Apple patent is for dynamic adjustment of video streams
TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Apple patent is for dynamic adjustment of video streams

An Apple patent (number 20110202674) for dynamic adjustments of video streams has appeared at the US Patent & Trademark Office. It relates to streaming video from a server to a client.

Per the patent, using both short term and long term thinning mechanisms, the server reduces its data transfer rate when bandwidth is reduced and increases its data transfer rate when bandwidth is available. In the short term mechanism, the server will dynamically adjust the transmission rate of the video or the quality of the video based on parameters returned by the client. These parameters include currently-buffered data-size, buffered-data duration, and packet loss rate.

In the long term mechanism, the server will adjust the current maximum quality level allowed depending upon the round trip times of data packets transmitted. This invention decreases client rebuffering and packet loss and increases the efficiency of available bandwidth. The inventors are George P. Su and John K. Murata.

Here's Apple's background and summary of the invention: "The use of multimedia content on computing devices has increased substantially. Multimedia content is sent from a central server as streaming video and audio files. Streaming of video from a server to a client requires a server, a client and a network. The server transmits the content, the client receives and plays the content and the network transfers the data from the server to the client.

"The server sends out data in small chunks, called data packets, through the network to a client. The client receives the data packets which are then combined together to form the video program and played.

"Different protocols are employed to send data through a network including TCP, Reliable UDP and UDP Streaming. TCP or transport control protocol creates connections between servers and clients and guarantees reliable and in-order delivery of data from the server to the client. Reliable UDP, or reliable user datagram protocol, incorporates quality of service enhancements that improve the ability of real time streaming of data and provides pseudo-guarantees of delivery.

"Reliable UDP retransmits data that has not been received by the client until it detects that the data is late for real time streaming of content. Finally, in UDP streaming, there is no guarantee that the information sent by the server is received by the client. Rather, the data is sent by the server to the client without any retransmission. However, the client will report back to the client any packet loss that has occurred.

"The client can be a variety of devices such as a desktop or laptop computer. The client can also be a mobile device, an evolving category that currently includes but is not limited to cellular telephones, personal data assistants (PDAs) and mobile gaming consoles. For mobile devices, protocols have been developed to regulate the sending and receiving of data, one of which is 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project).

"When the content is streamed, the bandwidth reaching that client may fluctuate. These fluctuations are the result of natural conditions affecting the transmission of data and from congestion in the data network itself. The result of these fluctuations may be interruption of the streaming video or underutilization of available bandwidth.

"Content providers have resolved these difficulties in a number of ways. One prior approach is to make several versions of the same content with different qualities of video. For example, a content provider provides two versions of a program, one lower resolution for lower bandwidth, and one higher resolution for higher bandwidth capabilities.

"The provider initially detects what the user is capable of receiving and sends her the appropriate version, an action called stream switching. Difficulties arise if the network bandwidth changes midstream. The provider may not be able to make adjustments to the stream dynamically.

"In another prior approach, the content provider produces two independent versions of a program that is not based on resolution or bandwidths. For instance, a video program is made with one version showing the program from the point of view of the hero and the other from the point of view of the villain. The user indicates which version she wishes to view and the server sends that version to the client.

"The provider may also wish to provide more versions of a program to stream which allows for more variation of bandwidths. Different cellular telephone models exhibit different reception rates and different telephone carriers provide different transmission rates. To provide the highest quality content to the user, content providers would create a version of their programming for each carrier and telephone model. However, this results in greater expenses to create and store additional versions of the same program.

"Another prior approach is to compress the streamed multimedia content to the user as it is being transmitted. The available bandwidth can be detected and the content is compressed to a necessary size in order to ensure smooth delivery. However, this entails more computing resources each time the number of users increases. To compress and stream a program to five users would not be difficult, but the computing resources required to compress and stream to ten thousand individual users presents a challenge.

"Another prior approach in which to decrease the amount of data being sent by the server is to selectively remove frames from the video program. In this method, the program is pre-created and stored on the server. Video programs are essentially still frames being shown at a rapid rate. Because the frame rate is high, the viewer is tricked into believing there is actual motion.

"The server analyzes the video program and based on an algorithm, makes decisions that indicate which frames are more important than others. The frames which are deemed important are the 'key frames.' When the bandwidth of the network decreases and the data transmission rate must be lowered, the server selectively removes non-key frames from the video, but the audio portion of the program remains intact.

"This process is called 'thinning.' The client receives the video program with the frames removed. The video may appear jerky because of the missing frames but the user is able to view the program primarily intact. Based on quality of service considerations, the audio portion of the program is not interrupted so that the viewing experience is improved.

"Based on the foregoing, it is clearly desirable to provide a mechanism that allows content providers to dynamically change the quality and transmission rate of multimedia content based on fluctuating bandwidth. It is further desirable to provide a mechanism for allowing content providers to present their offerings in various bandwidths without creating multiple versions of the same program.

"It is also desirable to provide a mechanism for adjusting the quality of a program and making it available to many users without the use of data compression. It is also desirable to provide a mechanism for dynamically adjusting the amount of data transmitted to make the most efficient use of available bandwidth.

"The approaches described in this section are approaches that could be pursued, but not necessarily approaches that have been previously conceived or pursued. Therefore, unless otherwise indicated, it should not be assumed that any of the approaches described in this section qualify as prior art merely by virtue of their inclusion in this section."

-- Dennis Sellers

 
AAPL
$101.15
Apple Inc.
+1.04
MSFT
$46.33
Microsoft Corpora
-0.11
GOOG
$577.06
Google Inc.
+0.70

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

QuickBooks 2015 16.0.0.1352 R1 - Financi...
QuickBooks 2015 helps you manage your business easily and efficiently. Organize your finances all in one place, track money going in and out of your business, and spot areas where you can save.... Read more
Mac DVDRipper Pro 5.0.1 - Copy, backup,...
Mac DVDRipper Pro is the DVD backup solution that lets you protect your DVDs from scratches, save your batteries by reading your movies from your hard disk, manage your collection with just a few... Read more
Apple OS X bash Update 1.0 - Fix for sec...
The OS X bash Update fixes a security flaw in the bash UNIX shell on OS X 10.9.5 (also on OS X 10.8 and 10.7 [see Related Links below]). OS X 10.9.5 or later Downloads for OS X 10.8 and OS X 10.7 in... Read more
SyncTwoFolders 2.0.5 - Syncs two user-sp...
SyncTwoFolders simply synchronizes two folders. It supports synchronization across mounted network drives and it is a possibility to run a simulation showing in a log what will be done. Please visit... Read more
FinderPop 2.5.7 - Classic Mac utility, n...
FinderPop is a Universal preference pane that extends OS X's contextual menus using a FinderPop Items folder much as the Apple Menu Items folder used to do for the Apple menu. It has other features... Read more
VueScan 9.4.45 - Scanner software with a...
VueScan is a scanning program that works with most high-quality flatbed and film scanners to produce scans that have excellent color fidelity and color balance. VueScan is easy to use, and has... Read more
LibreOffice 4.3.2.2 - Free Open Source o...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
calibre 2.4 - Complete e-library managem...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital... Read more
Default Folder X 4.6.9b1 - Enhances Open...
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click... Read more
Beamer 2.0.4 - Stream any movie file fro...
Beamer streams to your Apple TV.... Plays any movie file - Just like the popular desktop movie players, Beamer accepts all common formats, codecs and resolutions. AVI, MKV, MOV, MP4, WMV, FLV. To... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Shred It! Review
Shred It! Review By Jennifer Allen on September 30th, 2014 Our Rating: :: GORGEOUS BUT BASICUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad It might look lovely, but Shred It! is a pretty shallow endless runner/snowboarding game.   | Read more »
It Came From Canada: Angry Birds: Transf...
Anyone afraid that throwing Transformers into the Angry Birds mix would result in a Michael Bay-level of childhood pillaging can rest easy. While Rovio’s famous fowls may be a 21st century staple, Angry Birds: Transformers wears its affection for... | Read more »
Galaxy Trucker Review
Galaxy Trucker Review By Rob Thomas on September 30th, 2014 Our Rating: :: IN FOR THE LONG HAULiPad Only App - Designed for the iPad We got a great big convoy, rockin’ through the night… the endless night of outer space, that is.... | Read more »
Moon and Sun – children’s book Review
Moon and Sun – children’s book Review By Amy Solomon on September 30th, 2014 Our Rating: Moon and Sun is a fable-like children’s book with lush illustrations.   Developer: Marcio Monteiro Price: $3.99 Version: 1.0 App Reviewed on... | Read more »
Kairosoft Finally Brings The Pyraplex to...
Kairosoft Finally Brings The Pyraplex to iOS Posted by Jessica Fisher on September 30th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Yeti’s Parole Officer Review
Yeti’s Parole Officer Review By Jennifer Allen on September 30th, 2014 Our Rating: Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Yeti’s Parole Officer proves that looks aren’t everything in this entertaining, if plain, piece of... | Read more »
Record Keeper and World Wide Words – Two...
Record Keeper and World Wide Words – Two New Final Fantasy Games Arrive on iOS in Japan Posted by Ellis Spice on September 30th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
iPollute Review
iPollute Review By Nadia Oxford on September 30th, 2014 Our Rating: :: iPOLLUTE, uPOLLUTEUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad iPollute is a delightful-looking pollution simulator, though it’s a bit light on “game” content... | Read more »
This Week at 148Apps: September 22-26, 2...
Your Source For The Latest App Reviews   | Read more »
Kill Shot Review
Kill Shot Review By Jennifer Allen on September 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: OCCASIONAL MISFIRESUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Kill Shot is often satisfying, but its more than pushy in-app purchases will leave you... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off MSRP, start...
Best Buy has the new 2014 MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off MSRP on their online store. Choose free home shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Prices valid for online orders only, in-... Read more
Apple Releases OS X Mavericks bash Update 1.0...
Apple has released a patch update for OS X Mavericks users to address the recently-detected “Shellshock” security bug in BSD UNIX’s bash shell. Apple says only a few Mac users who had manually... Read more
Pivotal Payments Ready for Apple Pay – FlexPo...
Pivotal Payments, a provider of merchant services and global payment processing solutions, has announced its proprietary FlexPoint platform will support credit and debit transactions through Apple’s... Read more
iStabilizer Announces Tabarm — First Friction...
iStabilizer, a specialist in universal lightweight compact tripods, steady cams, dollies, mounts, and remotes for smartphones, tablets, and cameras, announced today the iStabilizer tabArm, the first... Read more
IStabilizer Flex Smartphone Tripod Wins Usa T...
iStabilizer, a specialist in universal lightweight compact tripods, steady cams, and other products for smartphones, tablets, and cameras, has announced today that its iStabilizer Flex smartphone... Read more
13-inch 2.8GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
B&H Photo has the new 2014 13″ 2.8GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1699.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. They’ll also include free copies of Parallels Desktop and LoJack for... Read more
15-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to...
B&H Photo has the new 2014 15″ Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. They’ll also include free copies of Parallels Desktop... Read more
Get Down to Business On Your iPad With Free N...
Utah based Poem LLC has introduced Nexticy 1.0, a full-featured, affordable (Free) forms application for iPad. Nexticy makes it ‘way easy’ to create, store, retrieve and analyze paper-like forms of... Read more
13-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for $100...
Best Buy has 13-inch 2.6GHz Retina MacBook Pros on sale for $100 off MSRP on their online store. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Prices are for online orders only, in-... Read more
Reports Outline Claimed 12-Inch Macbook Air D...
Blogger Jack March says that according to information he’s received from an anonymous “source familiar with Apple’s plans,” the next-generation MacBook Air will launch in mid-2015 and be available... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Senior Event Manager, *Apple* Retail Market...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global event strategy. Delivering an overarching brand story; in-store, Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Project Manager / Business Analyst, WW *Appl...
…a senior project manager / business analyst to work within our Worldwide Apple Fulfillment Operations and the Business Process Re-engineering team. This role will work Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.