TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Web Benchmarking 101

Volume Number: 22 (2006)
Issue Number: 4
Column Tag: Web Performance Testing

Web Benchmarking 101

A guide to stress testing your website with ApacheBench and JMeter

by Jin Lin and Emmanuel Stein

Introduction

Web performance testing can be a daunting subject for the uninitiated. With the sheer number of tools available and their various feature sets, it can be hard to know where to begin. In this article we will explore the use of two popular open source tools, ApacheBench (aka ab) and JMeter, to perform simple benchmarking tests. Rather than going through the extensive feature set offered by these applications, particularly JMeter, we will focus on measuring the response time and the effective throughput of your web application across different user load scenarios. Whether serving a few static pages or a fully dynamic site, the tools discussed will offer invaluable insight into the overall performance of your web applications, and serve as a basis for isolating system bottlenecks and conducting capacity planning for your web applications.

Benchmarking Considerations

Although, the tests and tools that we will use in this article represent integral components used in the testing process, it is equally important to consider the environment in which such tests are performed. If you are running a popular website with significant traffic, you may consider performing benchmarks during non-peak hours to obtain more accurate results and avoid rendering your server unusable to users. If possible, you should test your web server in a staged environment and before actual deployment. This will enable you to adjust server parameters, install cache mechanisms, and otherwise assess your site's performance without interrupting service.

ApacheBench

ApacheBench, a default component of the Apache Server distribution, is a simple command line tool, designed to measure the performance of Apache server. Preinstalled on Mac OS X, it is able to supply information such as elapsed time, requests per second, time per request, compression rate, transfer rate, and connection time under different concurrence scenarios.

Though not an exhaustive list (see the ab man page for more details), the following represents the most commonly used switches employed when testing typical usage scenarios with ab.

  • -n: Specifies the number of requests to perform for a given test. Use this option to measure the time required to process a given number of client requests. When used alone, without the -c option, ab does not process requests concurrently.

  • -t: Specifies a timeframe, in seconds, to spend benchmarking. This option is useful in determining the number of requests that your server is able to process in a given amount of time.

  • -c: Specifies number of simultaneous connections. Of use in testing how your server performs when multiple clients are hitting a given page at the same time. This switch may be used with either -n or -t, to measure the total elapsed time required to process a given number of client requests simultaneously, and the number of concurrent requests that may be processed over a set amount of time, respectively.

  • -g: Exports a TSV (Tab Separated Values) file, which can be imported into applications like Excel, GNUplot, and Mathematica for further analysis and/or graphic visualization.

  • -A: Used to supply username and password information for sites that require authentication. This enables you to conduct testing on password-protected sites.

Having covered some of the basic parameters of ab, we will now explore its use in the context of simple web benchmarking scenarios.

For our first example, we will be measuring the time it takes to process 1000 requests (i.e. -n 1000), from 10 simultaneous user connections (i.e. -c 10) against OS X's default user website. Make sure Apache is running by launching System Preferences and enabling personal web sharing from the sharing preference pane. Once Apache is running, launch the Terminal application and enter the following command: ab -n 1000 -c 10 http://localhost/~username to begin the benchmark. When the command is executed the terminal will display the progress of the benchmark run, as well as, a series of metrics (Figure 1).


Figure 1. Output of ab -n 1000 -c 10 http://localhost/~estein

Be aware that when you run the ab command against a domain or IP address the benchmark defaults to the site's home page; in this case, index.html. To specify a particular page, simply point to its full path (e.g. http://localhost/~estein/MyDynamicContent.php). This will allow you to test the performance of specific pages hosted by your site in terms of the amount of stress they each place on the server. This is particularly important when dealing with sites that have both static and dynamic content. When testing dynamic pages keep in mind that ab reports a failed request when it encounters content that changes over time (e.g. dynamic data). As such, when running ab against dynamic portions of your site, you can safely ignore the "failed requests" messages.

For our next example, we will be measuring the number of requests that can be completed within 60 seconds (-t 60) with 10 concurrent connections (-c 10). Enter the following command in the Terminal to execute this benchmark: ab -t 60 -c 10 http://localhost/~username The output of this command, seen in Figure 2, differs from the first example in that -n is not specified. When -n is not specified, ab sets the number of requests to a default value of 50,000. It is important to realize that, when using the -t switch, it is possible for the benchmark to complete, before the specified time period has elapsed, thus rendering the time variable irrelevant. Therefore, when using the -t and -n switches in tandem, it is important to consider whether your time variable exceeds the time it takes to process n requests.


Figure 2. Output of ab -t 60 -c 10 http://localhost/~estein

JMeter

JMeter is a pure Java application, developed under the purview of the Apache Jakarta project, which offers a wide array of tools for benchmarking all manner of client-serverbased applications. JMeter's modular architecture allows it to simulate a variety of load scenarios across multiple servers, networks, and objects. For the purposes of this article, however, we will only be using a subset of JMeter's capabilities to perform basic load testing. For information on using JMeter to perform detailed performance measures on more complex web applications you may refer to the user guide at http://jakarta.apache.org/jmeter/usermanual/index.html

Before we begin, it is instructive to go over the major architectural components that constitute JMeter.

  • Test Plan: Defines the test sequence that JMeter will carry out during benchmarking.

  • Thread Group: Used to delineate specific testing conditions, such as number of concurrent users, the Thread Group plays host to all other elements that comprise a test sequence.

  • Config Element: Responsible for defining configuration information for the Sampler and Logic Controller elements.

  • Sampler: A type of controller that designates both the protocol type and nature of requests within a given test plan.

  • Logic Controller: A controller element that determines the sequence logic used by JMeter to initiate protocol requests.

  • Timer: Used to manage the latency across queued user requests.

  • Listener: Responsible for recording and visualizing of test sequence data.

Getting Started

JMeter requires JDK 1.4 or higher to run properly. Type java -version in the Terminal application to discover which version of JDK is installed on your machine. Currently Apple supplies Java 1.3.1-1.4.2 Release 2 and J2SE 5.0 release 3 through regular software updates, as well as, at the following links:

http://www.apple.com/downloads/macosx/apple/java131and142release2.html

http://www.apple.com/downloads/macosx/apple/java2se50release3.html

In our tests, both JDK versions were able to run JMeter without a hitch. However, you will likely notice some performance improvement when using the J2SE 5.0 release 3. To specify this version as your system default or to change the precedence settings for your installed Java Virtual Machines (JVMs), use the Java Preferences utility located in /Applications/Utilities/Java/Java2SE 5.0.

The latest version of JMeter is available as a free download at http://jakarta.apache.org/site/downloads/downloads_jmeter.cgi Depending on your preferences, you can download the application as source code or binary as either .zip or .tgz archives. The easiest option for most OS X users will be to download the binary in zip format, which can be easily uncompressed in the GUI by double clicking the jakarta-jmeter-2.1.x.zip archive. The resulting jakarta-jmeter-2.1.1 folder can be placed in your Applications folder or other location within the filesystem. You can launch JMeter by either double clicking the ApacheJMeter.jar file, located in the bin directory of the Jakarta-jmeter-2.1.1 folder, or by executing the jmeter shell script located in the same directory. Please note, that if you wish to run jmeter from the command line you will need to make the script executable using the chmod command. For command line interactive use, please refer to the "Getting Started" section of the JMeter user manual: http://jakarta.apache.org/jmeter/usermanual/get-started.html


Figure 3. JMeter's main window

JMeter in Action

In this example, we will create a test plan that simulates 10 users initiating simultaneous requests to 2 different URLs and which repeats the test 100 times. Begin with the addition of a new Thread Group by right clicking (or control clicking) the Test Plan element in the left pane and selecting Add >Thread Group. Next, select the Thread Group element to display its configuration window and set the Number of Threads to 10 (representing users), the Ramp-Up Period to 0 (to initiate all users at once), and the Loop Count to 100.


Figure 4. Configuring Thread Group element

To add the next element of our test plan, HTTP Request Defaults, right click on the Thread Group element, and select Add > Config Element > HTTP Request Defaults (Figure 5).


Figure 5. Add HTTP Request Defaults

Select the HTTP Request Defaults icon under Thread Group and enter a server name (e.g. localhost or FQDN) in the configuration window (Figure 6).


Figure 6. Configuring HTTP Request Defaults element

Right click on the Thread Group element and then select Add>Sampler>HTTP Request twice, to create two HTTP Request elements, one for each web page. The Name and Path fields for each of the HTTP Request elements should be set to appropriate values. For the purpose of this example, we will name the first HTTP Request element home, and set its path to ~username/index.html and name the second HTTP Request another and set its path to ~username/another.html (figure 7).


Figure 7. Configuring the "another" HTTP Request element

Now we need to add a timer to pause each request for a random period of time. Right click on the Thread Group and then select Add>Timer>Gaussian Random Time.

For the last element, we will add listeners by right clicking on the Thread Group element, then selecting Add>Listener>Aggregate Report. This particular listener lists, in tabular form, the response time, request count, min, max, average, error rate, and approximate number of request processes in seconds (e.g. Throughput), as well as, throughput in terms of Kilobytes per second. You may add additional listeners, such as Graph Results, View Results in Table, and View Results Tree, depending on your requirements.

To begin the test plan, simply select Run>Start from within the JMeter menu bar. You will be prompted to save the test plan, if you haven't already done so. During a successful run of your test plan, you may click on the Aggregate Report listener element (figure 8), or any other listener types you may have added, to view your dynamically updated test results. Figure 9, for example, demonstrates some of the graphing functions of JMeter's Graph Results listener element.


Figure 8. Aggregate Report listener view


Figure 9. Graph Results listener view

Conclusion

In this article, we employed both ab and JMeter to "stress test" a locally hosted site via simple load scenarios. The amount of time a server takes to respond to clients' requests across different load levels, is one of the most important metrics for evaluating web performance. Through the manipulation of load test variables, such as the number of concurrent requests, and with reference to tool-specific data visualization processes, we are better able to ascertain the extent to which these variables impact a server's maximum sustainable load. Such information is critical for proper website management, planning and eventual performance tuning.


Jin Lin and Emmanuel Stein are partners in the consulting firm MacVerse, Corp, which offers implementation, system administration, and development services geared towards the enterprise market. You may reach them at info@macverse.com

 
AAPL
$97.31
Apple Inc.
+2.59
MSFT
$44.87
Microsoft Corpora
+0.04
GOOG
$597.04
Google Inc.
+2.30

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Firefox 31.0 - Fast, safe Web browser. (...
Firefox for Mac offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals... Read more
Little Snitch 3.3.3 - Alerts you to outg...
Little Snitch gives you control over your private outgoing data. Track background activityAs soon as your computer connects to the Internet, applications often have permission to send any... Read more
Thunderbird 31.0 - Email client from Moz...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more
Together 3.2 - Store and organize all of...
Together helps you organize your Mac, giving you the ability to store, edit and preview your files in a single clean, uncluttered interface. Smart storage. With simple drag-and-drop functionality,... Read more
Cyberduck 4.5 - FTP and SFTP browser. (F...
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more
iExplorer 3.4 - View and transfer all th...
iExplorer is an iPhone browser for Mac lets you view the files on your iOS device. By using a drag and drop interface, you can quickly copy files and folders between your Mac and your iPhone or... Read more
Airmail 1.4 - Powerful, minimal email cl...
Airmail is a powerful, minimal mail client.It was designed to retain the same experience with a single or multiple accounts and provide a quick, modern and easy-to-use user experience. Airmail... Read more
Macs Fan Control 1.1.12 - Monitor and co...
Macs Fan Control allows you to monitor and control almost any aspect of your computer's fans, with support for controlling fan speed, temperature sensors pane, menu-bar icon, and autostart with... Read more
A Better Finder Rename 9.37 - File, phot...
A Better Finder Rename is the most complete renaming solution available on the market today. That's why, since 1996, tens of thousands of hobbyists, professionals and businesses depend on A Better... Read more
MacBook Air EFI Firmware Update 2.9 - Fo...
MacBook Air EFI Firmware Update is recommended for MacBook Air (Mid 2011) models. This update addresses an issue where systems may take longer to wake from sleep than expected and fixes a rare issue... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Ex-Angry Birds Developers Release Monsu...
Ex-Angry Birds Developers Release Monsu Teaser Trailer Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 23rd, 2014 [ permalink ] Finnish developer Boomlagoon has released a teaser trailer of their forthcoming side-scrolling action platformer, | Read more »
Lots of New Modes Have Been Added to Can...
Lots of New Modes Have Been Added to Canabalt Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 23rd, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Stronghold 3: The Campaigns Review
Stronghold 3: The Campaigns Review By Jennifer Allen on July 23rd, 2014 Our Rating: :: DULL STRATEGIZINGiPad Only App - Designed for the iPad A cumbersome strategy game, Stronghold 3: The Campaigns has a few too many issues to... | Read more »
Table Tennis Touch on Sale for a Limited...
Table Tennis Touch on Sale for a Limited Time Posted by Jessica Fisher on July 23rd, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Secret Files Tunguska Review
Secret Files Tunguska Review By Jennifer Allen on July 23rd, 2014 Our Rating: :: CONSPIRACY-LITTERED ADVENTURINGUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Offering traditional adventuring with no fear of in-app purchases, Secret... | Read more »
Celebrate Summer With a Cat in the Hat L...
Celebrate Summer With a Cat in the Hat Learning Library Sale Posted by Ellis Spice on July 22nd, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Dragon Raiders Review
Dragon Raiders Review By Nadia Oxford on July 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: RUN, DRAGON, RUNUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Dragon Raiders is rough and scaly in some parts, but overall it’s an enjoyable level-based running... | Read more »
MyTaskList Review
MyTaskList Review By Jennifer Allen on July 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: EFFECTIVE IF PLAINUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad It’s not the most stylish of task management apps, but MyTaskList has all the features you could... | Read more »
FlyCraft Herbie: Crazy Machines Review
FlyCraft Herbie: Crazy Machines Review By Jennifer Allen on July 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: TRICKY FLYINGUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad A tough game of careful thrusting and navigation, FlyCraft Herbie: Crazy Machines... | Read more »
MTN Review
MTN Review By Jessica Fisher on July 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: ADORABLE, SERENE, AND AMUSINGUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad MTN is an adorable, talking pet mountain that is less game and more zen garden.   | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

With The Apple/IBM Alliance, Is The iPad Now...
Almost since the iPad was rolled out in 2010, and especially after Apple made a 128 GB storage configuration available in 2012, there’s been debate over whether the iPad is a serious tool for... Read more
MacBook Airs on sale starting at $799, free s...
B&H Photo has the new 2014 MacBook Airs on sale for up to $100 off MSRP for a limited time. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. They also include free copies of Parallels... Read more
Apple 27″ Thunderbolt Display (refurbished) a...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 27″ Thunderbolt Displays available for $799 including free shipping. That’s $200 off the cost of new models. Read more
WaterField Designs Unveils Cycling Ride Pouch...
High end computer case and bag maker WaterField Designs of San Francisco now enters the cycling market with the introduction of the Cycling Ride Pouch – an upscale toolkit with a scratch-free iPhone... Read more
Kingston Digital Ships Large Capacity Near 1T...
Kingston Digital, Inc., the Flash memory affiliate of Kingston Technology Company, Inc.,has announced its latest addition to the SSDNow V300 series, the V310. The Kingston SSDNow V310 solid-state... Read more
Apple’s Fiscal Third Quarter Results; Record...
Apple has announced financial results for its fiscal 2014 third quarter ended June 28, 2014, racking up quarterly revenue of $37.4 billion and quarterly net profit of $7.7 billion, or $1.28 per... Read more
15-inch 2.0GHz MacBook Pro Retina on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 15″ 2.0GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1829 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $170 off MSRP. B&H will also include free copies of Parallels... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished Mac minis for up t...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished Mac minis for up to $150 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 2.5GHz Mac... Read more
Twelve South HiRise For MacBook – Height-Adju...
If you use your MacBook as a workhorse desktop substitute, as many of us do, a laptop stand combined with an external keyboard and pointing device are pretty much obligatory if you want to avoid... Read more
Why The Mac Was Not Included In The Apple/IBM...
TUAW’s Yoni Heisler cites Fredrick Paul of Network World whoi blogged last week that the Mac’s conspicuous absence from Apple and IBM’s landmark partnership agreement represents a huge squandered... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Sr. Product Leader, *Apple* Store Apps - Ap...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
Sr Software Lead Engineer, *Apple* Online S...
Sr Software Lead Engineer, Apple Online Store Publishing Systems Keywords: Company: Apple Job Code: E3PCAK8MgYYkw Location (City or ZIP): Santa Clara Status: Full Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.