TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Mac in the Shell: Pashua: Helping the GUI Crowd

Volume Number: 23 (2007)
Issue Number: 12
Column Tag: Mac in the Shell

Mac in the Shell: Pashua: Helping the GUI Crowd

Give your shell scripts a GUI

by Edward Marczak

Introduction

In the August 2006 issue of MacTech, I wrote an Mac in the Shell: Pashua: Helping the GUI Crowd, "GUI-up Your Script." It talked about ways to add a GUI to your shell script using AppleScript Studio, part of XCode. As we saw in that article, now on-line at http://www.mactech.com/articles/mactech/
Vol.22/22.08/GUI-upyourScript/index.html
, there are pros and cons to the shell scripter using this method. Since a year is an eternity in technology-time, I'm back to talk about some notable alternatives. My current fave? Pashua. Read on to see how you can use Pashua to add a GUI to your shell script.

What's Happening

The reasons for creating a GUI for a shell script remain the same: you're a shell scripter, but the person running the script is a GUI-type. Perhaps it's just a nicer way to ask for input. In any case, it's a powerful combination.

Before I get into Pashua, I'd like to mention some alternatives. Platypus (http://www.sveinbjorn.org/platypus) is a wrapper that will take a shell script and construct the necessary bundle structure to make the script a 'regular' double-clickable OS X ".app". Useful, in some cases, to create 'droplets' and to allow end-users to run shell scripts at login time via their Login Items. (Though, we'd never do that as good admins, we'd use launchd, right?). CocoaDialog (http://cocoadialog.sourceforge.net/), true to its name, allows the shell scripter to create dialogs. Not quite full windows. Think "error dialog" or "progress dialog." However, many times, that's precisely what you need, so, CocoaDialog exists, says what it does, and does a good job doing what it says.

However, Pashua is a bit more. Pashua will let you construct full windows, using most common GUI widgets. The best thing about Pashua is the ease in which you can get data in and out of the windows you create. Let's get started!

Good Times

First, go download Pashua itself at http://www.bluem.net/downloads/pashua_en/. From there, drop the distribution someplace logical (to your situation). We're shell people, right? So, get into Terminal, if you're not there already, and change into the new Pashua folder. From there, we'll dig into the Pashua.app bundle. Really, all you need to know is that from the shell you'll need the Pashua binary, located at Pashua.app/Contents/MacOS/Pashua. You may want to get this into your current $PATH so you can simply type Pashua from now on, but I'll leave that up to you. Go on and run that if you like - you'll receive the dialog show in figure 1.


Figure 1 - Ah, we need a config file.

As evidenced by the error dialog, Pashua is driven entirely by a config file. The config file is nothing esoteric - it's simply a text description that describes the window layout. Let's start with the easiest definition. Fire up your favorite text editor, and enter this:

uname.type = textfield
uname.label = Enter the user ID
uname.default = User ID
uname.width = 340

Save it as win_test.pash. This tells Pashua that we want a new element named "uname" to be created. The "uname" element will be a text field. It will have a label above the text field that says, "Enter the user ID", and will have default text of "User ID". Finally, we create the width of the field to be 340 pixels.

Enough chit-chat - let's run it. If you did get Pashua into your path, simply type:

Pashua win_test.pash

(If you didn't get it into your path, specify the full path to the Pashua binary instead. Something like: /Applications/Pashua/Pashua.app/Contents/MacOS/Pashua).

...and we're greeted with this:


Figure 2 - Our "Hello World" example.

Now, press the return key, or click the "OK" button. Notice what happens in the shell:

$ Pashua win_test.pash 
uname=User ID

That's right! Pashua simply takes the values of all elements and hands them to you on standard out. For shell scripters, this is a relief! Standard in and standard out: that's how shell scripting works! If you've tried to interface with AppleScript, you'll know that passing values back and forth is a huge pain in the patoot. Pashua is a shell-scripters GUI tool more than a GUI tool that simply has 'support' for scripting languages. So, onward!

Let's go for some eye candy. I'm going to put the MacTech logo in the header, and name the Window. Insert this above the lines already in win_test.pash:

# Set the window title
*.title=MacTech Utility
# Display an image
img.type = image
img.path = /Users/Shared/images/mt_logo.gif
img.border = 0

...and again, we display our window (Pashua win_test.pash) and see the results in figure 3.


Figure 3 - Ooooooh, fancy

After clicking OK, note that our output hasn't changed, as we haven't added any elements that accept input. You probably picked up that the hash mark ("#") denotes a comment, and Pashua will ignore any line beginning with one. Additionally, the "*" "element" affects the entire window itself. In addition to the title, so it's not "Pashua", you can also change the following window elements:

transparency: Sets the window's transparency, decimal value from 0 (invisible) to 1 (opaque)

appearance: Only allowed value is metal, which will create a "brushed metal" window. Under Leopard, "metal" creates a single, large "unified" window.

autoclosetime: If autoclosetime is set to an integer number larger than 1, the dialog will automatically close after the specified number of seconds have passed. Note that if a window auto-closes, no values are passed back.

floating: Setting floating to 1 will result in the window floating above other windows. (Note: does not work on Mac OS X 10.2)

x: Sets the horizontal position where the window should be opened on the screen (0 is the left border of the screen)

y: Sets the vertical position where the window should be opened on the screen (0 is the upper border of the screen)

Frankly, "title" is about all I use, as I like the auto-positioning on the screen, and I never seem to have need of the other attributes, but you may.

If you want to let a user bail out of an action, add a cancel button to the window:

cb.type = cancelbutton
cb.label = Cancel
cb.tooltip = Closes this window without taking action

Run our test window with this in the config file, but note the output when you cancel:

$ Pashua win_test.pash 
cb=1

If the cancel button is invoked - either by clicking or pressing the escape key, all values are discarded, and only the cancel button variable is returned.

The Love Boat

How about getting data in and out of our Window? Let's look at a few practical examples, starting with getting data out. We've already seen that Pashua returns its data on standard out. For the sake of it, let's add one more element, a checkbox. Add these lines beneath the textfield definition:

alter_account.type = checkbox
alter_account.label = Alter Account?
alter_account.tooltip = Checking this box will alter the account

Save, and now check out our window. Enter some data, and click the "OK" button. Notice the output:

$ Pashua win_test.pash 
uname=User ID
alter_account=1
cb=0

While that may be great for viewing on standard out in the shell itself, it doesn't help us too much in a script. To handle this gracefully, we really need to be in a script, which is where we want to be anyway. Let's look at a small, semi-robust wrapper script:

#!/usr/bin/env bash
if [ -N $1 ]; then
        echo "You need to supply the Pashua config file";
        exit 1
fi
result=`/Users/marczak/Applications/Pashua/Pashua.app/Contents/MacOS/Pashua $1 | sed 's/ /;;;/g'`
# Parse result
for line in $result
do
        key=`echo $line | sed 's/^\([^=]*\)=.*$/\1/'`
        value=`echo $line | sed 's/^[^=]*=\(.*\)$/\1/' | sed 's/;;;/ /g'`
        varname=$key
        varvalue="$value"
        eval $varname='$varvalue'
done

Save this a pwrapper.sh, and call it like this, with our sample window:

./pwrapper win_test.pash

Enter some data and click "OK". What happened? Seemingly nothing. No apparent output from Pashua. What's actually happening is that our wrapper script is capturing the output and assigning it to variables within the script. Those variables are now available to us directly. Now, the value passed back from uname is available in "$uname". While this wrapper script solves many problems for us, it doesn't go the distance if we need to dynamically create windows. For that, we need to use a little string creation and concatenation.

Fantasy Island

Following this article is a "complete" script that gathers local user accounts for a fictitious migration/alteration (Listing 1). The idea here is to show off Pashua, and not come up with a user-altering utility. The new bit here is that we create a drop-down menu that we populate dynamically at runtime.

The final window appears in figure 4. Note that the only output is generated purposefully by our script:

$ ./pwrapper.sh 
Converting user marczak
Also altering account


Figure 4 - Window with drop-down menu, generated dynamically.

The Gong Show

While this but scratches the surface of all that you can do with Pashua, I hope it was a helpful introduction that kick-starts your thoughts (and typing fingers!). Read the documentation included with the download for other elements that can be put into a window. Also, in the Examples folder, you'll find an application bundle that shows how to create a double-clickable app - all using your shell script and Pashua. If you're not a bash scripter, remember, Pashua accepts a text file as input, and sends its output via standard out. That's very friendly to any scripting language - Perl, Python, Ruby and more. There's even an AppleScript example.

Media of the month: Project management is my focus this month, and there are a lot of good books out there. Think about everything we do, and how many we could classify as "projects." Peruse your local bookstore's shelf for a project management title that suits you. I'm currently finishing up "The Zen Approach to Project Management: Working From Your Center to Balance Expectations and Performance" by George Pitagorsky. The "Zen" part of this title isn't to be taken lightly, and isn't being used as a fashion piece as many others do. This book won't teach you project management techniques per se, but it will teach you, using Zen "centering" exercises how to see the big picture when managing a project. Highly recommended, but only after you have some project management knowledge.

Here comes Macworld! One month away. I'll be presenting two (maybe three) topics this year. I'm leading a hands-on lab on Wednesday that teaches how to get started using the shell. So many people don't even know where to start at all, but know there's power at that cursor starting back at them. I'll also be presenting OS X Server Collaboration Tools, also on Wednesday along with Ben Greisler. This will talk about all the new features in Leopard server like iCal server, the new Wiki and more. Finally, I may be sitting in with Schoun Regan to talk about Kerberos on Tuesday in the Power Tools session, which will be informative if I'm there or not. Of course, don't miss the MacTech booth, where I'll be popping up at from time to time. Hope to see everyone in San Francisco!


Ed Marczak owns and operates Radiotope, a technology consulting practice. Think technology is dy-no-myte? Find out more at http://www.radiotope.com

 
AAPL
$116.47
Apple Inc.
+0.16
MSFT
$47.98
Microsoft Corpora
-0.72
GOOG
$537.50
Google Inc.
+2.67

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Cobook 3.0.7 - Intelligent address book....
Cobook Contacts is an intuitive, engaging address book. Solve the problem of contact management with Cobook Contacts and its simple interface and powerful syncing and integration possibilities.... Read more
StatsBar 1.9 - Monitor system processes...
StatsBar gives you a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the following areas of your Mac: CPU usage Memory usage Disk usage Network and bandwidth usage Battery power and health (MacBooks only)... Read more
Cyberduck 4.6 - FTP and SFTP browser. (F...
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more
Maya 2015 - Professional 3D modeling and...
Maya is an award-winning software and powerful, integrated 3D modeling, animation, visual effects, and rendering solution. Because Maya is based on an open architecture, all your work can be scripted... Read more
Evernote 6.0.1 - Create searchable notes...
Evernote allows you to easily capture information in any environment using whatever device or platform you find most convenient, and makes this information accessible and searchable at anytime, from... Read more
calibre 2.11 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital... Read more
Herald 5.0.1 - Notification plugin for M...
Note: Versions 2.1.3 (for OS X 10.7), 3.0.6 (for OS X 10.8), and 4.0.8 (for OS X 10.9) are no longer supported by the developer. Herald is a notification plugin for Mail.app, Apple's Mac OS X email... Read more
Firetask 3.7 - Innovative task managemen...
Firetask uniquely combines the advantages of classical priority-and-due-date-based task management with GTD. Stay focused and on top of your commitments - Firetask's "Today" view shows all relevant... Read more
TechTool Pro 7.0.6 - Hard drive and syst...
TechTool Pro is now 7, and this is the most advanced version of the acclaimed Macintosh troubleshooting utility created in its 20-year history. Micromat has redeveloped TechTool Pro 7 to be fully 64... Read more
PhotoDesk 3.0.1 - Instagram client for p...
PhotoDesk lets you view, like, comment, and download Instagram pictures/videos! (NO Uploads! / Image Posting! Instagram forbids that! AND you *need* an *existing* Instagram account). But you can do... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Ubisoft Gives Everyone Two New Ways to E...
Ubisoft Gives Everyone Two New Ways to Earn In-Game Stuff for Far Cry 4 Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Golfinity – Tips, Tricks, Strategies, an...
Dig this: Would you like to know what we thought of being an infinite golfer? Check out our Golfinity review! Golfinity offers unlimited ways to test your skills at golf. Here are a few ways to make sure your score doesn’t get too high and your... | Read more »
Dark Hearts, The Sequel to Haunting Meli...
Dark Hearts, The Sequel to Haunting Melissa, is Available Now Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Meowza! Toyze Brings Talking Tom to Life...
Meowza! | Read more »
Square Enix Announces New Tactical RPG f...
Square Enix Announces New Tactical RPG for Mobile, Heavenstrike Rivals. Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] With their epic stories and gorgeous graphics, | Read more »
Quest for Revenge (Games)
Quest for Revenge 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: The great Kingdom of the west has fallen. The gods ignore the prayers of the desperate. A dark warlord has extinguished... | Read more »
Threadz is a New Writing Adventure for Y...
Threadz is a New Writing Adventure for You and Your Friends Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] In the tradition of round-robin storytelling, | Read more »
SteelSeries Stratus XL Hardware Review
Made by: SteelSeries Price: $59.99 Hardware/iOS Integration Rating: 4 out of 5 stars Usability Rating: 4.5 out of 5 stars Reuse Value Rating: 4.25 out of 5 stars Build Quality Rating: 4.5 out of 5 stars Overall Rating: 4.31 out of 5 stars | Read more »
ACDSee (Photography)
ACDSee 1.0.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Photography Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Capture, perfect, and share your photos with ACDSee. The ACDSee iPhone app combines an innovative camera, a powerful photo... | Read more »
ProTube for YouTube (Entertainment)
ProTube for YouTube 2.0.2 Device: iOS Universal Category: Entertainment Price: $1.99, Version: 2.0.2 (iTunes) Description: ProTube is the ultimate, fully featured YouTube app. With it's highly polished design, ProTube offers ad-free... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Save up to $400 with Apple refurbished 2014 1...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 15″ Retina MacBook Pros for up to $400 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping... Read more
New 13-inch 1.4GHz MacBook Air on sale for $8...
 Adorama has the 2014 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $899.99 including free shipping plus NY & NJ tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. B&H Photo has the 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook... Read more
Apple Expected to Reverse Nine-Month Tablet S...
Apple and Samsung combined accounted for 62 percent of the nearly 36 million branded tablets shipped in 3Q 2014, according to early vendor shipment share estimates from market intelligence firm ABI... Read more
Stratos: 30 Percent of US Smartphone Owners t...
Stratos, Inc., creator of the Bluetooth Connected Card Platform, has announced results from its 2014 Holiday Mobile Payments Survey. The consumer survey found that nearly one out of three (30 percent... Read more
2014 1.4GHz Mac mini on sale for $449, save $...
 B&H Photo has lowered their price on the new 1.4GHz Mac mini to $449.99 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $50 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this new... Read more
Check Apple prices on any device with the iTr...
MacPrices is proud to offer readers a free iOS app (iPhones, iPads, & iPod touch) and Android app (Google Play and Amazon App Store) called iTracx, which allows you to glance at today’s lowest... Read more
64GB iPod touch on sale for $249, save $50
Best Buy has the 64GB iPod touch on sale for $249 on their online store for a limited time. Their price is $50 off MSRP. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for... Read more
15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $17...
 B&H Photo has the 2014 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1799.99 for a limited time. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. B&H will also include free copies of... Read more
New Logitech AnyAngle Case/Stand Brings Flexi...
Logitec has announced the newest addition to its suite of tablet products — the Logitech AnyAngle. A protective case with an any-angle stand for iPad Air 2 and all iPad mini models, AnyAngle is the... Read more
Notebook PC Shipments Rise Year-Over-Year as...
According to preliminary results from the upcoming DisplaySearch Quarterly Mobile PC Shipment and Forecast Report, the global notebook PC market grew 10 percent year-over-year in Q3’14 to 49.4... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC)- Retail S...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Financial Services...
**Job Summary** Apple Financial Services (AFS) offers consumers, businesses and educational institutions ways to finance Apple purchases. We work with national and Read more
*Apple* Store Leader Program - College Gradu...
Job Description: Job Summary As an Apple Store Leader Program agent, you can continue your education as you major in the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Senior Event Manager, *Apple* Retail Market...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global event strategy. Delivering an overarching brand story; in-store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.