TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Troubleshooting Directory Services

Volume Number: 23 (2007)
Issue Number: 06
Column Tag: MacEnterprise

Troubleshooting Directory Services

The basics

By Philip Rinehart, Yale University

Directory Services

One of the most common questions that are discussed on the MacEnterpise mailing list is the diagnosis and analysis of integration of OS X with Directory Services. While most commonly talked about in reference to Active Directory, many of the tools that can be used are applicable to any Directory Service, as most rely on the same core foundation. The first step of any analysis and troubleshooting is based on having a solid Domain Naming System, commonly known as DNS.

DNS problems

How does one go about troubleshooting DNS on OS X? More importantly, what should be tested and in what order? Checking forward and reverse DNS records usually makes the most sense initially. Misconfigured DNS information can often be the root of Directory Service problems. If the administrator configuring DNS has not correctly set both the forward and reverse DNS records, any attempt to bind or use a Directory Service becomes incrementally difficult.

Testing forward DNS

The first step is to test forward DNS records. As a brief reminder, forward DNS is the process of looking up a domain name and having the IP address returned. There are many tools to test this functionality, but one that can quickly test forward DNS resolution is the command line tool, host. Open a terminal, and type in host name.domain.com. If the forward DNS record is properly set up, the return should be: host name.domain.com has address 111.222.333.444. Easy, right?

Testing reverse DNS

Next, test reverse DNS records. Reverse DNS is the process of taking an IP address, and resolving it to a domain name. As before, using the host command line tool is easiest. Open a terminal, and type in host 111.222.333.444. If the reverse DNS record is properly set up, the return should be: host 444.333.222.111.in-addr.arpa domain name pointer name.domain.com. It cannot be emphasized enough how important it is to have correctly configured forward and reverse DNS records. In particular, the Active Directory plug-in can be very sensitive to incorrect DNS configuration. Generally, if DNS is functioning correctly, binding to any Directory Service should be trivial. So, if DNS is working, what should be the next step?

Network problems

At times, testing DNS using host can point to the cause of Directory Service problems. However, it is very important to note that testing this is only testing servers providing the DNS records, not necessarily the resolution by the client machine.

The first, and most obvious way to test network connectivity is with the use of ping. Ping the server providing directory services, and determine whether the client has connectivity with the provider. Silly as it sounds, check the cable or IP address being provided by a wireless server. Often the simple things are the solution!

Next, using the tool lookupd, client side DNS resolution can be tested. Testing reverse DNS, using the interactive debug mode, can verify that the results returned by using host are what the client is using as well. Invoke the debugger with lookupd -d. Following the same testing procedure, first enter:

hostWithName: hostname.domain.com

Next, enter:

hostWithInternetAddress: 111.222.333.444

Both commands will return a lot of information, including the agent that is being used by the client, as well as cache information, and how many hits have occurred by the operating system. This information can point to subtle DNS problems if it is different from the information returned by the host command.

Authentication problems

If a machine is successfully bound, the next most common problem that is reported is the inability to authenticate to a directory service exhibited by a shaking login window. Let's tackle the simplest way to test authentication first.

Dirt

Dirt? Never heard of the tool? It is a lesser-known tool that can be used to test Directory Services from the command line. It is particularly useful when used to test authentication against a bound Directory Service. The syntax can be a little tricky, but when used, it can be quite powerful. The first test is to check that the user exists in the Directory Services node. Here's how, open a terminal and type:

dirt -u username -n

The return value should be:

User username was found in:
/DSNode

This test simply does a quick verification of the username that is being used to login, and makes sure that the OS X client can see the information contained by the Directory Node. Next, test user authentication using the node name as follows:

dirt -m "/Active Directory/All Domains" ¬
-u activedirectoryusername -p activedirectorypassword

The command above specifically tests Active Directory, but any valid domain node can be tested. Some important notes:

The -u flag uses the username from the node you are testing against, in the above example it is the Active Directory username

The -p flag uses the password from the username that is being tested. In the above example, it is the Active Directory account password

The node is the Search node as referenced in Directory Access. In the above example, all Active Directory domains are searched.

Local administrative privileges are not required to use this tool.

Currently, the password must be entered with the -p option, as omitting it does not work as documented in the manual page. The return value can provide very useful troubleshooting information. As an example, this output is returned with a bad password:

Call to dsGetRecordList returned count = 1 with Status : eDSNoErr : (0)
Username: username
Password: password
Error : eDSAuthFailed : (-14090)

This return status very clearly reflects the failed password authentication. Let's dive even deeper.

Kerberos

Kerberos is increasingly being used for authentication for many Directory Services. If the password is correct, but the shaking login window is still occurring, the next area to focus on, especially for Active Directory and Open Directory, is Kerberos troubleshooting. Fortunately, testing is painless using the command tool, kinit. Type in the following:

kinit username

On failure, a very understandable error message is displayed:

Kerberos Login Failed: Clock skew too big. 
Please check your time, time zone and daylight savings settings.

From this error message, it is clear that Kerberos is failing because the clock differential, referred to as skew, is too great. While many administrators set the clock to use a network timeserver, it is not uncommon for OS X to drift by more than five minutes; this is usually greater than the allowable clock skew. Adjust the date and time to be within five minutes of the Directory Services authentication source, and this problem is solved!

These problems are the 'low-hanging' fruit, and can usually quickly solve Directory Service problems. What about problems that are more difficult?

Bringing in the Big guns

What if none of these troubleshooting steps works? There are three ways to log information, one for Directory Services, one for Managed Client (MCX), and one for Portable Home Directories.

Directory Services

If none of the quick steps provides an answer, debugging Directory Services is often needed to troubleshoot particularly complex problems. There are two different levels of logging which can be invoked on demand USR1, and USR2. Both are turned on similarly, with the command:

killall -USR1 DirectoryService

USR1 will log information to

/Library/Logs/DirectoryService/DirectoryService.debug.log.

USR2 sends all information to the system.log file. One last thing, both levels can also be set by touching a file in the following directory as follows:

touch /Library/Preferences/DirectoryService/.DSLogDebugAtStart (USR1)
touch /Library/Preferences/DirectoryService/.DSLogAPIAtStart (USR2)

Reboot the client, and debugging will begin at boot time.

Managed Client Services (MCX)

Debugging information can be collected and set using a command line only option:

defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.MCXDebug debugOutput 3

Writing this preference will log all information relating to client management to the system.log file. Three is the maximum value that can be set. Using this value, a tremendous amount of information can be seen in the client log, and may point to managed client problems.

Portable Home Directories

Portable home directories can also be logged with a hidden preference:

defaults write com.apple.MirrorAgent debugOutput 4

This preference will log all portable home directory information to ~/Library/Logs/MirrorAgent.log. Again, though not fun, this information can often point to the source of trouble when attempting to diagnose a sticky Portable Home Directory problem.

Conclusion

Diagnosing and troubleshooting can be one of the most complex issues in the integration of OS X clients into heterogeneous network infrastructures. Remember to always start from the simplest explanation, as it often is the source of the problem. It is easy to errantly assume a much larger problem, when, in fact, the problem may be quite simple. However, with the above techniques and tools, bending Directory Services to your will should be far simpler.


Philip Rinehart is co-chair of the steering committee leading the Mac OS X Enterprise Project (macenterprise.org) and is the Lead Mac Analyst at Yale University. He has been using Macintosh Computers since the days of the Macintosh SE, and Mac OS X since its Developer Preview Release. Before coming to Yale, he worked as a Unix system administrator for a dot-com company. He can be reached at: philip.rinehart@yale.edu.

The MacEnterprise project is a community of IT professionals sharing information and solutions to support Macs in an enterprise. We collaborate on the deployment, management, and integration of Mac OS X client and server computers into multi-platform computing environments

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Arq 5.8.4 - Online backup to Google Driv...
Arq is super-easy online backup for Mac and Windows computers. Back up to your own cloud account (Amazon Cloud Drive, Google Drive, Dropbox, OneDrive, Google Cloud Storage, any S3-compatible server... Read more
Airmail 3.2.9 - Powerful, minimal email...
Airmail is an mail client with fast performance and intuitive interaction. Support for iCloud, MS Exchange, Gmail, Google Apps, IMAP, POP3, Yahoo!, AOL, Outlook.com, Live.com. Airmail was designed... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.39 - Connec...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more
Posterino 3.3.7 - Create posters, collag...
Posterino offers enhanced customization and flexibility including a variety of new, stylish templates featuring grids of identical or odd-sized image boxes. You can customize the size and shape of... Read more
Airmail 3.2.8 - Powerful, minimal email...
Airmail is an mail client with fast performance and intuitive interaction. Support for iCloud, MS Exchange, Gmail, Google Apps, IMAP, POP3, Yahoo!, AOL, Outlook.com, Live.com. Airmail was designed... Read more
WhatRoute 2.0.21 - Geographically trace...
WhatRoute is designed to find the names of all the routers an IP packet passes through on its way from your Mac to a destination host. It also measures the round-trip time from your Mac to the router... Read more
Airmail 3.2.8 - Powerful, minimal email...
Airmail is an mail client with fast performance and intuitive interaction. Support for iCloud, MS Exchange, Gmail, Google Apps, IMAP, POP3, Yahoo!, AOL, Outlook.com, Live.com. Airmail was designed... Read more
WhatRoute 2.0.21 - Geographically trace...
WhatRoute is designed to find the names of all the routers an IP packet passes through on its way from your Mac to a destination host. It also measures the round-trip time from your Mac to the router... Read more
iFFmpeg 6.3.5 - Convert multimedia files...
iFFmpeg is a comprehensive media tool to convert movie, audio and media files between formats. The FFmpeg command line instructions can be very hard to master/understand, so iFFmpeg does all the hard... Read more
Opera 45.0.2552.812 - High-performance W...
Opera is a fast and secure browser trusted by millions of users. With the intuitive interface, Speed Dial and visual bookmarks for organizing favorite sites, news feature with fresh, relevant content... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Honor 8 Pro, a great choice for gamers
Honor is making strides to bring its brand to the forefront of mobile gaming with its latest phone, the Honor 8 Pro. The Pro sets itself apart from its predecessor, the Honor 8, with a host of premium updates that boost the device’s graphical and... | Read more »
The 4 best outdoor adventure apps
Now that we're well into the pleasant, warmer months, it's time to start making the most of the great outdoors. Spring and summer are ideal times for a bit of trekking or exploration. You don't have to go it alone, though. There are plenty of... | Read more »
Things 3 (Productivity)
Things 3 3.0.1 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Productivity Price: $7.99, Version: 3.0.1 (iTunes) Description: Meet the all-new Things! A complete rethinking of the original, award-winning task manager – with a perfect balance between... | Read more »
Oddball mash-up Arkanoid vs Space Invade...
In a move no one was really expecting, Square Enix has put forth an Arkanoid/Space Invaders mash-up aptly titled Arkanoid vs Space Invaders. The game launched today on both iOS and Android and the reviews are actually quite good. [Read more] | Read more »
Arkanoid vs Space Invaders (Games)
Arkanoid vs Space Invaders 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: LAUNCH SALE: GET THE GAME AT 20% OFF! Two of the most iconic classic games ever made meet in Arkanoid vs Space... | Read more »
The best new games we played this week
Things got off to a bit of a slow start this week, but as we steadily creep towards Friday a bunch of great games have started cropping up. If you're looking for a quality new release to play this weekend, we've got you covered. Here's a handy... | Read more »
No Stick Shooter (Games)
No Stick Shooter 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Happy Robot presents a fresh take on the classic retro-arcade shooters we all know and love. Featuring 30 levels of non-stop... | Read more »
Chroma Squad (Games)
Chroma Squad 1.0.85 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.85 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Old Man's Journey (Games)
Old Man's Journey 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: A heartfelt game about life, loss and hope. Old Man’s Journey is a soul-searching puzzle adventure game about life’s... | Read more »
Beholder (Games)
Beholder 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Welcome to a grim dystopian future. "Beholder is stressful on a moral level, but as a game, it’s simple and entertaining" - Game... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Five To Six Million 10.5-inch iPad Pro Tablet...
Digitimes’ Siu Han and Joseph Tsai report that upstream supply chain shipments for Apple’s new 10.5-inch iPad Pro have been increasing, with monthly shipment volume expected to hit 600,000 units by... Read more
Georgia Tech Students Win Toyota and Net Impa...
Earlier this year, a team of students at Georgia Tech realized that there was a critical gap in transportation services for people who use wheelchairs, and wondered if the solution could be in the... Read more
13-inch 2.0GHz Space Gray MacBook Pro on sale...
Amazon has the 13″ 2.0GHz Space Gray non-Touch Bar MacBook Pro (MLL42LL/A) on sale for $1299.99 including free shipping. Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’s currently the lowest price available... Read more
Roundup of 15-inch MacBook Pro sale prices, m...
B&H Photo has the new 2016 15″ Apple Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $200 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY & NJ sales tax only: - 15″ 2.7GHz... Read more
15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 2015 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro (MJLQ2LL/A) on sale for $1849 including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only. Their price is $150 off MSRP. Read more
21-inch iMacs on sale for $100 off MSRP, save...
B&H Photo has 21″ iMacs on sale for $100 off MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: - 21″ 3.1GHz iMac 4K: $1399.99 $100 off MSRP - 21″ 2.8GHz iMac: $1199.99 $100 off... Read more
Groupon Survey Finds Families Will Spend One-...
With warmer weather finally arriving in most parts of the country and the school year winding down to a close, Groupon (http://www.groupon.com) asked 1,000 U.S. parents how much time their families... Read more
Panasonic Anounces Toughbook 33 2-in-1 Rugged...
Panasonic has announced the U.S. availability of the Panasonic Toughbook 33, claimed to be the first fully-rugged 2-in-1 detachable laptop that features a 3:2 display. Inspired by the hard-working... Read more
9-inch 32GB iPad Pros available for up to $10...
Amazon resellers are offering new 9″ 32GB iPad Pros for up to $101 off MSRP, starting at $498, including free shipping. Colors may be Space Gray, Silver, Gold, or Rose Gold, depending on the reseller... Read more
Back in stock: Apple refurbished Mac minis st...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Mac minis available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $419 $80 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac... Read more

Jobs Board

Director, *Apple* Program - ERP & Cloud...
…make a real difference. Come, shine with us! Astellas is announcing a Director, Apple Program - ERP & Cloud Platform Architecture Lead opportunity in Northbrook, IL. Read more
*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
**508102BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobile Master **Location Number:** 000511-Athens-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Best Buy Apple Mobile Master do?** At Read more
*Apple* Media Products - Commerce Engineerin...
Apple Media Products - Commerce Engineering Manager Job Number: 57037480 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: Apr. 18, 2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Read more
Geek Squad *Apple* Master Consultation Agen...
**500444BR** **Job Title:** Geek Squad Apple Master Consultation Agent **Location Number:** 000103-City Of Industry-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Geek Read more
Security Engineer, *Apple* Retail - Apple I...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.