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Getting Started with Git

Volume Number: 24 (2008)
Issue Number: 02
Column Tag: Project Management

Getting Started with Git

Learn how to use Git to manage your project

by José R.C. Cruz

Introducing Git

Today, we will look at the source—code management (SCM) tool called Git. First, we will get a copy of the Git source tarball and compile Git as a Universal Binary. Then, we will install the tool and configure it on MacOS X.

Next, we will learn how to use Git to do some basic SCM transactions. Then, we will learn how to use Git in Xcode by the power of menu scripts.

The Git Project

Git is an SCM system written by Linus Torvalds and maintained by Junio Hamano. It serves as the official SCM for the Linux kernel project. It is also a faster alternative to CVS and Subversion.

Git is made available under the terms of the Gnu Public License, version 2. Also, when this article was written, the latest usable version of the Git project is 1.5.2.3.

Centralized versus decentralized

Both CVS and Subversion store those files in a central repository (Figure 1). When users, here shown as Jack and Jill, want to work on the project, first they get a copy of the project from the repository. If user Jill changes some of the project files, she must commit those changes back to the repository. Otherwise, user Jack will be unable to update his copy with her changes.


Figure 1. A centralized SCM repository

Git, however, lets users maintain their own local repositories of the same project (Figure 2). Each user gets a copy of the project from their repositories, and updates the latter with their changes. If they want to see each other changes, they then synchronize their repositories with each other.


Figure 2. A decentralized SCM repository

Now, a centralized repository has its own set of problems. First, this repository is susceptible to data corruption since it keeps all project files in one place. It uses more space since it stores all the changes submitted by all users. It is also slower to respond since it has to sort out which changes belong to which user. Finally, it prevents users from working offline.

These problems, and others, are non—existent if the repository is decentralized.

Notable features and issues

Git shares some of the features found in Subversion. It treats files and directories as valid project items. It can move or rename these items with a single command. It treats all commits to the repository as atomic operations. It also has native diff support to binary files.

Git, however, can do SCM transactions much faster than CVS or Subversion. This is partly due to the fact that it stores its repository locally with respect to the user. Git also can do garbage collection to trim dead items from its repository. This helps reduce the amount of space used by the repository.

Still, Git has its own set of issues. For instance, its primary interface is still the command—line. It lacks a usable GUI tool common to most host systems. It is more difficult to backup and secure, as there can be more than one repository for the same project. Also, many developer tools such as Xcode do not support Git as a viable SCM system.

These issues, and many others, may be resolved by the time you read this article.

Getting Git

To compile and install your own Git system, first get a copy of the project tarball git—1.5.2.3.tar.gz at the following URL:.

http://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/

Use the Finder to copy or move the tarball to the desired directory.

Next, double—click the tarball to unpack its contents. You can also unpack the tarball from a shellthe Terminal window by typing the following statement:.

   tar —xzf git—1.5.2.3.tar.gz

Make sure to use the cd command first to navigate to the directory that has the tarball. Either way, you should get have a directory named git—1.5.2.3 as a result.

Now, get a copy of the tarball expat—2.0.1.tar.gz at the following URL:.

http://sourceforge.net/projects/expat/

Expat is an open—source library of functions used to parse XML files. Move the tarball to the same directory as the Git tarball. Double—click on the expat tarball to unpack its contents. You should get a directory named expat—2.0.1 as a result.

Compiling Git

First, open the .bash_profile file using your favorite text editor. You can find this invisible file in your home directory. Add the following entries to that file.

   PATH=/Library/Developer/usr/bin:/Library/Developer/usr/lib:$PATH
   export PATH

Start a Terminal window session, and type the following statements at the prompt.

   export CFLAGS="—O —g —isvroot /Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.4.u.sdk —arch i386 —arch ppc"
   export LDFLAGS="—arch i386 —arch ppc"

The above tells GCC to compile the expat and Git binaries as Universal Binaries. But if you are already using MacOS X/Intel, set the CFLAGS variable with the following statement:.

   export CFLAGS="—O —arch i386 —arch ppc"

Now use the cd command to navigate to the expat—2.0.1 directory. Configure the project by typing the following the statement.

./configure —prefix=/Library/Developer/usr —disable—dependency—checking

The above tells the make tool to install the binaries into the directory /Library/Developer/usr. It also tells the tool to ignore all dependency checks.

Compile the expat binaries by typing make at the Terminal prompt. To test the binaries, type make check at the prompt. To install the binaries and support files, type make install. To test the installed binaries, type the following statement at the prompt.

   /Library/Developer/usr/bin/xmlwf —v

You should get the string "xmlwf using expat_2.0.1" displayed on the Terminal window.

It is now time to compile the Git binaries. First, navigate to the directory git—1.5.2.3. At the Terminal prompt, type make configure to generate the configure script for your system.

Next, configure the project using the following statement.

./configure —prefix=/Library/Developer/usr —disable—dependency—checking

Again, this tells the make tool to install the binaries into /Library/Developer/usr. To compile the binaries, type make at the Terminal prompt. To install them, type make install. Finally, to test the installed binaries, type the following statement at the prompt.

   /Library/Developer/usr/bin/git —version

You should get the string "git version 1.5.2.3" displayed on the Terminal window.

NOTE:

The above steps do not compile and install the help documents for the Git system. For instructions on how to do so, visit the Wincent web page at the following URL.

http://wincent.com/knowledgebase/
Installing_Git_1.5.2.3_on_Mac_OS_X_Tiger

Configuring Git

To configure Git for local use, first you have to identify yourself to the system. Suppose your name happens to be Dee User, and your e—mail address dee.user@mail.box.com. Then, type the following statements at the Terminal prompt.

   git config —global user.name="Dee User"
   git config —global user.email="dee.user@mail.box.com" 

Git will use the above information to sign your committed changes. It will also use the same information for its reports.

Now suppose you want to use Git to track your foobar project. First, navigate to the foobar directory using the cd command. Then type git init at the Terminal prompt. Git then creates a .git directory within the foobar directory. It uses this invisible hidden directory to store and manage your project's repository.

You can also tell Git to place your project repository elsewhere. For example, to store the repository in the directory /Volumes/Projects/Database/git, add the following entry to your .bash_profile file.

   export GIT_DIR=/Volumes/Projects/Database/git

Restart your Terminal session, and type git init at the prompt. Git will now create the repository at the directory specified by GIT_DIR. It will also make that repository visible.

Working With Git

Below is the basic usage syntax of the git command—line tool.

git [global_options] [subcommand [command_options]]

The global_options argument sets those options that affect all SCM transactions. The subcommand argument selects what SCM transaction to do. The command_options argument sets those options that affect that transaction.

Due to length, this article will cover only those options and subcommands needed for a basic SCM work cycle. To learn more about Git, read the complete manual at the following URL.

http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/user—manual.html

Handy global options

To display the tool's version, use the —version option.

   git —version

To display a list of subcommands, use the help option.

   git —help

To change the repository path, use the —git—dir option.

   git —git—dir=repository_path subcommand [command_options]

Then pass the new path to the option as its parameter. This option also overrides the setting made by the variable GIT_DIR.

To store the repository in the same directory as the project, use the —bare option.

   git —bare subcommand [command_options]

This is also the default option if you did not set the GIT_DIR variable, or use the gitdir option.

Adding a project

Suppose you want to store your foobar project into the repository. First, use the cd command to navigate to the foobar project directory. Then type the following statement at the Terminal prompt.

   git add .

Notice that the statement ends with a period. This tells Git to include all the file and subdirectories within the project directory. Git also places an add transaction in the SCM queue.

To complete the transaction, type the following statement at the prompt.

   git commit —m "Added the foobar project to the repository."

Git then copies all the project files and subdirectories into the repository. It also updates its log with the above committal message. Feel free to use a different committal message for your project.

Adding a project item

Suppose you created a new file named foo.xml. To add this file to the repository, use the add subcommand.

   git add foo.xml

Git places an add transaction for foo.xml in its SCM queue. When you commit the transaction, Git then copies the file foo.xml into the repository. But if foo.xml is already in the repository, Git will ignore the subcommand.

Now, suppose you want to add the subdirectory foo_bar to the repository as well. Again, just use the add subcommand.

   git add foo_bar.

First, Git places an add transaction for foo_bar in its queue. It then places add transactions for any file and subdirectory found within foo_bar. Again, if foo_bar is already in the repository, Git will ignore the subcommand.

Removing a project item

Suppose you have the file flub.xml in the repository. To remove that file, use the rm subcommand.

   git rm flub.xml

Git then places a remove transaction in its queue. When you commit the transaction, Git deletes the file from the repository. It also deletes the same file in the project directory.

Now, suppose you have the directory flubar in the repository as well. To remove that directory and any items it contains, use the rm subcommand with an —r option.

   git rm —r flubar

But if you know beforehand that flubar is empty, just use the rm subcommand only.

   git rm flubar

Make sure, however, that the repository has the items you want to remove. Otherwise, Git will respond with an error message.

Moving or renaming a project item

Suppose you want to change the name of the file foo.xml to bar.xml. To rename the file, use the mv subcommand.

   git mv foo.xml bar.xml

Git places a move transaction in its SCM queue. When you commit the transaction, Git makes a copy of foo.xml and assigns the copy with the name bar.xml. It then deletes the file foo.xml. Git also renames the foo.xml file in the project directory.

Now, suppose you want to change the name of the directory foo_bar to fubar. To rename the directory, use the mv subcommand as follows.

   git mv foo_bar fubar

When you commit the transaction, Git first creates the fubar directory in the repository. Next, it copies the contents of foo_bar to fubar. It then deletes the foo_bar directory from the repository. Git also renames the foo_bar directory in the project directory.

Next, suppose you want to move bar.xml into the fubar directory. To do so, use the mv subcommand as follows.

   git mv bar.xml fubar

When you commit the transaction, Git copies the bar.xml into fubar. It then deletes bar.xml in its original location. Git also performs the same operations on bar.xml in the project directory.

Make sure that the item you want to move or rename exists in the repository. Also, if you are renaming a file or directory, make sure that there is no item in the repository with the new name. Otherwise, Git will respond with an error message.

Also, if you are moving a file into a directory, make sure that the directory exists in the repository. Otherwise, Git will actually rename that file.

Committing transactions

As shown earlier, most SCM transactions go into a queue awaiting committal. To commit all the transactions in the queue, use the commit subcommand with an —a option.

   git commit —a —m "Commit all pending transactions"

Git executes each transaction in the order they appeared in the queue. It then adds the phrase "Commit all pending transactions" to the repository's log. Again, feel free to supply your own committal phrase.

But suppose you made changes to the file bar.xml. To commit only those changes, use the subcommand as follows.

   git commit —m "Made changes to the file bar.xml" bar.xml

First, Git compares bar.xml with the one in the repository. It then stores only the differences between the two into the repository.

Now suppose you added two new files to the repository: char.xml and siu.txt. To commit only these additions, use the subcommand as follows.

   git commit —m "Added the files char.xml and siu.txt" char.xml siu.txt

Always provide a concise description of what you are committing. Failure to do so will result in an inaccurate log. If you forgot to provide a description, Git will launch the default editor, which then prompts you for the description. And if you still fail to do so, Git will abort the committal process. But it will not affect any transactions still in the queue.

Disposing of changes

Suppose you made changes to the file char.xml. Then you find those changes to be ineffective. To revert to the last version of that file, use the checkout subcommand.

   git checkout char.xml

Git first retrieves a copy of char.xml from the repository. It then replaces the char.xml file in the project directory with that copy.

Next, suppose you added the file poink.htm to the repository by accident. If you have not committed that addition, you can cancel it by using the reset subcommand.

   git reset HEAD

The argument HEAD tells Git to reset the repository back to the state before the queued addition.

Now, suppose you have committed the addition. To cancel that committal, use the revert subcommand.

   git revert —no—edit HEAD

This time, the HEAD argument tells Git to reset the repository back to a state before the committed addition. Git also updates the repository log with the right description.

Both reset and revert subcommands, however, may affect other transactions as well. For instance, if you have an add and mv transactions in the queue, typing git reset HEAD will cancel both transactions. If you have committed both transactions, typing git revert —no—edit HEAD will cancel both committals. Be careful when using these two subcommands as you may lose more data than you expect.

Reports and logs

Suppose you just committed some of the transactions in the SCM queue. To view what transactions are still pending, use the status subcommand.

   git status

Listing 1 is a sample output of that subcommand. The first entries are transactions still in the queue. Next are files that you have changed. The last items are files and directories not in the repository.

Listing 1. Sample output of git status

# On branch master
# Changes to be committed:
#   (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
#
#       new file:   bar.xml
#       deleted:    foo.xml
#
# Changed but not updated:
#   (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
#
#       modified:   fubar.log
#       modified:   foob.gif
#
# Untracked files:
#   (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
#
#       fubar_2/
#       bar.png

Now, suppose you want a list of files and directories in your repository. To get that list, use the lstree subcommand with a —r option.

   git ls—tree —r HEAD

Listing 2 is a sample output of that subcommand. The first column is a the file's permission flag; the second is the repository type. The third column is the file's hash ID; the third is the name and path of that file.

Listing 2. Sample output of git ls—tree

100644 blob 1538a2be5fe5edf9f5e37185ebf1ea1cd5be3a82    foobar.css
100644 blob df3bc5d3b66449784badd32d5dc7c38c039a320f    foobar.htm
100644 blob 09db1ab264eb8d708951d8cde2efb33ee20e1e76    fubar/foo.xml
100644 blob 2cc9eaa293eed562ee400dffd51b25e493daf991    fubar/bar.gif

Next, suppose you want to compare the project file foo.htm with the one in the repository. To do so, use the diff subcommand.

   git diff foo.htm

If the file is a text file, Git will lists those lines of text that have changed (Listing 3). If the file is a binary file, Git will list the range of bytes that have changed.

Listing 3. Sample output of git diff

index 76ea0fe..c982c02 100644
—— a/foo.htm
+++ b/foo.htm
@@ —4,7 +4,7 @@
 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
 <head>
        <meta http—equiv="content—type" content="text/html;  />
—       <title>Foobar A</title>
+       <title>Foobar B</title>
        <meta name="generator" content="BBEdit 6.5.3" />
        <link rel="Stylesheet" rev="Stylesheet" href="foobar.css" />
 </head>

Suppose you want a project history. To get that history, use the log subcommand.

   git log

Listing 4 shows a sample output of that subcommand. Each entry consists of at least four lines. The first line is the transaction ID. The second is the user who made the transaction. The third line is the date and time of the transaction. The remaining lines describe the transaction.

Listing 4. Sample output of git log

commit 64b9079bcad2bb5fc4eea38da334af395462bf13
Author: Dee User <dee.user@mail.box.com>
Date:   Thu Aug 23 13:26:55 2007 —0700
    Revert "Changed the file foobar.htm"
    
    This reverts commit 1133d0a1d3af8fc94f74d0cc2c5b6581882012e1.
commit 1133d0a1d3af8fc94f74d0cc2c5b6581882012e1
Author: Dee User <dee.user@mail.box.com>
Date:   Thu Aug 23 13:14:38 2007 —0700
    Changed the file foobar.htm

Git uses the less tool to display the project history. To page down the history, press the Space—bar. To page up, press the <B> key.

Now, suppose you want a list of users who worked on the file foo.htm. To display those users, use the blame subcommand.

   git blame foo.htm

If the file is a text file, Git displays the lines of text and the last user who edited each line (Listing 5). If the file is a binary file, Git displays each line of hexadecimal bytes and the last user who changed them.

Listing 5. Sample output of git blame

7442b04 (Dee User 2007—08—04 13:11:57 —0700  1) <?xml version="1.0" 
^7442b04 (Foo Bar 2007—08—04 13:11:57 —0700  2) <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "
   .
   .
^7442b04 (Bar Foo 2007—08—04 13:11:57 —0700  3) <html xmlns="
^7442b04 (Dee User 2007—08—04 13:11:57 —0700  4) <head>

Xcode and Git

Currently, you can only use CVS or Subversion to manage your Xcode projects. But, with a little work, you can also use Git for the same tasks. All it takes is to write menu scripts that will add Git functionality to your Xcode setup.

The following are three examples of Xcode menu scripts that use Git. Feel free to modify these scripts to suit your project needs.

Storing the project

Listing 6 shows a menu script that stores the current project into a Git repository.

First, the script add the directory /Library/Developer/usr/bin to the PATH variable. Then it prompts the user for a description of the project. After the user supplies a valid description, the script creates an empty Git repository. It then adds all the files and directories in the current project to that repository.

Listing 6. Adding a project to Git

#! /bin/bash
#
# — PB User Script Info —
# %%%{PBXName=Add project to the repository}%%%
# %%%{PBXInput=None}%%%
# %%%{PBXOutput=Discard}%%%
# %%%{PBXKeyEquivalent=}%%%
# %%%{PBXArgument=}%%%
#
# set the following shell variables
export PATH="/Library/Developer/usr/bin:$PATH"
GIT_MSG=`date "+Committed on %m/%d/%y %H:%M:%S"`
# prompt the user for a commitalcommittal message
GIT_MSG=`osascript <<—APPLESCRIPT
   tell application "Xcode"
      activate
      display dialog "Reason for committal" default answer 
            "${GIT_MSG}"
      return (text returned of result) as string
   end tell
   APPLESCRIPT
`
# validate the message
GIT_CHK=`expr "$GIT_MSG" : '.*'`
if [ $GIT_CHK —gt 0 ];
then
   # initialize the repository
   git init
   
   # add the project files to the repository
   git add .
   
   # commit the project files
   git commit —m "${GIT_MSG}"
   
   echo "Finished adding the project to the repository."
else
   echo "You must supply a committal message."
fi

Making a transaction

Listing 7 shows a menu script that will do four basic SCM transactions.

First, the script creates a separate menu option for each transaction. It also adds the directory /Library/Developer/usr/bin to the PATH variable. Next, the script checks which transaction the user has chosen. If the transaction needs more data, the script prompts the user for that data. Finally, the script executes the right subcommand for the chosen transaction.

Listing 7. Making four basic SCM transactions

#! /bin/bash
#
# — PB User Script Info —
# %%%{PBXName=Commit changes}%%%
# %%%{PBXArgument=—fsav}%%%
# %%%{PBXOutput=Discard}%%%
# %%%{PBXKeyEquivalent=}%%%
#
# %%%{PBXNewScript}%%%
# %%%{PBXName=Add the file}%%%
# %%%{PBXArgument=—fadd}%%%
# %%%{PBXOutput=Discard}%%%
#
# %%%{PBXNewScript}%%%
# %%%{PBXName=Discard changes}%%%
# %%%{PBXArgument=—frev}%%%
# %%%{PBXOutput=Discard}%%%
#
# %%%{PBXNewScript}%%%
# %%%{PBXName=Tag the project}%%%
# %%%{PBXArgument=—ptag}%%%
# %%%{PBXOutput=Discard}%%%
#
# set the following environment variable
export PATH="/Library/Developer/usr/bin:$PATH"
# set the following shell variables
GIT_PTH=%%%{PBXFilePath}%%%
GIT_PTH=`basename $GIT_PTH`
# determine the selected git transaction
if [ $# —gt 0 ] ; then
    if [ "z${1}" = "z—fsav" ] ; then
         # commit the current file
         GIT_ASK=1
         GIT_MSG="Enter a committal message"
         GIT_DAT=`date "+Committed on %m/%d/%y %H:%M:%S"`
    elif [ "z${1}" = "z—ptag" ] ; then
         # apply a tag to the project
         GIT_MSG="Set the project's revision tag to"
         GIT_DAT=`date "+%m%d%y_%H%M%S"`
         GIT_ASK=1
      else
         GIT_ASK=0
    fi
else
   # just exit
   exit 0
fi
# prompt the user for input
if [ $GIT_ASK —eq 1 ];
then
   GIT_DAT=`osascript <<—APPLESCRIPT
      tell application "Xcode"
         activate
         display dialog "${GIT_MSG}" default answer "${GIT_DAT}"
         return (text returned of result) as string
      end tell
      APPLESCRIPT
   `
   # validate the user input
   GIT_CHK=`expr "$GIT_DAT" : '.*'`
   if [ $GIT_CHK —le 0 ];
   then
      # just exit
      exit 0
   fi
fi
# execute the git transaction
if [ "z${1}" = "z—fsav" ] ; then
   # git commit
   git commit —m "${GIT_DAT}" $GIT_PTH
elif [ "z${1}" = "z—fadd" ] ; then
   # git add
   git add $GIT_PTH
elif [ "z${1}" = "z—frev" ] ; then
   # git revert
   git checkout $GIT_PTH
elif [ "z${1}" = "z—ptag" ] ; then
   # git tag
   git tag "${GIT_DAT}" $GIT_DAT
else
   # just exit
   exit 0
fi

Displaying a report

Listing 8 shows a menu script that will display four types of reports.

First, the script creates a new menu option for each report. Then, it adds /Library/Developer/usr/bin to the PATH variable. Next, it checks which report the user wants to display. It then uses the right subcommand to generate the report.

Finally, the script stores the report output into a temporary file. Then it uses Xcode to display the contents of that file in a separate window.

Listing 8. Displaying an SCM report.

#! /bin/bash
#
# — PB User Script Info —
# %%%{PBXName=Show file history}%%%
# %%%{PBXInput=None}%%%
# %%%{PBXArgument=—fhis}%%%
# %%%{PBXOutput=SeparateWindow}%%%
#
# %%%{PBXNewScript}%%%
# %%%{PBXName=Show file differences}%%%
# %%%{PBXArgument=—fdif}%%%
# %%%{PBXOutput=SeparateWindow}%%%
#
# %%%{PBXNewScript}%%%
# %%%{PBXName=Show project history}%%%
# %%%{PBXArgument=—phis}%%%
# %%%{PBXOutput=SeparateWindow}%%%
#
# %%%{PBXNewScript}%%%
# %%%{PBXName=Show project status}%%%
# %%%{PBXArgument=—prpt}%%%
# %%%{PBXOutput=SeparateWindow}%%%
#
# set the following environment variable
export PATH="/Library/Developer/usr/bin:$PATH"
# set the following shell variables
GIT_PTH=%%%{PBXFilePath}%%%
GIT_PTH=`basename $GIT_PTH`
GIT_DIR=`osascript <<—APPLESCRIPT
   tell application "Finder"
      path to temporary items from user domain
      POSIX path of result as string
      return result
   end tell
   APPLESCRIPT
   `
# set the chosen git subcommand
if [ $# —gt 0 ] ; then
    if [ "z${1}" = "z—fhis" ] ; then
      # display file history
        GIT_DOC="$GIT_DIR/git_fhist.out"
    elif [ "z${1}" = "z—fdif" ] ; then
      # display file differences
        GIT_DOC="$GIT_DIR/git_fdiff.out"
    elif [ "z${1}" = "z—phis" ] ; then
      # display project history
        GIT_DOC="$GIT_DIR/git_phist.out"
    elif [ "z${1}" = "z—prpt" ] ; then
      # display project status
        GIT_DOC="$GIT_DIR/git_pstat.out"
   else
      exit 0
    fi
fi
GIT_DOC=${GIT_DOC//\/\//\/}
# execute the git transaction
if [ "z${1}" = "z—fhis" ] ; then
   # display file history
   git log $GIT_PTH > $GIT_DOC
elif [ "z${1}" = "z—fdif" ] ; then
   # display file differences
   git diff $GIT_PTH > $GIT_DOC
elif [ "z${1}" = "z—phis" ] ; then
   # display project history
   git log HEAD > $GIT_DOC
elif [ "z${1}" = "z—prpt" ] ; then
   # display project status
   git status > $GIT_DOC
else
   exit 0
fi
#display the git report document
GIT_DOC="OS X"`echo $GIT_DOC`
GIT_DOC=`echo ${GIT_DOC//\//:}`
GIT_DOC="\"$GIT_DOC\""
osascript <<—APPLESCRIPT
   tell application "Finder"
       set fileref to get file $GIT_DOC as string
       
       tell application "XCode"
         activate
         open file fileref
       end tell
    end tell
   APPLESCRIPT

In Summary

Git is another in the line of tools for managing software projects. Like CVS and Subversion, Git is an open—source project. Users can download its sources and port the tool to their own operating systems. But unlike CVS and Subversion, Git lets users work on the same project in a distributed, non—centralized fashion.

Git is easy to setup and use over the command—line. You can also use Git to manage your Xcode projects, even though Xcode lacks any support for that tool. All it takes is to write a menu script that will perform the desired action.

So far, we have used Git to do some very basic tasks. We will, however, learn more about Git and its capabilities in the near future. Please stay tuned.

Bibliography and References

Baudis, Petr. "The Git User's Manual (for version 1.5.3 or newer)". Git — Fast Version Control System. 2007 Aug 13. Online: http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/user—manual.html.

Baudis, Petr. "Git—SVN Crash Course". Git — Fast Version Control System. 2007 Aug 16. Online:

http://git.or.cz/course/svn.html.

Wikipedia. Git (software) (2007 July 13). Copyright 2007. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. Online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Git_%28software%29.


JC is a freelance engineering writer who lives happily in North Vancouver, British Columbia. He divides his time between writing technical articles, and teaching origami at his districts public library. He can be reached at anarakisware@gmail.com.

 

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MacFamilyTree 7.3.3 - Create and explore...
MacFamilyTree gives genealogy a facelift: it's modern, interactive, incredibly fast, and easy to use. We're convinced that generations of chroniclers would have loved to trade in their genealogy... Read more
Skype 7.5.0.738 - Voice-over-internet ph...
Skype allows you to talk to friends, family and co-workers across the Internet without the inconvenience of long distance telephone charges. Using peer-to-peer data transmission technology, Skype... Read more
PushPal 3.0 - Mirror Android notificatio...
PushPal is a client for Pushbullet, which automatically shows you all of your phone's notifications right on your computer. This means you can see who's calling or read text messages even if your... Read more
Logic Pro X 10.1.1 - Music creation and...
Apple Logic Pro X is the most advanced version of Logic ever. Sophisticated new tools for professional songwriting, editing, and mixing are built around a modern interface that's designed to get... Read more
VLC Media Player 2.2.0 - Popular multime...
VLC Media Player is a highly portable multimedia player for various audio and video formats (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, DivX, MP3, OGG, ...) as well as DVDs, VCDs, and various streaming protocols. It... Read more
Sound Studio 4.7.8 - Robust audio record...
Sound Studio lets you easily record and professionally edit audio on your Mac. Easily rip vinyls and digitize cassette tapes, or record lectures and voice memos. Prepare for live shows with live... Read more
LibreOffice 4.4.1.2 - Free, open-source...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
VueScan 9.5.03 - Scanner software with a...
VueScan is a scanning program that works with most high-quality flatbed and film scanners to produce scans that have excellent color fidelity and color balance. VueScan is easy to use, and has... Read more
Freeway Pro 7.0.3 - Drag-and-drop Web de...
Freeway Pro lets you build websites with speed and precision... without writing a line of code! With its user-oriented drag-and-drop interface, Freeway Pro helps you piece together the website of... Read more
Cloud 3.3.0 - File sharing from your men...
Cloud is simple file sharing for the Mac. Drag a file from your Mac to the CloudApp icon in the menubar and we take care of the rest. A link to the file will automatically be copied to your clipboard... Read more

This Week at 148Apps: February 23-27, 20...
Final February Fun at 148Apps   How do you know what apps are worth your time and money? Just look to the review team at 148Apps. We sort through the chaos and find the apps you’re looking for. The ones we love become Editor’s Choice, standing out... | Read more »
GDC 2015 – Does Not Commute is Definitel...
GDC 2015 – Does Not Commute is Definitely a Game You Should Keep an Eye on Posted by Rob Rich on March 2nd, 2015 [ permalink ] We were teased about Mediocre Games’ (Smash Hit, | Read more »
F84 Games & POW! Announce Stan Lee V...
F84 Games has announced that it is working with legendary comic creator Stan Lee and POW! Entertainment to produce Stan Lee’s Hero Command. The game will be a action adventure of heroic proportions. | Read more »
Setlyst Keeps Your Set Straight So You C...
Setlyst Keeps Your Set Straight So You Can Focus On Rocking Out. Posted by Jessica Fisher on March 2nd, 2015 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Space is Vast, So Space Agency Has a Vas...
Space is Vast, So Space Agency Has a Vast New Update! Posted by Jessica Fisher on March 2nd, 2015 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Size DOES Matter Review
Size DOES Matter Review By Campbell Bird on March 2nd, 2015 Our Rating: :: HARD TO BEATUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad This rhythm game has a unique control scheme and performance system that make it feel like a true... | Read more »
The first ever action 3D card battler Al...
On the other hand, you probably haven’t played an action 3D card battler – until now. Step forward, All Star Legion. All Star Legion is a 3D QTE-based action RPG card battler, but fear not – the game itself isn’t as convoluted as its description.... | Read more »
Travel Back to the 1980s With the Making...
Headup Games has released a hilarious making of video for its upcoming title, Pixel Heroes: Byte & Magic. The game is a RPG/Roguelike where you control three heroes set to save the township of Pixton from an evil cult called The Sons of Dawn.... | Read more »
Heavenstrike Rivals Review
Heavenstrike Rivals Review By Campbell Bird on March 2nd, 2015 Our Rating: :: HEAVENLY STRATEGICUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Despite a few flaws, this free-to-play strategy game is a fun mix of new and old strategy... | Read more »
Get The Whole Story – Lone Wolf Complete...
Get The Whole Story – Lone Wolf Complete is Now Available and On Sale Posted by Jessica Fisher on February 27th, 2015 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Sale! 15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro for $...
 Best Buy has the 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1774.99 $1799.99, or $225 off MSRP. Choose free home shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Price valid for online orders... Read more
27-inch 3.5GHz 5K iMac in stock today and on...
 B&H Photo has the 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac in stock today and on sale for $2299 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for... Read more
Apple Launches Free Web-Based Pages and Other...
Apple’s new Web-only access to iWork productivity apps is a free level of iCloud service available to anyone, including people who don’t own or use Apple devices. The service includes access to Apple... Read more
Survey Reveals Solid State Disk (SSD) Technol...
In a recent SSD technology use survey, Kroll Ontrack, a firm specializing in data recovery, found that while nearly 90 percent of respondents leverage the performance and reliability benefits of SSD... Read more
Save up to $600 with Apple refurbished Mac Pr...
The Apple Store is offering Apple Certified Refurbished Mac Pros for up to $600 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each Mac Pro, and shipping is free. The... Read more
Updated Mac Price Trackers
We’ve updated our Mac Price Trackers with the latest information on prices, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers: - 15″ MacBook Pros - 13″ MacBook... Read more
Apple CEO Tim Cook to Deliver 2015 George Was...
Apple CEO Tim Cook will deliver the George Washington University’s Commencement address to GWU grads on May 17, at which time he will also be awarded an honorary doctorate of public service from the... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished Mac minis for up t...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 Mac minis, with models available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz... Read more
Save up to $50 on iPad Air 2s, NY tax only, f...
 B&H Photo has iPad Air 2s on sale for $50 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $469.99 $30 off - 64GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $549 $50 off - 128GB iPad Air 2... Read more
16GB iPad Air 2 on sale for $447, save $52
Walmart has the 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi on sale for $446.99 on their online store for a limited time. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for online orders only,... Read more

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*Apple* Pay Automation Engineer - iOS System...
**Job Summary** At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring passion and dedication to your job Read more
Sr. Technical Services Consultant, *Apple*...
**Job Summary** Apple Professional Services (APS) has an opening for a senior technical position that contributes to Apple 's efforts for strategic and transactional Read more
Event Director, *Apple* Retail Marketing -...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global engagement strategy and team. Delivering an overarching brand Read more
*Apple* Pay - Site Reliability Engineer - Ap...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
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