film scanners to produce scans that have excellent color fidelity and color balance. VueScan is easy to use, and has... Read more
Fantastical 2.3.2 - Create calendar even...
Fantastical 2 is the Mac calendar you'll actually enjoy using. Creating an event with Fantastical is quick, easy, and fun: Open Fantastical with a single click or keystroke Type in your event... Read more
PCalc 4.4.4 - Full-featured scientific c...
PCalc is a full-featured, scriptable scientific calculator with support for hexadecimal, octal, and binary calculations, as well as an RPN mode, programmable functions, and an extensive set of unit... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Track Santa with these three festive app...
Christmas is fast approaching and that means it's time to prepare for Santa's yearly pilgrimage around the globe. Christmas Eve is an exciting time as parents help their kids get ready to welcome Santa. You've got the cookies and milk all planned... | Read more »
Galaxy on Fire 3 and four other fantasti...
Galaxy on Fire 3 - Manticore brings the series back for another round of daring space battles. It's familiar territory for folks who are familiar with the franchise. If you've beaten the game and are looking to broaden your horizons, might we... | Read more »
The best apps for your holiday gift exch...
What's that, you say? You still haven't started your holiday shopping? Don't beat yourself up over it -- a lot of people have been putting it off, too. It's become easier and easier to procrastinate gift shopping thanks to a number of apps that... | Read more »
Toca Hair Salon 3 (Education)
Toca Hair Salon 3 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Education Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Winter comes to Darkwood as Seekers Note...
MyTona, based in the chilly Siberian city of Yakutsk, has brought a little festive fun to its hidden object game Seekers Notes: Hidden Mystery. The Christmas update introduces some new inhabitants to players, and with them a chance to win plenty of... | Read more »
Bully: Anniversary Edition (Games)
Bully: Anniversary Edition 1.03.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $6.99, Version: 1.03.1 (iTunes) Description: *** PLEASE NOTE: This game is officially supported on the following devices: iPhone 5 and newer, iPod Touch... | Read more »
PINE GROVE (Games)
PINE GROVE 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: A pine grove where there are no footsteps of people due to continuous missing cases. The case is still unsolved and nothing has... | Read more »
Niantic teases new Pokémon announcement...
After rumors started swirling yesterday, it turns out there is an official Pokémon GO update on its way. We’ll find out what’s in store for us and our growing Pokémon collections tomorrow during the Starbucks event, but Niantic will be revealing... | Read more »
3 reasons why Nicki Minaj: The Empire is...
Nicki Minaj is as business-savvy as she is musically talented and she’s proved that by launching her own game. Designed by Glu, purveyors of other fine celebrity games like cult favorite Kim Kardashian: Hollywood, Nicki Minaj: The Empire launched... | Read more »
Clash of Clans is getting its own animat...
Riding on its unending wave of fame and success, Clash of Clans is getting an animated web series based on its Clash-A-Rama animated shorts.As opposed to the current shorts' 60 second run time, the new and improved Clash-A-Rama will be comprised of... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Never Settle for Low Performing Wifi With iOS...
AppYogi Software has announced the release of WiFi Signal Strength Status App 1.0, the company’s new utility developed exclusively for macOS. WiFi Signal Strength Status App features a unique, single... Read more
New 2016 13-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros in st...
B&H Photo has stock of new 2016 Apple 13″ Touch Bar MacBook Pro models, each including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.9GHz/512GB Touch Bar MacBook Pro Space Gray: $1999 - 13″ 2.... Read more
New 2016 15″ Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock...
B&H Photo has new 2016 Apple 15″ Touch Bar MacBook Pro models in stock today including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.7GHz Touch Bar MacBook Pro Space Gray: $2799 - 15″ 2.7GHz... Read more
DietSensor App Targeting Diabetes and Obesity...
DietSensor, Inc., a developer of smart food and nutrition applications designed to fight diabetes and obesity and help improve overall fitness, has announced the launch of its DietSensor app for... Read more
Holiday 2016 13-inch 2.0GHz MacBook Pro sales...
B&H has the non-Touch Bar 13″ MacBook Pros in stock today for $50-$100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray (MLL42LL/A): $1449 $... Read more
Holiday sale: Apple TVs for $51-$40 off MSRP,...
Best Buy has dropped their price on the 64GB Apple TV to $159.99 including free shipping. That’s $40 off MSRP. 32GB Apple TVs are on sale right now for $98 on Sams Club’s online store. That’s $51 off... Read more
12-inch Retina MacBooks, Apple refurbished, n...
Apple has restocked a full line of Certified Refurbished 2016 12″ Retina MacBooks, now available for $200-$260 off MSRP. Refurbished 2015 models are available starting at $929. Apple will include a... Read more
Holiday sale: 12-inch Retina MacBook for $100...
B&H has 12″ Retina MacBooks on sale for $100 off MSRP as part of their Holiday sale. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 12″ 1.1GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook: $1199 $100... Read more
Apple refurbished 13-inch MacBook Airs availa...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 13″ MacBook Airs available starting at $849. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free: - 13″ 1.6GHz/8GB/128GB MacBook Air: $849 $... Read more
Apple refurbished iMacs available for up to $...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 21″ & 27″ iMacs available for up to $350 off MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free. The following models are available: - 21″ 3.... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
US- *Apple* Store Leader Program - Apple (Un...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on Read more
Automotive Detailer - *Apple* Used Autos -...
We are currently conductinginterviews and will be accepting applications for a part-time detailer. Apple Used Autos is a great place to work andstart a career. We Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Trumbul...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.