TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Mac In The Shell: Plumbing the Depths

Volume Number: 23 (2007)
Issue Number: 08
Column Tag: Mac In The Shell

Mac In The Shell: Plumbing the Depths

Finding hidden gems in application bundles

by Edward Marczak

Introduction

With the advent of OS X, most Mac developers were introduced to the concept of bundles. More properly divided into bundles or packages, they both refer to a file-system directory that groups related resources together. This is true for frameworks (bundles: transparent structures that a user can easily access the contents of), applications (a package: an opaque bundle that requires work on the part of the user to open; contents are not easily modified), kernel extensions (another package), certain document types (check out Pages and Keynote, for example) and others. A bundle follows a very specific file layout, meaning, you'll know where to go find the goods. Follow along for a tour, and let's uncover some hidden apps.

Inside a Bundle

Those of us working with the Macintosh for a long enough period of time remember ResEdit, the resource format of OS 9, and all of the types we could store in the resource fork of a file. While OS X recognizes and respects the traditional dual-fork file, its format is deprecated, being replaced by the bundle. The purpose of a bundle is to keep the resources of an application, plug-in or framework in one place. This makes the contents easy to locate and easy to move without damage. What can go into a bundle? Well, technically anything, but you'll typically find the following types of data stored there:

Sounds

Images

Private libraries

String resources

Executable code

Naturally, it's the latter that interests us in this article.

Typically, to launch an application from a shell, you'd use the open command, like so:

open /Applications/TextEdit.app

This will always run the application in the context of the user, even if launched from a root shell, as shown in figure 1:


Figure 1 – TextEdit running as a standard user.

Of course, there are times where you may want (or need) an app to be running with some elevated privileges. How can we achieve this? Time to go digging!

A Direct Launch

As mentioned, a bundle conforms to a specific layout. Listing 1 shows this hierarchy using TextEdit as an example.

Listing 1 – TextEdit.app as bundle

TextEdit.app/
Contents/
Info.plist
MacOS/
TextEdit
PkgInfo
Resources/
DocumentWindows.nib
...
zh_TW.lproj
version.plist

The first item in all modern application bundles is the Contents folder. It is under this folder that all other objects reside. Within the Contents folder, you'll find an Info.plist file that tells the Finder many things about this bundle, including the bundle name, version, signature, applicable data types and more. You'll also find a Resources subdirectory, typically containing the images, sounds, movies and other resources used by the application. The application's executable itself resides in the MacOS subdirectory. If you are to look in there now, you'll find the TextEdit application. You can launch the application directly from here.

Gain a root shell using your preferred method, and launch the TextEdit application directly – not using open. Like this:

# /Applications/Textedit.app/Contents/MacOS/TextEdit

Now let's have a look in Activity Monitor, and you'll see that it's running with root privileges.


Figure 2 – TextEdit running with root privileges

Of course, the real point of this is not so much running with root, but the fact that you can access these binaries from the shell in some meaningful way.

Where's the Plunger?

Well, launching TextEdit is nice and all, but, not extremely practical. I'd like to continue with two very real-world examples that have made a difference in my daily work. While every GUI application will have its "true" binary buried in the application package, it may also have any number of helper-apps or other binaries that the app relies on. These are typically found in the Resources directory of the bundle. The easiest way to find executables in a bundle would be, in a shell, to change into the bundle directory and use this handy find command:

find . -type f -perm -100

This will allow you to quickly scour Application and Framework bundles. For instance:

$ cd /System/Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/
$ find . -type f -perm -100
./Contents/MacOS/ARDAgent
./Contents/Resources/ARDPref.prefPane/Contents/MacOS/ARDPref
./Contents/Resources/ARDPref.prefPane/Contents/Resources/prefwritesettings
./Contents/Resources/kickstart
./Contents/Resources/RemoteDesktopAgent
./Contents/Support/ARDForcedViewer.app/Contents/MacOS/ARDForcedViewer
./Contents/Support/ARDHelper
./Contents/Support/build_hd_index
./Contents/Support/networksetup-panther
./Contents/Support/networksetup-tiger
./Contents/Support/Remote Desktop Message.app/Contents/MacOS/Remote Desktop Message
./Contents/Support/sysinfocachegen
./Contents/Support/systemsetup-panther
./Contents/Support/systemsetup-tiger

That's some wonderfully revealing information!

Secure Copy

The first really useful binary comes from the MacFUSE project. If you've installed MacFUSE core and the pre-compiled ssh filesystem, run our find command in the sshfs.app bundle. (If you haven't installed this, you should! It's an incredible resource. Find out more at http://code.google.com/p/macfuse/). Out of all the things we're returned, this turns out to be what we're looking for:

./Contents/Resources/sshfs-static

The sshfs-static binary lets us mount ssh file systems via a shell command rather than using the GUI app to do so. What's this good for? Automation, of course! In fact, you can use it to mount a remote ssh file system proactively, or in response to just about any event.

The easy thing to imagine is a nightly file copy. Mount the file system first, then, use ditto, rsync, or your preferred file moving method, and then unmount (using the standard umount command as, under OS X, there is no FUSE-specific unmounting needed). Better yet, though, think about a launchd job that watches a particular folder and perhaps copies files to a remote location as they show up in a source folder. Hmmmmmmm. So, how can we use this thing?

One way to make your life easier would be to symlink the sshfs-static binary to some appropriate location in your path. I'm going to run it straight from the application package, however, so for these examples, you'll need to change directly into the sshfs.app/Contents/Resources directory.

First, create a mount point for the file system. Then run the sshfs-static app and supply the following parameters:

user@hostname:/path/to/directory
mountpoint
-oreconnect,volname=name appearing in the Finder

The "reconnect" option, supplied with the -o switch isn't necessary, but does make things smoother if there's a network interruption and you're disconnected.

Since this all rides on top of ssh, ssh keys are respected. So, if you've generated some password-less keys, just like ssh, you won't be prompted for a password. Let's see this in action. First, I created /tmp/ssh as a mount point. Then, I used sshfs-static to mount a remote system:

$ ./sshfs-static marczak@www.example.com:/ /tmp/ssh -oreconnect,volname=wsweb
kextload: /System/Library/Filesystems/fusefs.fs/Support/fusefs.kext loaded successfully

...and let's take a look at it with mount:

$ mount
/dev/disk0s2 on / (local, journaled)
[snip]
sshfs#marczak@www.example.com:/ on /private/tmp/ssh (nodev, nosuid, synchronous, mounted by marczak)

Figure 3 shows the result of this in my Finder sidebar.


Figure 3: An ssh file system ("wsweb") as seen in the Finder

Very, very, very cool.

Network Probing

While 'black-hat' tools such as nmap sometimes get a bad rap, the fact is that tools like this are also perfect for system administrators when troubleshooting network issues. "Can I reach that port?" and "Is the target port open and responding?" are two of the most frequently asked questions when troubleshooting issues and planning network configurations. While I load nmap on my machine, I often find myself remotely accessing someone in need of assistance because his or her e-mail app "won't work" (residential ISPs typically block port 25) or iChat won't work in some manner (misconfigured/tightly restricted firewalls sometimes will block AIM or Google Talk/Jabber). It would, of course, be a chore and not very friendly to go load nmap and other tools onto someone else's system at that time. Is there a substitute built in to OS X?

Network Utility.app to the rescue! Huh?!? You expected a shell utility, right? Well, there's one hidden in the very graphical Network Utility.app that's found in your Utilities folder. Let's run our find command:

$ cd /Applications/Utilities/Network\ Utility.app/
$ find . -type f -perm -100
./Contents/MacOS/Network Utility
./Contents/Resources/stroke

Of course, we knew about MacOS/Network Utility, but Resources/stroke looks interesting! Nicely enough, the developer that wrote stroke was also kind enough to include a usage statement if you run it without parameters:

$ ./stroke 
2007-06-22 08:41:13.136 stroke[2113] stroke address startPort endPort
Let's see it in action:
./stroke 192.168.100.12 20 500
Port Scanning host: 192.168.100.12
         Open TCP Port:         22       pcanywherestat
         Open TCP Port:         25
         Open TCP Port:         53
         Open TCP Port:         80
         Open TCP Port:         106
         Open TCP Port:         110
         Open TCP Port:         119
         Open TCP Port:         139
         Open TCP Port:         143
         Open TCP Port:         311
         Open TCP Port:         389
         Open TCP Port:         427
         Open TCP Port:         443
         Open TCP Port:         445
         Open TCP Port:         465

Well, that's another useful tool that was buried, waiting for discovery. (Bonus points if you recognize the OS that I scanned).

Conclusion

The examples given here really only scratch the surface. There are plenty more hidden gems to be discovered. Take a look in your favorite applications. Dig in and see what you find! You will need to go hunt these utilities and helpers down yourself as they won't be in your shell's path.

Media of the month: Lost Season 1. OK, call me cheesy, but I really dig the show and am surprised at how many people have never given it a chance. Well, Summer is here and it's a great time to rent the DVDs and watch them at your own pace. If you're in the Southern Hemisphere, it's Winter....and what a great time to get under a blanket on the couch, sip some tea and watch a show...especially one that takes place on a tropical island! Enjoy.

WWDC 2007 has come and gone now, and got to reinforce the new concepts in Leopard. I hope everyone who went enjoyed the show, and will start practicing with the new tools and APIs...and have new tools, utilities and techniques ready for when Leopard ships. I've been plumbing the depths of the beta from the show, and have been pleasantly surprised.

Until next month, keep exploring!

Resources

Apple, Inc. "Bundle Programming Guide"


Ed Marczak gets dressed in the morning, drinks tea and enjoys breathing. All of this comes in handy in his role as Executive Editor of MacTech Magazine, or when running his consulting company Radiotope. They're also good features when around children. Why? http://www.radiotope.com/writing

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Vivaldi 1.7.735.46 - An advanced browser...
Vivaldi is a browser for our friends. In 1994, two programmers started working on a web browser. Our idea was to make a really fast browser, capable of running on limited hardware, keeping in mind... Read more
HandBrake 1.0.3 - Versatile video encode...
HandBrake is a tool for converting video from nearly any format to a selection of modern, widely supported codecs. Features Supported Sources VIDEO_TS folder, DVD image or real DVD (unencrypted... Read more
Slack 2.5.1 - Collaborative communicatio...
Slack is a collaborative communication app that simplifies real-time messaging, archiving, and search for modern working teams. Version 2.5.1: New The way we load teams you don't view often has been... Read more
BBEdit 11.6.4 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more
BBEdit 11.6.4 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more
beaTunes 4.6.12 - Organize your music co...
beaTunes is a full-featured music player and organizational tool for music collections. How well organized is your music Library? Are your artists always spelled the same way? Any R.E.M. vs REM?... Read more
Tinderbox 7.0.1 - Store and organize you...
Tinderbox is a personal content management assistant. It stores your notes, ideas, and plans. It can help you organize and understand them. And Tinderbox helps you share ideas through Web journals... Read more
FotoMagico 5.4 - Powerful slideshow crea...
FotoMagico lets you create professional slideshows from your photos and music with just a few, simple mouse clicks. It sports a very clean and intuitive yet powerful user interface. High image... Read more
Direct Mail 4.3.9 - Create and send grea...
Direct Mail is an easy-to-use, fully-featured email marketing app purpose-built for OS X. It lets you create and send great looking email campaigns. Start your newsletter by selecting from a gallery... Read more
Tinderbox 7.0.1 - Store and organize you...
Tinderbox is a personal content management assistant. It stores your notes, ideas, and plans. It can help you organize and understand them. And Tinderbox helps you share ideas through Web journals... Read more

The best sales on the App Store this wee...
The App Store has quite an exciting lineup of discount games this week that range across a variety of genres. It's a great opportunity to catch up on some of the premium games you may have been holding off on -- and some you can even grab for free... | Read more »
The best new games we played this week
Ah, here we are again at the close of another busy week. Don't rest too easy, though. We had a lot of great new releases in mobile games this week, and now you're going to have to spend all weekend playing them. That shouldn't be too much of a... | Read more »
Rollercoaster Tycoon Touch Guide: How to...
| Read more »
Rabbids Crazy Rush Guide: How to unlock...
The Rabbids are back in a new endless running adventure, Rabbids Crazy Rush. It's more ridiculous cartoon craziness as you help the little furballs gather enough fuel (soda) to get to the moon. Sure, it's a silly idea, but everyone has dreams --... | Read more »
Tavern Guardians (Games)
Tavern Guardians 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Tavern Guardians is a Hack-and-Slash action game played in the style of a match-three. You can experience high pace action... | Read more »
Slay your way to glory in idle RPG Endle...
It’s a golden age for idle games on the mobile market, and those addictive little clickers have a new best friend. South Korean developer Ekkorr released Endless Frontier last year, and players have been idling away the hours in the company of its... | Read more »
Tiny Striker: World Football Guide - How...
| Read more »
Good news everyone! Futurama: Worlds of...
Futurama is finding a new home on mobile in TinyCo and Fox Interactive's new game, Futurama: Worlds of Tomorrow. They're really doing it up, bringing on board Futurama creator Matt Groening along with the original cast and writers. TinyCo wants... | Read more »
MUL.MASH.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL (Games)
MUL.MASH.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ENDLESS UPGRADES. CONSTANT DANGER. ANCIENT WISDOM. BOUNCY BALLS. Launch Sale, 40% OFF for a very limited time!!! MUL.... | Read more »
Dungeon Rushers (Games)
Dungeon Rushers 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Dungeon Rushers is a 2D tactical RPG combining dungeon crawler’s gameplay and turn based fights. Manage your team, loot dusty... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

12-inch 1.2GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for $2...
Newegg has the 12″ 1.2GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook (sku MLH82LL/A) on sale for $1349.99 including free shipping. Their price is $250 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model.... Read more
13-inch MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off MSR...
B&H Photo has 13″ MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air (MMGF2LL/A): $899 $100 off MSRP - 13″ 1.6GHz/... Read more
9-inch 32GB Silver iPad Pro on sale for $549,...
B&H Photo has the 9.7″ 32GB Silver Apple iPad Pro on sale for $549 for a limited time. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. Their price is $50 off standard MSRP for this model... Read more
13-inch 2.0GHz Apple MacBook Pros on sale for...
B&H has the non-Touch Bar 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray (... Read more
15-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sale for up...
B&H Photo has the new 2016 15″ Apple Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.7GHz Touch Bar... Read more
12-inch Retina MacBooks on sale for $1150, $1...
B&H has 12″ 1.1GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 12″ 1.1GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook: $1149 $150 off MSRP - 12″ 1.1GHz... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished 11-inch MacBook Ai...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 11″ MacBook Airs (the latest models recently discontinued by Apple), available for up to $170 off original MSRP. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each... Read more
Apple Park Opens to Employees in April With T...
Apple has announced that Apple Park, the company’s new 175-acre campus, will be ready for employees to begin occupying in April. The process of moving more than 12,000 people will take over six... Read more
Manhattan Neighbors for Safer Telecommunicati...
A new education and advocacy group focused on cell phone and wireless risks, Manhattan Neighbors for Safer Telecommunications, launched today at http://www.ManhattanNeighbors.org. Manhattan... Read more
Portable Dual DisplayPort Monitor Dock Enable...
IOGEAR has announced the launch of its USB-C Dual DisplayPort Monitor Portable Dock (GUC3CMST). The dock enables users to easily connect two DisplayPort monitors to a USB-C or Thunderbolt 3 laptop to... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Chicago...
SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Manager *Apple* Systems Administration - Pu...
Req ID 3315BR Position Title Manager, Apple Systems Administration Job Description The Manager of Apple Systems Administration oversees the administration and Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Manager *Apple* Systems Administration - Pu...
Req ID 3315BR Position Title Manager, Apple Systems Administration Job Description The Manager of Apple Systems Administration oversees the administration and Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.