TweetFollow Us on Twitter

How To Create A Mixed-Partition CD-ROM

How To Create A Mixed-Partition CD-ROM

LLEW ROBERTS

Since the original Phil & Dave's Excellent CD was released, containing both Macintosh HFS and Apple II ProDOS volumes, DTS has gotten many questions about how it was done. Some ask just out of curiosity, while others want to create their own mixed-partition CD-ROMs. This article gives a detailed account of how any developer can prepare a mixed-partition hard disk whose image can be pressed onto CD-ROM.

The process of producing a CD-ROM disc containing both HFS and ProDOS volumes is relatively simple and straightforward. It's facilitated by the fact that Apple's operating systems recognize the data track of a CD-ROM as if it were a SCSI hard disk. You prepare a hard disk exactly as you wish it to appear on CD-ROM, ship it off to a CD production company, and they send you back a CD.

Mixing partitions is easiest if you have a 600+ MB hard disk, but you can also mix partitions if you have two or more smaller hard disks. We'll get down to the brass tacks of this procedure after a preliminary discussion of why you might want to mix HFS and ProDOS partitions, and some background information about partitions that you need to know if you're to fully understand the procedure.

WHY MIX HFS AND PRODOS PARTITIONS?

Why would a developer want to create a CD-ROM that mixes HFS and ProDOS volumes? For one thing, combining HFS and ProDOS volumes on one CD is a way for developers of Apple II applications to make their applications and files available both locally and through AppleShare ® fileservers (which only read CD-ROMs in HFS format) with minimal additional effort. For another, mixing partitions is a way to distribute applications and files so they can be read by both the Macintosh and the Apple II.

Perhaps a more obvious solution to the problem of creating a CD-ROM readable by both the Macintosh and the Apple II would be to convert all volumes to the ISO 9660 format, described in Brian Bechtel's article in this issue. A CD-ROM in ISO 9660 format is readable not only by both the Macintosh and the Apple IIGS but by other operating systems as well.

For developers who rely on CD-ROM to store large amounts of information accessible by only one application, this is adequate and in some cases preferred. On the other hand, for developers who wish to use CD-ROM to distribute multiple applications, graphics and sound files, or other files that the user can browse through and launch using the Finder (such as Apple's Developer CD Series and the public domain CDs being released by user groups), using the ISO 9660 format presents certain problems. Storing files in ISO 9660 format strips the Finder of its ability to read desktop information about those files. On the Macintosh desktop, applications on ISO-format CD-ROMs are shown as generic application icons, documents as generic document icons, and folder and file placement information is lost. In addition, although there are supported extensions to ISO to handle Apple II GS filetype and auxtype information, software is not available at this time to apply these extensions before pressing.

Another reason for choosing to use native file formats rather than ISO 9660 is that conversion into the latter format involves an additional step in the process of pressing a CD-ROM: a premastering system must be used to create a tape that a production company then uses to create a CD-ROM. If your CD-ROM will be used only on an Apple computer, there's really no need for you to go through this additional step.

ABOUT PARTITIONS

Partitions are logical volumes on a hard disk.

ProDOS is limited to 32 MB volumes, so under the ProDOS file system, a 20 MB hard disk would usually have only one ProDOS volume on it, while a 650 MB hard disk would probably be partitioned into several ProDOS volumes. HFS can handle very large volumes, so there is rarely a need for more than one HFS volume on one disk. (Note that the Macintosh driver currently supplied with Apple HD SC and CD SC drives will support only one HFS partition. Most large third-party drives will support multiple HFS partitions. Apple does not recommend shipping CD- ROM with multiple HFS partitions.)

A disk is partitioned and the partitions are initialized with software that is included on the system disks or with the hard disk drive. Advanced Disk Utility (ADU) for the Apple II GS, included with System Disk 5.0 or later, will satisfy most Apple II partitioning needs. It supports all drives that follow the Apple extensions to the ANSI SCSI standard, and most that follow the ANSI SCSI standard faithfully, even without the Apple extensions. For the Macintosh, partitioning software is usually included with a hard disk drive.

SCSI hard disks store block allocation information (that is, number and size of the partitions and drivers on the disk) in the first few physical blocks of the disk. The hard disk driver creates logical volumes from this information at boot time and mounts these partitions as volumes on the desktop. Figure 1 illustrates the layout of a typical hard disk with mixed partitions.

[IMAGE Mixed-Partition1.GIF]

Figure 1 The Layout of a Typical Hard Disk With Mixed Partitions

Physical block 0 of the disk contains the driver descriptor map (DDM), which describes the drivers on the disk. When the disk is mounted, this information is used to load the necessary drivers, as detailed in Inside Macintosh , volume V, page 576. The Macintosh requires that a driver be resident on the disk; the Apple II supports drivers if they are resident on the disk, while not requiring them to be.

Starting at physical block 1 of the disk is the partition map. Each partition on the disk is described in its own partition map entry (PME) in this partition map. A PME, which occupies one block and is built when the partition is initialized, consists of a series of data fields describing the size and state of a specific partition. With the exception of physical block 0, every block on the disk must be accounted for in a PME, as belonging to a partition. The partition map is itself a partition and contains a PME describing itself. The PME format is shown in Figure 2.

[IMAGE Mixed-Partition2.GIF]

Figure 2 The Format of a Partition Map Entry

In condensed form, the partition map for a hard disk with both HFS and ProDOS partitions looks like this:

BlockpmMapBlkCntpmPyPartStart pmPartBlkCntpmPartNamepmPartType
1613FAppleAPPLE_PARTITION_MAP
264020MacintoshAPPLE_DRIVER
366010000/PRODOS.1APPLE_PRODOS
461006010000/PRODOS.2APPLE_PRODOS
562006028000MacOSAPPLE_HFS
6648060D6800ExtraAPPLE_FREE

pmMapBlkCnt is a count of valid PMEs on the hard disk. This longword is contained in each valid PME. If it is modified in one, it must be modified in all PMEs. If a partition has been added manually (that is, with a SCSI block editor) and is not recognized by the operating system, the cause is usually an incorrect value in pmMapBlkCnt.

pmPyPartStart is the address of the first physical block of the partition. If the first physical block of a partition (logical block 0) is at physical block $200 of the hard disk, then reading block $20 of the partition actually reads physical block $220 of the disk. pmPartBlkCnt is the size, in blocks, of the partition. The size of the last partition on the disk is arrived at by subtracting the address in pmPyPartStart for this partition from the total number of blocks on the disk.

pmPartName is the name of the partition. It serves to identify the partition and should not be confused with the volume name.

pmPartType is the partition type and can contain (but is not limited to) the following:

APPLE_DRIVERPartition contains a device driver
APPLE_PARTITION_MAPPartition contains a partition map
APPLE_SCRATCHPartition is unused and free for use
APPLE_HFSPartition contains Macintosh HFS volume
APPLE_PRODOSPartition contains Apple II ProDOS volume
APPLE_FREEPartition is unused and unusable

APPLE_SCRATCH partitions are areas of the disk that are currently unused, but that can be recognized and initialized by the operating system. In the process of creating a mixed-partition disk, this is the type to assign to partitions that will later be initialized in ProDOS format (assuming that HFS partitions are formatted first). APPLE_FREE is the type to assign to partitions consisting of blocks that will not be used but must be accounted for in order to fulfill the requirement that all blocks on the disk belong to a partition.

When you go about mixing partitions, as described in the following section, you may need to change some of the fields in a PME, and to copy blocks from one disk to another. PMEs can be browsed and edited with SEDIT, a utility written at Apple by David Shayer. Figure 3 shows a PME viewed in SEDIT. This utility also makes it easy to perform block editing at a device level on SCSI hard disks. SEDIT can copy blocks on the same or between separate devices, and provides nifty templates for editing blocks of data. You'll find SEDIT included, along with documentation, on theDeveloper Essentials disc. (A word to the wise: SEDIT also has the wonderful ability to scramble any SCSI device that is connected, so be sure to look at the warning message under the File menu and to read the documentation before trying anything you're not sure of.)

[IMAGE Mixed-Partition3.GIF]

Figure 3 SEDIT View of the PME for the HFS Partition of A Disc Called Wanda

THE PROCEDURE FOR MIXING PARTITIONS

Now that you understand the layout of the disk and the importance of the partition map, you're ready to mix your own partitions. You can choose to either include the same information on both partitions (for example, large databases) or arrange the files so that Apple II-specific information is on a ProDOS volume and Macintosh-specific information is on an HFS volume. And you have a choice of whether to start out with one large hard disk, or two or more smaller hard disks. The first way is easiest.

[IMAGE Mixed-Partition4.GIF]

Figure 4 Two Ways to Create a CD-ROM

In the processes described here, every attempt has been made to let the existing system software and utilities do the work, with a minimum of "twiddling" necessary by the developer. This ensures that the CD-ROM will work properly and will be compatible with future system software.

MIXING PARTITIONS ON A LARGE HARD DISK

The simplest method to prepare a mixed-partition disk from which to press a CD is as follows:
  1. Beg, borrow, steal, or even (gasp!) buy a 600+ MB hard disk drive that will work with both the Apple II GS and the Macintosh. Software to partition the hard disk for the Macintosh is usually included with the drive.
  2. Use the Macintosh partitioning software on the hard disk. This will create the DDM in block 0. Create an APPLE_SCRATCHpartition for each ProDOS volume you wish to include on the disk. Remember that ProDOS volumes are limited to 32 MB and that only the first two volumes will be accessible under ProDOS 8 (but all will be accessible under GS/OS). Make the HFS partition the last one on the disk, to allow for changing the size of this partition without disturbing the ProDOS partitions.

    If you create two APPLE_SCRATCH partitions, the partition map will look something like this:

    BlockpmMapBlkCntpmPyPartStart pmPartBlkCntpmPartNamepmPartType
    1613FAppleAPPLE_PARTITION_MAP
    264020MacintoshAPPLE_DRIVER
    366010000ScratchAPPLE_SCRATCH
    461006010000ScratchAPPLE_SCRATCH
    562006028000MacOSAPPLE_HFS
    6648060D6800ExtraAPPLE_FREE
  3. Disconnect the drive from the Macintosh (with the power off, of course), and connect it to the Apple II GS. Boot the system with System Disk 5.0.2 or later (to take advantage of the new SCSI Manager and drivers). When the Finder's desktop appears, a dialog will be presented declaring that the disk is unreadable. Click Initialize for each of the APPLE_SCRATCH partitions (that's twice for the above example).

    Warning: Do not initialize the HFS partition! The Finder will also want to initalize the HFS partition, since it doesn't recognize it, and you may politely decline by clicking Eject in the dialog box.

    [IMAGE Mixed-Partition5.GIF]

    Figure 5 The Dialog Box to Initialize Partitions

    Every time the GS Finder is launched (booting, quitting from an application, and so forth) it will ask if you wish to initialize the HFS partition. This annoying behavior will disappear when the CD- ROM with the image of the hard disk is mounted, since it is write-protected.

    The hard disk is now fully prepared. In our example, it contains two ProDOS volumes and one HFS volume, which are fully initialized and ready for files to be copied onto them.

  4. Copy the desired files to their respective volumes. Transfer the hard disk drive between the Apple IIGS and the Macintosh as needed, until the files and folders for all volumes are arranged as you wish them to appear on the CD.
  5. Mail your hard disk drive to the CD production company of your choice, asking them to place an image of the hard disk on the data track of the CD.

MIXING PARTITIONS FROM SMALLER HARD DISKS
In cases where you wish to combine partitions from separate hard disks on one large hard disk, more work is required, but it is certainly not impossible.

The same process I'm about to describe can also be done using a CD-ROM premastering system that allows block manipulation by a Macintosh, but you will definitely need technical assistance from the premastering system's engineer. With such a system, it is possible to manually create partition maps and block copy the desired volumes over. The end result is an image of a large hard disk identical to the image achieved by the process described in the preceding section and below. As an example to illustrate the process of combining smaller hard disks on a larger one, let's say we're starting with two hard disks--one 80 MB hard disk formatted as a large HFS volume and one 80 MB hard disk with two 32 MB ProDOS partitions. The partitioning utilities and system software have already done most of the work for us: the partitions are initialized and the partition maps built.

The partition map for our first hard disk, SCSI ID 1, looks like this:

BlockpmMapBlkCntpmPyPartStart pmPartBlkCntpmPartNamepmPartType
1413FAppleAPPLE_PARTITION_MAP
244020MacintoshAPPLE_DRIVER
34602626EMacOSAPPLE_SCRATCH
442626E4ExtraAPPLE_FREE

Note that because not all hard disks, even of the same capacity, have the same block count, the value in PmPartBlkCnt for the last partition could differ if a different hard disk were being used.

The partition map for our second hard disk, SCSI ID 2, looks like this:

BlockpmMapBlkCntpmPyPartStart pmPartBlkCntpmPartNamepmPartType
1413FAppleAPPLE_PARTITION_MAP
244010000/PRODOS.1APPLE_PRODOS
341004010000PRODOS.2APPLE_PRODOS
44200406292ExtraAPPLE_FREE

Manually combining the partition maps on paper, we come up with the desired partition map for the large hard disk, SCSI ID 3:

BlockpmMapBlkCntpmPyPartStart pmPartBlkCntpmPartNamepmPartType
1413FAppleAPPLE_PARTITION_MAP
244010000/PRODOS.1APPLE_PRODOS
341004010000PRODOS.2APPLE_PRODOS
44200406292ExtraAPPLE_FREE
BlockpmMapBlkCntpmPyPartStart pmPartBlkCntpmPartNamepmPartType
1613FAppleAPPLE_PARTITION_MAP
264020MacintoshAPPLE_DRIVER
366010000/PRODOS.1APPLE_PRODOS
461006010000/PRODOS.2APPLE_PRODOS
56200602626EMacOSAPPLE_HFS
66462CED8592ExtraAPPLE_FREE

What remains is to combine all of the partitions on the third hard disk. To do so, we first copy block 0 (the DDM) from hard disk 1 to hard disk 3. Then we copy the partition map from hard disk 1 to hard disk 3. We copy physical blocks 3 and 4 from hard disk 1 to physical blocks 5 and 6 on hard disk 3.

From hard disk 2, we copy physical blocks 2 and 3 to blocks 3 and 4 on hard disk 3. The final partition map is now in place, although the values in some of the fields are incorrect. We use SEDIT to update the fields according to the manually created table, remembering to update pmPyPartStart in each entry and PmPartBlkCnt for the last partition on the disk (to adjust for the changed number of unused blocks in the APPLE_FREE partition). Now hard disk 3 is ready to have the volumes copied to it.

Using the SEDIT Copy Blocks command, we copy the volumes from the smaller hard disks to the proper locations on the large hard disk:


   From SCSI ID  To SCSI ID  From Block  To Block  # of Blocks
1. 1             3           0            0        1   DDM
2. 1             3           40           40       20  Mac Driver
3. 1             3           60           20060    2626E   HFS Partition
4. 2             3           40           60       10000   ProDOS partition
5. 2             3           10040        10060    10000   ProDOS partition

After we copy the DDM from hard disk 1 to hard disk 3 it is no longer valid, so we zero out the DDM's first 24 bytes. (If we planned to use hard disk 3 from the Macintosh and not as a master for a CD-ROM, we would update these bytes to make the DDM valid for hard disk 3.) We also zero out the first 8 bytes (the boot block) of the HFS partition to ensure that the CD doesn't attempt to boot.

The large hard disk is now fully prepared and ready for shipment to the CD production company.

ODDS AND ENDS

If after reading this article you're eager to try creating your own mixed-partition CD-ROM, you'll want to refer to the sidebar on CD-ROM production companies in Brian Bechtel's article in this issue. There you'll find names and addresses of places to send your hard disk. Brian's paper CD-ROM and the Macintosh Computer , found on the accompanying Developer Essentials disc, covers basic details of cost and time required to get a CD-ROM pressed.

And here's a final note to round out your understanding of mixed- partition CD-ROMs. When the CD-ROM resulting from the process described in this article is mounted, the partitioned volumes on its data track are recognized and mounted on the desktop. The Macintosh will currently mount only the first HFS partitioned volume that it finds. The Apple II will try to mount the HFS volume but will not find a file system translator to read it with, and so will effectively ignore it.

LLEW ROBERTS became an Apple person by accident, although we're not sure exactly which accident that was. (Lately there have been several.) He says he works on just too many different things to actually specify what he does for a living. We think he may be a DTS engineer, because he was recently overheard answering questions regarding mixing HFS and ProDOS partitions on a single drive. His only REAL hobby is collecting originals and English translations of Japanese manga and anime (comic books and animated video). His favorite is AppleSeed. Llew also dabbles in subliminal suggestion. Can you find the hidden message in his article? You'll know for sure when you awaken in the middle of the night craving some manga or a CD-ROM drive. *

Thanks to Our Technical Reviewers: Bryan Atsatt, Matt Gulick, Jim Luther, Dave Lyons, Jim Reekes, Dave Shayer

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

FileZilla 3.24.0 - Fast and reliable FTP...
FileZilla (ported from Windows) is a fast and reliable FTP client and server with lots of useful features and an intuitive interface. Version 3.24.0: New The context menu for remote file search... Read more
Bookends 12.7.8 - Reference management a...
Bookends is a full-featured bibliography/reference and information-management system for students and professionals. Bookends uses the cloud to sync reference libraries on all the Macs you use.... Read more
Duplicate Annihilator 5.8.3 - Find and d...
Duplicate Annihilator takes on the time-consuming task of comparing the images in your iPhoto library using effective algorithms to make sure that no duplicate escapes. Duplicate Annihilator detects... Read more
BusyContacts 1.1.6 - Fast, efficient con...
BusyContacts is a contact manager for OS X that makes creating, finding, and managing contacts faster and more efficient. It brings to contact management the same power, flexibility, and sharing... Read more
MarsEdit 3.7.10 - Quick and convenient b...
MarsEdit is a blog editor for OS X that makes editing your blog like writing email, with spell-checking, drafts, multiple windows, and even AppleScript support. It works with with most blog services... Read more
BusyCal 3.1.4 - Powerful calendar app wi...
BusyCal is an award-winning desktop calendar that combines personal productivity features for individuals with powerful calendar sharing capabilities for families and workgroups. Its unique features... Read more
VirtualBox 5.1.14 - x86 virtualization s...
VirtualBox is a family of powerful x86 virtualization products for enterprise as well as home use. Not only is VirtualBox an extremely feature rich, high performance product for enterprise customers... Read more
Bookends 12.7.8 - Reference management a...
Bookends is a full-featured bibliography/reference and information-management system for students and professionals. Bookends uses the cloud to sync reference libraries on all the Macs you use.... Read more
VirtualBox 5.1.14 - x86 virtualization s...
VirtualBox is a family of powerful x86 virtualization products for enterprise as well as home use. Not only is VirtualBox an extremely feature rich, high performance product for enterprise customers... Read more
FileZilla 3.24.0 - Fast and reliable FTP...
FileZilla (ported from Windows) is a fast and reliable FTP client and server with lots of useful features and an intuitive interface. Version 3.24.0: New The context menu for remote file search... Read more

Super Mario Run dashes onto Android in M...
Super Mario Run was one of the biggest mobile launches in 2016 before it was met with a lukewarm response by many. While the game itself plays a treat, it's pretty hard to swallow the steep price for the full game. With that said, Android users... | Read more »
WarFriends Beginner's Guide: How to...
Chillingo's new game, WarFriends, is finally available world wide, and so far it's a refreshing change from common mobile game trends. The game's a mix of tower defense, third person shooter, and collectible card game. There's a lot to unpack here... | Read more »
Super Gridland (Entertainment)
Super Gridland 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Entertainment Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Match. Build. Survive. "exquisitely tuned" - Rock Paper Shotgun No in-app purches, and no ads! | Read more »
Red's Kingdom (Games)
Red's Kingdom 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Mad King Mac has kidnapped your father and stolen your golden nut! Solve puzzles and battle goons as you explore and battle your... | Read more »
Turbo League Guide: How to tame the cont...
| Read more »
Fire Emblem: Heroes coming to Google Pla...
Nintendo gave us our first look at Fire Emblem: Heroes, the upcoming mobile Fire Emblem game the company hinted at last year. Revealed at the Fire Emblem Direct event held today, the game will condense the series' tactical RPG combat into bite-... | Read more »
ReSlice (Music)
ReSlice 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Music Price: $9.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Audio Slice Machine Slice your audio samples with ReSlice and create flexible musical atoms which can be triggered by MIDI notes or... | Read more »
Stickman Surfer rides in with the tide t...
Stickson is back and this time he's taken up yet another extreme sport - surfing. Stickman Surfer is out this Thursday on both iOS and Android, so if you've been following the other Stickman adventures, you might be interested in picking this one... | Read more »
Z-Exemplar (Games)
Z-Exemplar 1.4 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.4 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
5 dastardly difficult roguelikes like th...
Edmund McMillen's popular roguelike creation The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth has finally crawled onto mobile devices. It's a grotesque dual-stick shooter that tosses you into an endless, procedurally generated basement as you, the pitiable Isaac,... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Twelve South Releases RelaxedLeather Cases fo...
Inspired by the laid-back luxury of burnished leather boots and crafted in rich tones of taupe, herb and marsala, RelaxedLeather cases deliver smart, easy protection for the iPhone 7. Each genuine... Read more
Week’s Best Deal: New 2016 13-inch 2.0GHz Mac...
Amazon has the new 2016 13″ 2.0GHz non-Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sale for a limited time for $225 off MSRP including free shipping: - 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pro, Space Gray (MLL42LL/A): $1274.99 $225 off... Read more
Back in stock: Apple refurbished Mac minis fr...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Mac minis available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $419 $80 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac... Read more
Apple Ranked ‘Most Intimate Brand’
The top ranked ‘”intimate” brands continued to outperform the S&P and Fortune 500 indices in revenue and profit over the past 10 years, according to MBLM’s Brand Intimacy 2017 Report, the largest... Read more
B-Eng introduces SSD Health Check for Mac OS
Fehraltorf, Switzerland based independant Swiss company- B-Eng has announced the release and immediate availability of SSD Health Check 1.0, the company’s new hard drive utility for Mac OS X. As the... Read more
Apple’s Education discount saves up to $300 o...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad using Apple’s Education Store and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free: -... Read more
4-core 3.7GHz Mac Pro on sale for $2290, save...
Guitar Center has the 3.7GHz 4-core Mac Pro (MD253LL/A) on sale for $2289.97 including free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Their price is a $710 savings over standard MSRP for... Read more
128GB Apple iPad Air 2, refurbished, availabl...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 128GB iPad Air 2s WiFis available for $419 including free shipping. That’s an $80 savings over standard MSRP for this model. A standard Apple one-year warranty is... Read more
13-inch 2.7GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 2015 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina Apple MacBook Pro on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro (MF839LL/A): $... Read more
Laptop Market – Flight To Quality? – The ‘Boo...
Preliminary quarterly PC shipments data released by Gartner Inc. last week reveal an interesting disparity between sales performance of major name PC vendors as opposed to that of less well-known... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* MAC Infrastructure Engineer - InnoCo...
Summary: Responsible for all aspects of Apple Desktop hardware. This includes research, design, test, and deploy technologies being researched by the desktop Read more
*Apple* & PC Desktop Support Technician...
Apple & PC Desktop Support Technician job in Manhattan, NY Introduction: We have immediate job openings for several Desktop Support Technicians with one of our most Read more
Senior Workstation Administrator - *Apple*...
…with extraordinary HR. QualificationsJOB SUMMARY/OVERVIEWThe Senior Workstation Administrator - Apple supports the mission of TriNet by providing advanced level Read more
Intermediate *Apple* macOS Systems Integrat...
**Position Summary:** SC3 is actively seeking an Intermediate Apple macOS systems integration administrator that will be responsible for providing Apple Mac Read more
*Apple* & PC Desktop Support Technician...
Apple & PC Desktop Support Technician job in Los Angeles, CA Introduction: We have immediate job openings for several Desktop Support Technicians with one of our Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.