TweetFollow Us on Twitter

AppleScript in Snow Leopard

Volume Number: 25
Issue Number: 10
Column Tag: AppleScript

AppleScript in Snow Leopard

by Ben Waldie

With the release of Snow Leopard, AppleScript developers will no doubt be in store for a few surprises. While the AppleScript language itself hasn't changed too much, a variety of other enhancements are welcome, but will take some getting used to.

Noticeable Changes

Script Editor

One of the first things you will notice is that Script Editor is no longer found in the /Applications/AppleScript folder on your Mac. Don't worry, though, it hasn't gone away. Apple has just moved it into a new, perhaps more appropriate, location - into the /Applications/Utilities folder. In addition, to help better clarify its purpose to those new to AppleScript, Script Editor has been renamed AppleScript Editor.

The example scripts that once resided alongside Script Editor are not gone either. They're still located in /Library/Scripts (an alias pointing to this folder was previously included in the /Applications/AppleScript folder). Now, you can quickly navigate to them from within AppleScript Editor, by selecting Open Example Scripts Folder from the Help menu.

AppleScript Editor has received a number of other enhancements, too, in addition to its new name. First, you may notice some changes in formatting when you compile your scripts. Command names, parameter names, classes, and more, which were previously grouped under a generic Application keywords category of formatting, now have their own formatting attributes. These attributes can be adjusted in AppleScript Editor's Preferences window, under Formatting.


Figure 1. Formatting Options in AppleScript Editor's Preferences Window

Another visual change is that the event log and result panes at the bottom of the script window have been merged into a single pane, labeled Event Log. Within this new, merged pane, you now have the option to view a list of events, events and replies (replies are more clearly indicated than in previous versions), or the result. See figure 2.


Figure 2. AppleScript Editor's Event Log, Displaying Both Events and Replies

The new event log pane also includes a number of other enhancements, which are sure to make it easier to both develop and troubleshoot your scripts. For advanced scripters, positioning the mouse cursor over an event in the log will now display a tool tip containing the raw Apple Event details for the event. Another very useful enhancement is that the event log now displays error messages, complete with both the error's description and number. This doesn't just occur when a showstopper error occurs either. It happens whenever any error is encountered, even if it's within a try statement. See figure 3 for an example of this.


Figure 3. Error Logging in AppleScript Editor's Event Log

Another useful enhancement for experienced scripters is the new "tell" application pop-up menu, which can be enabled in the Preferences window, under Editing. See figure 4.


Figure 4. Enabling AppleScript Editor's "tell" Menu

Once enabled, a new pop-up menu appears in the navigation bar above the script window's editing area (if this bar isn't visible, select Show Navigation Bar from the View menu). This pop-up menu may be used to set the target of the script to a specified application. For example, setting this pop-up menu to the Finder will instruct AppleScript Editor that all code within the script should be sent to the Finder application, thus eliminating the need to implicitly use a "tell" statement. This capability would be useful for running quick application terminology tests during development, or for testing scripts that will be run from within an application (which serves as the script's target). For example, a FileMaker developer might use this feature to write a script that will eventually run within a FileMaker database's Perform AppleScript script step. See figure 5.


Figure 5. Targeting the Finder with AppleScript Editor's "tell" Menu

Changing a script's target with the "tell" application pop-up menu will only affect the script's behavior when it is compiled and run within AppleScript Editor, or when run from within the target application. If you change a script's target and then save the script as a stand-alone application, you will receive an error when you attempt to run it, as the script application becomes the target of the script.

Another more advanced enhancement is the AppleScript Editor's ability to run scripts on background threads. This means that you can now run multiple opened scripts at once. For example, you could be testing a lengthy script, while editing and testing a smaller, second script at the same time. You can also force a script to run on the main thread by holding down the Control key and selecting Run in Foreground from the Script menu. This may be necessary if your script interacts with a scripting addition that's not thread-safe.

Finally, another change to AppleScript Editor is that there is no longer an option to save a "flat" script application. Rather, all applications are saved as bundles, and are, therefore, not compatible with systems prior to 10.3.

AppleScript Utility

In previous versions of Mac OS X, an AppleScript Utility application, located in the /Applications/AppleScript folder, provided a central location for managing various OS-level AppleScript settings. This application has been moved into the /System/Library/CoreServices folder, and now operates as a background application, in order to provide backward compatibility with older scripts. Settings previously found in the AppleScript Utility, such as enabling, disabling, and configuring the system-wide script menu, can now be found in AppleScript Editor's Preferences window, under General. See figure 6.


Figure 6. Script Menu and Other System-Wide Options in AppleScript Editor's Preferences Window

Folder Actions Setup

Another application that has been moved from /Applications/AppleScript to the /System/Library/CoreServices folder is Folder Actions Setup. This application, which allows you to enable and configure Folder Action scripts in Mac OS X, can now be launched by selecting Folder Actions Setup... from the Finder's contextual menu (see figure 7), or from the Finder > Services menu in the menu bar.


Figure 7. Launching Folder Actions Setup from the Finder's Contextual Menu

Folder Actions themselves have also received some upgrades. For one, they now support attaching Automator workflows directly to folders. Previously, a secondary AppleScript component was required to launch Automator workflows attached to folders. Another change, which I'm sure will prove a welcome enhancement for many, is that Folder Actions will now attempt to wait for an item to finish writing to the attached folder, before processing it. This is done by checking the size of the detected item until it remains static for at least three seconds. In the past, Folder Actions were notorious for triggering when an item first appeared in the folder, thus causing errors if the item was still being copied or saved.

Changes Under the Hood

Scripting Addition Calls

Snow Leopard introduces a number of other noticeable AppleScript changes. First, calls to scripting additions are now a bit finicky, and most will produce a privilege error when issued within an application "tell" statement. According to Apple, this is done for security purposes. Instead, scripting addition calls should be sent to the current application, i.e. the script itself or the process running the script.

To provide backward compatibility with older scripts, AppleScript automatically tries to capture this error, and redirect the problematic call to the current application. This is evident in figure 8's event log, where the do shell script call is first sent to the Finder, and then to the current application.


Figure 8. Redirected Scripting Addition Calls

For optimal results and to ensure future compatibility, however, developers should try to avoid including calls to scripting additions within application "tell" statements. For example, change:

tell application "Some App"
   do some scripting addition command
   do some application command
end tell
... to:
some scripting addition command
tell application "Some App"
   do some application command
end tell

Alternately, you can implicitly target the current application in your scripting addition call. For example:

tell application "Some App"
   tell current application to do some scripting addition command
   do some application command
end tell

Date Handling

Coercions from strings to dates are also a bit finicky in Snow Leopard. Previous versions of AppleScript were fairly forgiving when attempting to coerce a string to a date. For example, in Mac OS X 10.5, the following script ran successfully on my machine:

set theDate to "03, September, 2009"
date theDate
-> date "Thursday, September 3, 2009 12:00:00 AM"

In Snow Leopard, however, the same script fails with the following error message:

-> error "Invalid date and time date 03, September, 2009 of «script»." number -30720

To prevent these types of errors, Apple recommends ensuring that any string being coerced to a date match one of the system date formats found in System Preferences, under Language and Text (formerly International) > Formats. For example:

set theDate to "September 3, 2009"
date theDate
-> date "Thursday, September 3, 2009 12:00:00 AM"

Standard Additions Changes

Only a few minor changes have been made to the Standard Additions scripting addition. The do shell script command now provides better error reporting, and the say command includes some interesting new parameters for controlling the pitch, modulation, and rate of spoken text. So, you can now have your script sound more like Darth Vader, for example:

say "No, 'Luke'! 'I' 'am' your father!" using "Bruce" speaking rate 200 pitch 25 modulation 20

System Events Changes

The System Events background application has also received a few updates, such as providing access to screen savers. And, menu bar transparency is now accessible via scripting. For example:

tell application "System Events"
   set translucent menu bar of current desktop to false
end tell

Application Scripting Changes

As with any major system update, scripters should also be on the lookout for AppleScript terminology changes in updated Snow Leopard applications. As one example, QuickTime Player has received some fairly hefty enhancements in Snow Leopard. As a result, its AppleScript terminology has changed substantially too. Users with existing QuickTime scripts should take a careful look at this updated terminology, and make any necessary adjustments to their scripts.

AppleScript Studio Changes

Perhaps the most significant AppleScript change in Snow Leopard involves AppleScript Studio, which has officially been deprecated. Yep, you read that correct, deprecated, as in obsolete and discontinued.

AppleScript Studio was a subset of features in Apple's Xcode development environment, which allowed scripters to build AppleScript-based applications, complete with Cocoa interfaces (created in Interface Builder).

For those scripters who have created countless AppleScript Studio applications, don't freak out just yet. First, Apple says that AppleScript Studio is still supported in Snow Leopard, and existing applications should continue to function. You should also be able to continue opening your existing AppleScript Studio projects and editing them in Xcode.

You will not, however, be able to create new AppleScript Studio projects in Xcode, as the templates for doing so have been removed. In addition, the handy AppleScript palette you're used to seeing in Interface Builder is now hidden by default. You can re-enable it, however, by running the following command in Terminal:

defaults write com.apple.InterfaceBuilder3 IBEnableAppleScriptStudioSupport -bool YES

Another option may be to install a second, older version of Xcode, alongside Snow Leopard's Xcode, thus allowing you to continue developing new AppleScript Studio applications. Installing multiple versions of Xcode was supported in the past, though I have yet to test it for myself in Snow Leopard, and I can't say whether it will continue to be supported in the future.

Regardless, there will come a day when AppleScript Studio is no longer supported. So, developers should start thinking about this now, and begin creating new applications and migrating existing ones to AppleScript Studio's successor - AppleScriptObjC - as soon as possible. AppleScriptObjC is a new framework in Mac OS X, which provides a bridge between AppleScript and the Objective-C runtime, thus allowing AppleScript to interact with any Cocoa framework.

For scripters without a background in Cocoa and Objective-C, AppleScriptObjC will take some time to master. However, there are some resources that can help get you started. For one, Xcode includes a new project template, named Cocoa-AppleScript Application. See figure 9. There's a Cocoa-AppleScript Automator action template too, for those Automator developers.


Figure 9. Creating a Cocoa-AppleScript Application in Xcode

You can also browse the Mac OS X reference library for Snow Leopard, which, at the time I wrote this column, included some preliminary AppleScriptObjC release notes, as well as a brief, though informative, Objective-C/AppleScript Quick Translation Guide. If you're new to Objective-C and Cocoa, I'd also recommend checking out the Cocoa Fundamentals Guide and the Introduction to The Objective-C 2.0 Programming Language. All of these documents are available on the Apple Developer Connection website at http://developer.apple.com.

In Closing

Overall, the AppleScript changes in Snow Leopard come as welcome improvements. That said, some changes are likely to cause compatibility issues with existing scripts. As with any Mac OS X update, AppleScript developers should take the time to test existing scripts thoroughly, and make any necessary changes to ensure compatibility.

AppleScriptObjC will likely require a bit more time and effort to upgrade existing scripts, and there will be a learning curve. That said, scripters adopted AppleScript Studio fairly quickly when it was first introduced, and I have no doubt that they will do the same for AppleScriptObjC. Once the migration is complete, however, the power and reach of AppleScript will be greater than ever before.

Until next time, keep scripting!


Ben Waldie (ben@automatedworkflows.com) is president of Automated Workflows, LLC (www.automatedworkflows.com), a company offering AppleScript, Automator, and workflow consulting services to Mac-based businesses. For years, Ben has developed professional automated solutions for companies such as Abercrombie & Fitch, Adobe Systems, Apple Inc., CNN, Microsoft, NASA, PC World, and Time Magazine. Ben is the author of "Automator for Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard Visual QuickStart Guide" (Peachpit Press) and "AppleScripting the Finder", has written AppleScript and Automator content for Apple.com, Macworld, MacTech, MacScripter.net, and X-Ray Magazine, and is the host of the "Mac Automation Made Simple" video podcast (Peachpit Press). Ben has also released hundreds of Automator actions for use with Adobe Illustrator, InDesign, Photoshop, FileMaker, QuarkXPress, Twitter, and more.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

GraphicConverter 10.5.1 - $39.95
GraphicConverter is an all-purpose image-editing program that can import 200 different graphic-based formats, edit the image, and export it to any of 80 available file formats. The high-end editing... Read more
Delicious Library 3.7 - Import, browse a...
Delicious Library allows you to import, browse, and share all your books, movies, music, and video games with Delicious Library. Run your very own library from your home or office using our... Read more
Adobe Animate CC 2017 18.0.0.107 - Anima...
Animate CC 2018 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Flash Professional customer). Animate CC 2018 (was Flash CC) lets you... Read more
Adobe After Effects CC 2018 15.0 - Creat...
After Effects CC 2018 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous After Effects customer). The new, more connected After Effects CC... Read more
Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2018 12.0.0 - Digi...
Premiere Pro CC 2018 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Premiere Pro customer). Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2018 lets you edit... Read more
Alarm Clock Pro 10.3 - $19.95
Alarm Clock Pro isn't just an ordinary alarm clock. Use it to wake you up in the morning, send and compose e-mails, remind you of appointments, randomize the iTunes selection, control an internet... Read more
Adobe Lightroom 20170919-1412-ccb76bd] -...
Adobe Lightroom is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $9.99/month bundled with Photoshop CC as part of the photography package. Lightroom 6 is also available for purchase as a... Read more
Adobe Illustrator CC 2018 22.0.0 - Profe...
Illustrator CC 2018 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Illustrator customer). Adobe Illustrator CC 2018 is the industry... Read more
Hopper Disassembler 4.3.0- - Binary disa...
Hopper Disassembler is a binary disassembler, decompiler, and debugger for 32- and 64-bit executables. It will let you disassemble any binary you want, and provide you all the information about its... Read more
Adobe InDesign CC 2018 13.0.0.125 - Prof...
InDesign CC 2018 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous InDesign customer). Adobe InDesign CC 2018 is part of Creative Cloud.... Read more

ICEY (Games)
ICEY 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ICEY is a 2D side-scrolling action game. As you follow the narrator's omnipresent voice, you will see through ICEY's eyes and learn the... | Read more »
The best new games we played this week -...
We've made it, folks. Another weekend is upon us. It's time to sit back and relax with the best new releases of the week. Puzzles, strategy RPGs, and arcade games abound this week. There's a lot of quality stuff to unpack this week, so let's hop... | Read more »
Wheels of Aurelia (Games)
Wheels of Aurelia 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Halcyon 6: Starbase Commander guide - ti...
Halcyon 6 is a well-loved indie RPG with stellar tactical combat and some pretty good writing, too. It's now landed on the App Store, so mobile fans, if you're itching for a good intergalactic adventure, here's your game. Being a strategy RPG, the... | Read more »
Game of Thrones: Conquest guide - how to...
Fans of base building games might be excited to know that yet another entry in the genre has materialized - Game of Thrones: Conquest. Yes, you can now join the many kingdoms of the famed book series, or create your own, as you try to conquer... | Read more »
Halcyon 6: Starbase Commander (Games)
Halcyon 6: Starbase Commander 1.4.2.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $6.99, Version: 1.4.2.0 (iTunes) Description: An epic space strategy RPG with base building, deep tactical combat, crew management, alien diplomacy,... | Read more »
Legacy of Discord celebrates its 1 year...
It’s been a thrilling first year for fans of Legacy of Discord, the stunning PvP dungeon-crawling ARPG from YOOZOO Games, and now it’s time to celebrate the game’s first anniversary. The developers are amping up the festivities with some exciting... | Read more »
3 reasons to play Thunder Armada - the n...
The bygone days of the Battleship board game might have past, but naval combat simulators still find an audience on mobile. Thunder Armada is Chinese developer Chyogames latest entry into the genre, drawing inspiration from the explosive exchanges... | Read more »
Experience a full 3D fantasy MMORPG, as...
Those hoping to sink their teeth into a meaty hack and slash RPG that encourages you to fight with others might want to check out EZFun’s new Eternity Guardians. Available to download for iOS and Android, Eternity Guardians is an MMORPG that lets... | Read more »
Warhammer Quest 2 (Games)
Warhammer Quest 2 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Dungeon adventures in the Warhammer World are back! | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

12″ iPad Pros on sale for $50 off MSRP, no ta...
Adorama has 12″ iPad Pros on sale today for $50 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and Adorama charges sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 12″ 64GB iPad Pro: $749, save $50 – 12″ 256GB iPad Pro: $899, save $50... Read more
9″ iPads on sale for $30 off, starting at $29...
MacMall has 9″ iPads on sale for $30 off including free shipping: – 9″ 32GB iPad: $299 – 9″ 128GB iPad: $399 Read more
Apple restocks full line of refurbished 13″ M...
Apple has restocked a full line of Apple Certified Refurbished 2017 13″ MacBook Pros for $200-$300 off MSRP. A standard Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free.... Read more
13″ 3.1GHz/256GB MacBook Pro on sale for $167...
Amazon has the 2017 13″ 3.1GHz/256GB Space Gray MacBook Pro on sale today for $121 off MSRP including free shipping: – 13″ 3.1GHz/256GB Space Gray MacBook Pro (MPXV2LL/A): $1678 $121 off MSRP Keep an... Read more
13″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to $120 off M...
B&H Photo has 2017 13″ MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $120 off MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: – 13-inch 2.3GHz/128GB Space Gray MacBook... Read more
15″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to $200 off M...
B&H Photo has 15″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to $200 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 15″ 2.8GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray (MPTR2LL/A): $2249, $150... Read more
Roundup of Apple Certified Refurbished iMacs,...
Apple has a full line of Certified Refurbished 2017 21″ and 27″ iMacs available starting at $1019 and ranging up to $350 off original MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free... Read more
Sale! 27″ 3.8GHz 5K iMac for $2098, save $201...
Amazon has the 27″ 3.8GHz 5K iMac (MNED2LL/A) on sale today for $2098 including free shipping. Their price is $201 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model (Apple’s $1949... Read more
Sale! 10″ Apple WiFi iPad Pros for up to $100...
B&H Photo has 10.5″ WiFi iPad Pros in stock today and on sale for $50-$100 off MSRP. Each iPad includes free shipping, and B&H charges sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 10.5″ 64GB iPad Pro: $... Read more
Apple iMacs on sale for up to $130 off MSRP w...
B&H Photo has 21-inch and 27-inch iMacs in stock and on sale for up to $130 off MSRP including free shipping. B&H charges sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 27″ 3.8GHz iMac (MNED2LL/A): $2179 $... Read more

Jobs Board

Engineering Manager, *Apple* Retail Enginee...
# Engineering Manager, Apple Retail Engineering Job Number: 58139948 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: 20-Oct-2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Commerce Engineer, *Apple* Media Products -...
Commerce Engineer, Apple Media Products (New York City) Job Number: 113028813New York City, New York, United StatesPosted: Sep. 20, 2017Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Read more
US- *Apple* Store Leader Program - Apple (Un...
US- Apple Store Leader Program Job Number: VariousUnited StatesPosted: Oct. 19, 2017Retail Store Job Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at Read more
Product Manager - *Apple* Pay on the *Appl...
Job Summary Apple is looking for a talented product manager to drive the expansion of Apple Pay on the Apple Online Store. This position includes a unique Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.