TweetFollow Us on Twitter

awk for Data Processing

Volume Number: 22 (2006)
Issue Number: 3
Column Tag: Programming

Mac In The Shell

awk for Data Processing

by Edward Marczak

The Complementary Pattern Processor to sed.

sed and awk are typically mentioned in the same sentence. They both have their own strengths and areas where they are most effective. The past few columns have walked though the power of sed, and I hope everyone has put sed into practice. If sed is so great, why do we need awk? sed is a non-interactive editor. It's powerful for unstructured data, and picking out patterns, and making changes in that data. awk excels at pulling, manipulating fields in structured data, and generating output formatted as you specify. You'll encounter both types of data as you work, and now you'll have the best, and most appropriate tools. How can awk help us?

History...Again

When I took one of my very first computer classes, in 7th grade or so, I remember the teacher launching into the history of computing. What?!? History? When are we going to sit down and start typing? Nowadays, I find myself launching into history quite a bit as I write these columns. The benefit is that it frames the present so nicely. A place we couldn't be now without that history. This is a long-winded way of saying I'm going to describe a little bit about the history of awk!

awk appeared in Bell Labs Unix V7 - roughly 1977 - and has been part of the standard distribution since. However, there have been a few revisions and versions of awk. Sometimes, these well-meaning versions have extended awk a little here and there. In 1985, the original authors officially revised the language. I can't possibly cover each and every facet of non-standard awk versions. Since this is MacTech, I'm going to cover Lucent awk, version 20040207, the version distributed with OS X, 10.4. This is the version of awk described in "The AWK Programming Language", 1988, by Al Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan. (Do we see where the name "awk" comes from now?) Be aware that this version matches the POSIX standard of awk. It does not have every one of the extensions that have shown up over the years.

What is it?

The man page for awk says that it is a "pattern-directed scanning and processing language." The first thing to note is that it is a 'real' programming language, with structure. We've seen flow control and looping in bash and sed before. On a basic level, awk auto-constructs the main loop for you: it loops around each line of input. When it reaches EOF, the loop is broken. Like my Calculus I professor used to drill, "You have to know the rules!" Same goes for any programming language. However, rather than launch into a terse description, let's get right to some examples.

Awk me!

Here's an easy one:

$ awk '{print "Got a line"}' some_file.txt

This will print "Got a line" for each line in some_file.txt - there's that loop. This script has one action: run a print statement for each line of input. Besides running awk against a file, you can also pipe data in. Unlike sed, awk does not print input by default. So, to emulate cat, you could simply:

$ awk '{print}' some_file.txt

or

$ ls -l | awk '{print}'

(but using this to emulate cat would be silly). Again, awk really shines when operating on data with a structure. Comma, tab and other delimited formats are ideal - those have obvious structure. However, with enough practice, you'll start to see structure in non-obvious places.

For anyone that really dug into the sed columns, awk's pattern matching will look very familiar:

$ ls -l | awk '/pcap/ {print}'

We pipe the output of 'ls -l' into awk, where awk will jump into action each time it finds a line with 'pcap' on it. Well, we could have done that with 'ls -l *pcap*', right? Well, yes - but stay with me here. What if we didn't want all of the information that comes with 'ls -l'? Or, perhaps, if we wanted to rearrange that info? The output of ls, with the "-l" switch, happens to be very structured. Let's look at a snippet:

drwxr-x---   5 marczak  marczak  170 Jan 18 17:07 tmp
-rw-r-----    1 marczak  marczak  149 Oct 10 15:17 tw.png
-rw-r-----    1 root     marczak 3114 Nov  8 20:00 ts05.pcap

awk will refer to each of the columns as fields - just like a database. The permissions column is field 1, links column is field 2, and so on, up to field 9, in this example, being the file name. If we wanted to rearrange an 'ls' listing, we could use this:

$ ls -l | awk '/pcap/ {print $9,$5,$1}'
cramdump.pcap 15151 -rw-r-----
dhcp.pcap 16422 -rw-r-----
skypecatch.pcap 43421 -rw-r-----
ssldump.pcap 26070 -rw-r-----
testdump.pcap 12716 -rw-r-----
tsnow.pcap 391174 -rw-r-----

This example combines pattern-matching and the field operator. Again, the output of ls is piped to awk, which only acts when the input line matches "pcap". However, we decide to selectively output only the ninth, fifth and first fields.

Further into the Warren

With sed, we saw that it was good practice to create your script in a separate file - especially if it was a particularly complex script. awk can do the same using the '-f' switch. More conventionally, you may find long awk scripts written like a shell script, utilizing the 'she-bang' notation - #!/usr/bin/awk. Just remember to mark the script executable if you do this.

Another important practice, as pointed out with sed, is to comment your script! With awk, it turns out to be even more important, as you should document the expected input format along with code comments. Any routine that relies on structured data is fragile. When the data isn't perfect, it shatters into a million pieces. So, if you're processing a tab-delimited file, you might start your script with these comments:

# thinner.awk
# Remove un-needed data before injecting into mailing database
# Input: tab delimited file with layout:
# first_name, last_name, phone_num, shoe_size, e-mail, e-mail2, favorite_color

This way, when, three years later, the script stops working the way you'd expect, you can compare the input file against what you need.

awk has some built-in variables that help you move data around. You've seen the field operator - $ - which, I should note, starts at 1. I mean, the first field is actually numbered "1". What happened to programmers counting from zero? The field $0 refers to the entire line of input. A useful built-in that goes along with the field operators is NF.

NF references the number of fields on the current line. A side-effect is that NF will always refer to the last field (or, 'column'). We could rewrite the file listing example above like this:

ls -l | awk '/pcap/ {print $NF,$5,$1}'

Another important built-in is FS - field separator. Let's look at a very practical OS X use for awk - but we'll need to combine a few concepts to get there. By default, FS is set to a space character. As lines come into awk for processing, it splits up fields by string. Unfortunately, this means that a record reading "Name: Catherine O'Hara" is three fields, not two (of course, it's even worse for "James T. Kirk"). You can leave FS alone, making awk split based on a space character. You can also set FS to be any other single character, such as a comma - obviously useful for a CSV file. Finally, you can use a regexp and match multiple characters as a separator.

In addition to pattern matching to find data to process, awk supports two structures that allow for setup and tear-down (aka pre-processing and post-processing). The BEGIN structure runs before any lines are read in. This is ideal for setting variable states before diving in. The END structure runs after all input is processed, and is naturally useful for summing things up. BEGIN is a perfect place to set FS, although FS can even be changed while the script is running.

So, you're running OS X Server, and want to know who's logged on via AFP. awk to the rescue! Run this:

serveradmin command afp:command = getConnectedUsers | awk 'BEGIN {FS = "="} /name/ { print $NF }'

The output of serveradmin is fed to awk, which sets FS to the equal sign in a BEGIN structure. This simply splits the line in two, based on the input. Then we go on to look for 'name' records, and print out the last field using NF. Let's say that you just wanted to find out if one particular user is connected. awk will let you test a field for a match with the tilde operator ("~"). So, if we're only interested in finding out if "jane" was connected via afp, we can easily do this:

serveradmin command afp:command = getConnectedUsers | awk 'BEGIN {FS = "="} $2 ~ 
   /jane/ { print "Jane is connected!" }'

Of course, you can match any regular expression this way. (didn't I tell you learning regexp would let you rule the universe?) You can invert the tilde match with an exclamation point:

awk $2 !~ /barrel/ { print "Not a barrel" }

La Regle du Jeu

I mentioned some rules earlier. What are they, and how does that help us? Like sed, awk processes input in a very specific way.

By default, each incoming line is broken into fields, separated by a space. Lines ("records") are separated by a newline. An awk script is a set of pattern matching rules and actions, with the format:

pattern {action}

Patterns can be one of:

    A regular expression

    A relational expression

    BEGIN

    END

    A pattern range.

The BEGIN pattern runs its action before the first line of input is read. The END pattern runs its action after the last line of input is read and acted upon.

Some other rules about processing: A missing action defaults to "print". A missing pattern always matches. Program lines are terminated by a semicolon or newline. Comments begin with "#" and are not treated as statements. Comments do not need to start at column 1, and will continue until a newline is reached.

If you're thinking, "Hey! awk is pretty powerful and simple!" you'd be right. Like many Unix utilities it focuses on one thing, and does it really, really well. In some ways, it's only as complex as you make it. Of course, I've only laid out a fraction of awk's abilities. One more before I leave off.

Variables and Equations

Like every programming language, awk supports variables, and operations on those variables. Variables are case sensitive, but do not need to be declared or initialized. Like PHP, this allows variables to be loosely typed, and awk will choose the context automatically. The following examples do what you'd expect:

x = 7
y = x+3
a = "Hello, world"
z = $1   # assign the first field to z
print "z = " z
print "a contains " a
print "x = " x

Pretty straight-forward. Variables can be used in the pattern portion of a rule. How about a short example?

BEGIN { FS=":"; x=0 }
$2 ~ /Miguel/ { x = x  + 1 }
END { print "Miguel appears " x " times in the data." }

This fictitious example adds one to "x" for every time that the second field matches /Miguel/. If I claim that variables don't need to be initialized, why did I in this example? Because the auto-typing can sometimes trip you up. If "x" is not initialized, and there are no matches, awk assumes that, due to the context, that "x" is a string. This results in the message, "Miguel appears times in the data." And that's just not very friendly, is it?

In Summary...

Glad I didn't try to rush awk into last month's column. The more that you use both sed and awk, the more you see patterns in data, and tend to go back to these utilities. Despite being created in a time when personal computers (or even larger systems) didn't have their own SQL server running locally, or a powerful spreadsheet program at their disposal, sed and awk still have tremendous usefulness. Next month, I'm going to round out a little more about awk, and tie it into OS X.

Speaking of last month's column, I missed it then, but now realize that it marked "Mac in the Shell's" one-year anniversary! I need to thank David Sobsey, Neil Ticktin, and everyone at the magazine for getting me involved, spurring me along, and keeping me interested. Oh, and Dennis - I loved last month's cover! So, I raise my virtual glass in toast to another great year of MacTech! Cheers!

Finally, now that the dust has settled from MacWorld, I do want to say it was a pleasure meeting with many, many MacTech readers! As always, please feel free to comment, suggest and ask questions. See you next month.


Ed Marczak owns and operates Radiotope, a technology consulting company. More tech tips at the blog: http://www.radiotope.com/writing

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

VLC Media Player 2.2.0 - Popular multime...
VLC Media Player is a highly portable multimedia player for various audio and video formats (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, DivX, MP3, OGG, ...) as well as DVDs, VCDs, and various streaming protocols. It... Read more
Sound Studio 4.7.8 - Robust audio record...
Sound Studio lets you easily record and professionally edit audio on your Mac. Easily rip vinyls and digitize cassette tapes, or record lectures and voice memos. Prepare for live shows with live... Read more
LibreOffice 4.4.1.2 - Free, open-source...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
Freeway Pro 7.0.3 - Drag-and-drop Web de...
Freeway Pro lets you build websites with speed and precision... without writing a line of code! With its user-oriented drag-and-drop interface, Freeway Pro helps you piece together the website of... Read more
Cloud 3.3.0 - File sharing from your men...
Cloud is simple file sharing for the Mac. Drag a file from your Mac to the CloudApp icon in the menubar and we take care of the rest. A link to the file will automatically be copied to your clipboard... Read more
Cyberduck 4.6.5 - FTP and SFTP browser....
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more
Firefox 36.0 - Fast, safe Web browser. (...
Firefox for Mac offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals and... Read more
Thunderbird 31.5.0 - Email client from M...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more
VOX 2.4 - Music player that supports man...
VoxIt just sounds better! The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features & support for all audio formats you should ever need... Read more
A Better Finder Rename 9.46 - File, phot...
A Better Finder Rename is the most complete renaming solution available on the market today. That's why, since 1996, tens of thousands of hobbyists, professionals and businesses depend on A Better... Read more

Get The Whole Story – Lone Wolf Complete...
Get The Whole Story – Lone Wolf Complete is Now Available and On Sale Posted by Jessica Fisher on February 27th, 2015 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Check Out the Trailer for the Upcoming F...
Check Out the Trailer for the Upcoming FINAL FANTASY: Record Keeper Posted by Jessica Fisher on February 26th, 2015 [ permalink ] DeNA and Square Enix have announced that | Read more »
Legacy Quest is an Upcoming Rouge-like T...
Legacy Quest is an Upcoming Rouge-like That’ll Kill the Whole Family Posted by Jessica Fisher on February 26th, 2015 [ permalink ] Nexon Co. | Read more »
Grudgeball: Enter the Chaosphere Review
Grudgeball: Enter the Chaosphere Review By Jordan Minor on February 26th, 2015 Our Rating: :: MUSCLE MENUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Regular Show gets an above average game.   | Read more »
Action RPG League of Angels – Fire Raide...
Gaia is being invaded by the Devil Prince and the demonic Devil Army at his disposal, and it’s up to you and your avatar to defeat him in League of Angels – Fire Raiders. Raise a mighty army from hundreds of recruitable angel heroes and take the... | Read more »
Burn Rubber on the Ice With a New Cars:...
Burn Rubber on the Ice With a New Cars: Fast as Lightning Update Posted by Jessica Fisher on February 26th, 2015 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
AdVenture Capitalist Review
AdVenture Capitalist Review By Jordan Minor on February 26th, 2015 Our Rating: :: DAS KAPITALUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad An inadvertent Marxist manifesto.   | Read more »
Monster vs Sheep Review
Monster vs Sheep Review By Jennifer Allen on February 25th, 2015 Our Rating: :: SAMEY FUNUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad What Monster vs Sheep lacks in variety it makes up for with stress relieving fun. At least, for a... | Read more »
Is Your Face Ready for the New Outwitter...
Is Your Face Ready for the New Outwitters 2.0 Trailer? Posted by Jessica Fisher on February 25th, 2015 [ permalink ] One Man Left Studios has announced that their turn-based strategy game, | Read more »
HowToFormat Review
HowToFormat Review By Jennifer Allen on February 25th, 2015 Our Rating: :: USEFUL TIPSiPhone App - Designed for the iPhone, compatible with the iPad Making a presentation and want to get it just right? HowToFormat teaches you how... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple restocks refurbished Mac minis for up t...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 Mac minis, with models available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz... Read more
Save up to $50 on iPad Air 2s, NY tax only, f...
 B&H Photo has iPad Air 2s on sale for $50 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $469.99 $30 off - 64GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $549 $50 off - 128GB iPad Air 2... Read more
16GB iPad Air 2 on sale for $447, save $52
Walmart has the 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi on sale for $446.99 on their online store for a limited time. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for online orders only,... Read more
iMacs on sale for up to $205 off MSRP
B&H Photo has 21″ and 27″ iMacs on sale for up to $205 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 21″ 1.4GHz iMac: $1029 $70 off - 21″ 2.7GHz iMac: $1199 $100 off - 21″ 2.9GHz... Read more
Apple Takes 89 Percent Share of Global Smartp...
According to the latest research from Strategy Analytics, global smartphone operating profit reached US$21 billion in Q4 2014. The Android operating system captured a record-low 11 percent global... Read more
New Travel Health App “My Travel Health” iOS...
Rochester, Minnesota based Travel Health and Wellness LLC has announced that its new iOS app help safeguard the user’s health when traveling abroad — “My Travel Health” is now available on the Apple... Read more
Sale! MacBook Airs for up to $115 off MSRP
B&H Photo has MacBook Airs on sale for up to $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 11″ 128GB MacBook Air: $799 100 off MSRP - 11″ 256GB MacBook Air: $999 $100... Read more
15-inch 2.0GHz Retina MacBook Pro (refurbishe...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished previous-generation 15″ 2.0GHz Retina MacBook Pros available for $1489 including free shipping plus Apple’s standard one-year warranty. Their price is... Read more
Wither The iPad mini? End Of The Road Imminen...
AppleDailyReport’s Dennis Sellers predicts that the iPad mini is going to be left to wither on the vine, as it were, and then just allowed to fade away — a casualty of the IPhone 6 Plus and other... Read more
Android and iOS Duopoly Owns 96.3% of Smartph...
IDC reports that Android and iOS inched closer to total domination of the worldwide smartphone market in both the fourth quarter (4Q14) and the calendar year 2014 (CY14). According to data from the... Read more

Jobs Board

Sr. Technical Services Consultant, *Apple*...
**Job Summary** Apple Professional Services (APS) has an opening for a senior technical position that contributes to Apple 's efforts for strategic and transactional Read more
Event Director, *Apple* Retail Marketing -...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global engagement strategy and team. Delivering an overarching brand Read more
*Apple* Pay - Site Reliability Engineer - Ap...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.