The Northern Spy: going the new server route
TweetFollow Us on Twitter

The Northern Spy: going the new server route

Under another hat, the Spy runs WebNameHost, which is a small hosting company in business for a decade now, and offering professional hosting in a safe environment for Christian, authors, small businesses, and personal sites. This is less than a living business, but much more than a hobby, as his teaching demands that he be able to discourse with students on all manner of computing technology without seeming too much a fool or irrelevant. It also needs to break even.

Though he is otherwise Mac-centric, the commercial hosting environment of choice is a CentOS machine running Cpanel/WHM, with billing and help desk provided by WHMCS, previously a separate company, but as of this month a WHM partner. Cork, the machine he was using for everything was a dual opteron of several years seniority running CentOS 4, and therefore his version of CPanel (11.32) was the last he could use without upgrading as future versions would no longer support CentOS 4. Since it is as much work to upgrade the OS as it is to set up a new server, and somewhat less likely of success, he opted for the new server route.

After obtaining several quotes, he elected to stay with his current data centre Atjeu, move company and personal accounts (including this column) to Tara, a virtual server, and all customers to Mayo, a new dedicated. What follows is a step by step that if successfully followed should achieve such a move with little or no down time (except for the inevitable glitches, which will be mentioned at the end.) Some of this material was adapted from several existing guides, but with many additional steps and comments.

Step 0: Optimize things with respect to the old server
This should be done a few weeks before the prospective move. Any hosting service that has been in business for more than a year or two has fossils on its servers. These may be accounts not properly deleted by the supposedly completely automated billing system for the failing memory of the aging sysop, freebies or test accounts no longer being used, dead databases forgotten by their owners, or email accounts never read or forwarded (they only host; mail is elsewhere) that have accumulated thousands of junk emails.

The less you transfer to the new machines, the shorter the time taken. Paying attention to these details allowed the Spy to remove some 4G of unnecessary data. It's also important to check the backup logs to ensure that process has been functioning without errors.

The Spy also found two corrupt databases in need of repair (customers hadn't noticed -- go figure) and these had to be fixed, as an account transfer will fail in such cases.

Finally check to ensure all accounts do indeed have their DNS correctly resolving and that you have access to the registry for that account (not needed if the nameserver names will remain the same and just change IP numbers).

Step 1: Provision the new server(s)

A week or more before planning to move accounts, cut the deal with the data centre to set up the new servers (one at a time). Once they are up and running with at least some of the IPs you need (if staying in the same DC, others can be moved) there is much work to do before it is ready to accept accounts.

First, the server needs to be securely locked down. Whatever such facilities the DC has installed, go immediately to ConfigServer, and buy their whole meal deal for $150, having them set up the firewall, mailscanner, and several other WHM plugins. Configure these, and tweak the WHM and firewall settings as needed to match your security policies. Use the php settings to forbid some of the more dangerous php functions, copy your server-wide email and firewall black and white lists from the old server, configure exim, get the backup routines going with a test account, and generally watch what goes on for a week.

Chances are there will be issues to solve, possibly involving the partitioning of the disk space. For cPanel, most of the space has to be in /home, not in /root, and a dedicated should have a second drive for /backup, which must be mounted and functioning.

Second, you may have other software you need to install. In past times, for instance, Fantastico was usually provisioned (sometimes as a DC throw-in) for customers to install their own scripts. Now, Softaculous may be a better choice (still being tested by the Spy). However, any such tools, skins, etc, must be installed and tested on the new server before any accounts are moved. In some cases you may have to have licenses reissued with the new server IP, but with companies such as WHMCS, this process can be undertaken by the licensee directly.

In addition, there are probably Perl or other modules that you installed at one time or another on the old box that need to be installed on the new. Compare lists and refresh the new accordingly. Your customers will be sure to let you know later when something fails.

Step 2: Reset the TTL much lower on all DNS zones

When a request is made to any website, data concerning the location of website, mail, etc. is pulled from the DNS. To cut down on the frequency of such requests, they are cached locally and by intermediate machines. Because this information can and does change from time to time, each record (line) of the DNS announces a number of seconds the data can live in the cache (TTL or Time to Live) before it has to be replaced by a new query.

Since you don't want old data sending queries to the old server for a long time after the move to the new, this TTL must be set to a fairly low values. Do this at least three days before the move by an SSH to the old server as root and issuing the commands:
cd /var/named
perl -pi.bak -e "s/14400/314/g" *.db
/etc/rc.d/init.d/named restart

This will change all the domain database files line by line from a 14400 to 314 TTL time and back up each .db file as it goes. The Spy picked 314 because it is the first three digits of pi, is unlikely to occur in any of the DNS records, and gives a TTL of just over five minutes. 300 or 399 will do as well. Do not use a value below 256. (Test question: why not?) Why three days? Because some machines don't respect the TTL all that well, and there needs to be time to inform them of the change.

Step 3: Cluster the old and new server

In WHM for both the old and new server, select Configure Cluster, and with the key from the other server, add it to a cluster. Activate clustering. This will cause the DNS records to synchronize between the two. Check the new server to ensure that it has the copies.

Post a sticky on your monitor as a reminder to self not to delete a DNS zone as it will delete on both machines. Deleting an account would delete it on the one machine and the DNS zone for it on both.

Step 4: Move accounts

A few days before moving a group of accounts, warn the reseller or if you are the reseller, warn all account holders that there could be outages in mail, ftp, and cpanel on the day of the move. If there are no glitches, this should not actually happen. But when Murphy strikes, you won't be exorciated for not telling them.

Moving should be done on a per reseller basis, to cut down on later corrections after you mess up the first few times. Do this using the "copy multiple accounts and packages from another server" function on the new server. Use Express move all the time. This will ensure that the account on the old machine is suspended so no new traffic goes there. Leave the window showing the move results open until it is finished or the move will abort. Check the log of the move to ensure all was OK.

Of course, as each account is moved and its DNS is changed to reflect the new environment, the clustering will ensure that the old DNS is changed too, pointing any would be traffic to the new machine. And, at this point, it is the DNS on the old machine that is the live one, not the one on the new, even though the latter is a copy and is where the changes are happening.

The first time, you might want to copy only the packages. While in the process moving accounts, it may be a good idea to stop the mail and ftp services, and cpanel as well if you are particularly paranoid about not wanting data to appear on the old server and not get moved.

Move the reseller account first, ensuring it gets its dedicated IP as needed, and that appropriate IPs are delegated to it for creation of accounts (main shared and any dedicateds).

Sign on to the new machine as that reseller and make another trip to the Move multiple accounts section, select all that resellers customers and again express move them all. The nameservers should stay the same, the new delegated shared IP should be attached, and any that had dedicated IPs should get new ones, SPF records should be updated, databases moved, mail and cron jobs also, the works—all this reflected in the DNS.

However, the move routine does have a bug. If the DNS FTP record is a CNAME, all will be well. If it was the IP of the old box, it will not be changed. This has to be fixed after the fact, probably by the root as most reseller accounts are not given access to DNS editing. Don't forget that DNS changes happen on both machines. While you are at it, scan all the DNS records to ensure they are otherwise correct, but do not change the TTL. Restart any stopped services on the old machine until you are ready to move the next reseller.

For each account with a dedicated IP, go to the data centre control panel (or put in a ticket as needed) and ensure that the DC has a correct reverse pointer to the new IP. If you were having mail announce using the the data in /etc/mailips and /etc/mailhelo that data and /etc/mail_reverse_dns must be edited and saved according to the new IPs, these settings tweaked in whm, and exim restarted. If you had a global setting for such announcing, these files are populated automatically.

Repeat for each reseller until done. Note that if you are moving within the same DC, you may elect to keep your IP numbers. In this case, you may find yourself deleting some from the old box and adding them to the new as you go. If so, don't forget to have the DC move them from your one account to the other. You cannot delete an IP if it is still being used, so at the end of the day there will still be some to add to the new box.

Step 5: Re-number the nameservers

The nameservers for the main box and those various resellers that also have them all have to be edited, first on the new server, then at the registrar.

Change the nameserver IP for each nameserver you use t your domain registrar. This may require a ticket, but at Enom, this is quite simple. Just go the the main (top) menu selecting Domains-Advanced Tools-Register A Name Server, then Update. Enter the nameserver and its new number on the new box. Do this for both nameservers for each account that has them. After this is complete, on the new server, edit the dns zones for those nameservers to reflect the new numbers you will be using.

Important: Do not try to do this change earlier in the process, though you can do it on a per reseller basis after each reseller is moved. The DNS on a machine points to web files relatively. Thus, the new machine cannot, prior to an account move, point back to the old, but because the DNS does have IP numbers updated, once the account is on the new, it is pointed to there locally.

Step 6: Wait several days before declustering

Unlike your DNS records, which currently have a low TTL, those at the registrar have a high one. Thus, there will be a few days before you can assume all the cached DNS records have been refreshed with the new ones. Only then can you decluster the two machines.

Step 7: Reset the new DNS

After a few days more have gone by and you have made any further corrections, SSH to the old server as root and issue the commands:
cd /var/named
perl -pi.bak -e "s/314/14400/g" *.db
/etc/rc.d/init.d/named restart

This will change all the domain database files line by line back from a TTL of 314 to 14400, and as before, making backups. You may need to make global changes to the SPF records to remove the surviving mention of the old server's IP as a correct sender, and to clean up the ftp records if this hasn't already been done. If you are unsure of what command needs to be issued here, practice on the old box, as it is now decoupled from the new.

Step 8: Inform customers that all is complete
and, of course invite them to test things. Note that all mailman lists must now be accessed at the new box, not the old one.

Step 9: Decommission the old box

After yet a few more days more have gone by and you have solved the additional problems that arose reqarding email not working, software settings not being correct, Perl modules your customers needed not being installed, etc. it is time to let the old DC know that its box is no longer needed and can be decommissioned. If staying in the same DC and keeping IPs this is the time to add the last of the old numbers to the new box and have the DC move them between the defunct account and the new one. Congratulations. Except for troubleshooting the problems that customers only now bring you, you're done.

--The Northern Spy

Opinions expressed here are entirely the author's own, and no endorsement is implied by any community or organization to which he may be attached. Rick Sutcliffe, (a.k.a. The Northern Spy) is professor and chair of Computing Science and Mathematics at Canada's Trinity Western University. He has been involved as a member or consultant with the boards of several organizations, including in the corporate sector, and participated in industry standards at the national and international level.

He is a long time technology author and has written two textbooks and six novels, one named best ePublished SF novel for 2003. His columns have appeared in numerous magazines and newspapers (paper and online), and he's a regular speaker at churches, schools, academic meetings, and conferences. He and his wife Joyce have lived in the Aldergrove/Bradner area of BC since 1972.

Want to discuss this and other Northern Spy columns? Surf on over to ArjayBB.com. Participate and you could win free web hosting from the WebNameHost.net subsidiary of Arjay Web Services. Rick Sutcliffe's fiction can be purchased in various eBook formats from Fictionwise, and in dead tree form from Amazon's Booksurge.

URLs for Rick Sutcliffe's Arjay Enterprises:
The Northern Spy Home Page: http://www.TheNorthernSpy.com
opundo : http://opundo.com
Sheaves Christian Resources : http://sheaves.org
WebNameHost : http://www.WebNameHost.net
WebNameSource : http://www.WebNameSource.net
nameman : http://nameman.net

General URLs for Rick Sutcliffe's Books:
Author Site: http://www.arjay.ca
Publisher's Site: http://www.writers-exchange.com/Richard-Sutcliffe.html

URLs for items mentioned in this column
CPanel:: http://www.cpanel.net
Atjeu:: http://www.atjeu.com
WHMCS:: http://www.whmcs.com
Configserver:: http://www.configserver.com
One source:: http://forums.cpanel.net/f5/guide-transferring-all-accounts-new-server-1...

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

PopChar 7.1 - Floating window shows avai...
We're also selling a 5-license family pack for only $25.99! PopChar helps you get the most out of your font collection. With its crystal-clear interface, PopChar X provides a frustration-free way to... Read more
BBEdit 11.1.1 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more
Picasa 3.9.139 - Organize, edit, and sha...
Picasa and Picasa Web Albums allows you to organize, edit, and upload your photos to the Web from your computer in quick, simple steps. Arrange your photos into folders and albums and erase their... Read more
Mac DVDRipper Pro 5.0.5 - Copy, backup,...
Mac DVDRipper Pro is the DVD backup solution that lets you protect your DVDs from scratches, save your batteries by reading your movies from your hard disk, manage your collection with just a few... Read more
NetShade 6.2 - Browse privately using an...
This promotion is for NetShade and 1 year of Proxy and VPN services NetShade is an anonymous proxy and VPN app+service for Mac. Unblock your Internet through NetShade's high-speed proxy and VPN... Read more
CrossOver 14.1.3 - Run Windows apps on y...
CrossOver can get your Windows productivity applications and PC games up and running on your Mac quickly and easily. CrossOver runs the Windows software that you need on Mac at home, in the office,... Read more
Little Snitch 3.5.3 - Alerts you about o...
Little Snitch gives you control over your private outgoing data. Track background activity As soon as your computer connects to the Internet, applications often have permission to send any... Read more
OmniGraffle Pro 6.2.3 - Create diagrams,...
OmniGraffle Pro helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use... Read more
OmniFocus 2.2 - GTD task manager with iO...
OmniFocus helps you manage your tasks the way that you want, freeing you to focus your attention on the things that matter to you most. Capturing tasks and ideas is always a keyboard shortcut away in... Read more
1Password 5.3.2 - Powerful password mana...
1Password is a password manager that uniquely brings you both security and convenience. It is the only program that provides anti-phishing protection and goes beyond password management by adding Web... Read more

MooVee - Your Movies Guru (Entertainmen...
MooVee - Your Movies Guru 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Entertainment Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: MooVee helps you effortlessly manage your movies, on your iPhone. | Read more »
Geometry Wars 3: Dimensions (Games)
Geometry Wars 3: Dimensions 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Enjoy the next chapter in the award-winning Geometry Wars franchise and enjoy stunning, console-quality... | Read more »
CHAOS RINGS Ⅲ (Games)
CHAOS RINGS Ⅲ 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $19.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: The newest addition to the popular smartphone RPG series is finally here! ・CHAOS RINGS Overview | Read more »
The Popular Insight Series of Travel Gui...
Getting around in a country when you can't understand the primary language can be tough. Fortunately there are several options available to help wold travellers with the important stuff like giving directions to a cab driver or asking where the... | Read more »
Desktop Dungeons is Now on the iPad Desp...
Desktop Dungeons has been a well-loved roguelike on PC for quite some time, and now it's finally available for the iPad! Just the iPad, though. Sorry iPhone users. [Read more] | Read more »
Moleskine Timepage – Calendar for iCloud...
Moleskine Timepage – Calendar for iCloud, Google & Exchange 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Productivity Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The most elegant calendar for your pocket and wrist, Timepage is a... | Read more »
QuizUp Gets Social in its New Update
Plain Vanilla Corp has released a new and improved version of their popular trivia game, QuizUp. The app now emphasizes social play so you can challenge friends from all over the world. [Read more] | Read more »
The Deep (Games)
The Deep 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Swipe Controls Delve into the deep in this retro rogue-like! Swipe to move your diver around and keep away from the enemies as you... | Read more »
Sproggiwood (Games)
Sproggiwood 1.2.8 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $9.99, Version: 1.2.8 (iTunes) Description: Sproggiwood was developed for devices with at least 1GB of RAM. We recommend you only download Sproggiwood if your device... | Read more »
Battle of Gods: Ascension (Games)
Battle of Gods: Ascension 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: TURN-BASED TACTICAL COMBATFight tactical battles against the forces of Hades! In Battle of Gods: Ascension you play... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple refurbished 2014 13-inch Retina MacBook...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 13″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $400 off original MSRP, starting at $979. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and... Read more
What Would the ideal Apple Productivity Platf...
For the past four years I’ve kept a foot in both the Mac and iPad camps respectively. my daily computing hours divided about 50/50 between the two devices with remarkable consistency. However, there’... Read more
PageMeUp 1.2.1 Ten Dollar Page Layout Applica...
Paris, France-based Softobe, an OS X software development company, has announced that their PageMeUp v. 1.2.1, is available on the Mac App Store for $9.99. The license can be installed on up to 5... Read more
Eight New Products For USB Type-C Application...
Fresco Logic, specialists in advanced connectivity technologies and ICs, has introduced two new product families targeting the Type-C connector recently introduced across a number of consumer... Read more
Scripps National Spelling Bee Launches Buzzwo...
Scripps National Spelling Bee fans can monitor the action at the 2015 Spelling Bee with the new Buzzworthy app for iOS, Android and Windows mobile devices. The free Buzzworthy app provides friendly... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $120 o...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $979 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $120 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price for this model (except for Apple’... Read more
27-inch 3.3GHz 5K iMac on sale for $1899, $10...
B&H Photo has the new 27″ 3.3GHz 5K iMac on sale for $1899.99 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Read more
Save up to $50 on iPad Air 2, NY tax only, fr...
B&H Photo has iPad Air 2s on sale for up to $50 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $469 $30 off - 64GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $549.99 $50 off - 128GB iPad... Read more
Updated Mac Price Trackers
We’ve updated our Mac Price Trackers with the latest information on prices, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers: - 15″ MacBook Pros - 13″ MacBook... Read more
New 13-inch 2.9GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.9GHz/512GB Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1699.99 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price for this model from... Read more

Jobs Board

Program Manager, *Apple* Community Support...
**Job Summary** Apple Support Communities ( discussions. apple .com) helps customers get the most from their Apple products and services by providing access to Read more
Senior Data Scientist, *Apple* Retail - Onl...
**Job Summary** Apple Retail - Online sells Apple products to customers around the world. In addition to selling Apple products with unique services such as iPad Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
*Apple* Watch SW Application Project Manager...
**Job Summary** The Apple Watch software team is looking for an Application Engineering Project Manager to work on new projects for Apple . The successful candidate Read more
Engineering Manager for *Apple* Maps on the...
…the Maps App Team get to take part in just about any new feature in Apple Maps, often contributing a majority of the feature work. In our day-to-day engineering work, we Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.