TweetFollow Us on Twitter

PHP And MySQL, Together At Last

Volume Number: 21 (2005)
Issue Number: 6
Column Tag: Programming

Getting Started

PHP And MySQL, Together At Last

by Dave Mark

Interwoven in my last six columns or so were columns that showed you how to install and test PHP and MySQL. The PHP and MySQL columns all dealt with PHP and MySQL in isolation. The PHP code did not access a MySQL database, and the MySQL database access was all done via the Terminal and not via a PHP encrusted web page. In this month's column, we'll verify that both are installed and available, then see if we can't make them play nicely together. Let's start by verifying our install.

Checking Your PHP Install

If you are new to PHP, make your way over to http://www.php.net and browse through their documentation. If you've installed even a reasonably recent version of Mac OS X on your machine, you should have PHP installed. One solid clue that you do have PHP installed can be obtained by typing this command in Terminal:

$ ls /usr/local/

If the result of this command includes the text "php5", chances are, you're all set. If it doesn't, visit Mark Liyanage's wonderful PHP site:

http://www.entropy.ch/software/macosx/php/

Mark has put together an excellent PHP resource for Mac OS X and he does a nice job keeping it up to date. Though, at this writing, the site still lists Mac OS X 10.3 as the most recently supported, I had no trouble using his install package on my Tiger machine. Obviously, you'll want to backup your machine first, just in case something does go wrong.

Hopefully, you do have PHP installed on your machine already. Regardless of how you got there, once you've got PHP 5 installed, here's a simple test to make sure you're all good.

Launch your favorite text editor, be sure it is set to save as plain-text, create a new file, then enter this text:

<?php
phpinfo()
?>

Save the file as test.php and place it in the Sites subfolder of your home folder (inside ~/Sites/, aka, /Users/xxxx/Sites/).

To test your new PHP file, launch Safari and type:

http://127.0.0.1/~davemark/test.php

Obviously, you'll replace "davemark" with your own user name. Safari will ask your Apache server to pass the referenced file on to the PHP pre-processor. If all is kosher, a giant table will appear in a Safari window. The beginning of my giant table is shown in Figure 1.


Figure 1. The PHP info table.

Note that my computer is running PHP version 5.0.4. You'll definitely want to check on http://php.net to see if there's a later version available.

Checking Your MySQL Install

If you are new to MySQL, check out http://www.mysql.com. In the March, 2005 Getting Started column, I went through the process of hunting down the proper package for your version of Mac OS X, installing MySQL, starting and shutting down the MySQL server, and setting up the accounts and passwords.

Then, in the April Getting Started, we used the MySQL monitor application, running in Terminal, to build a database and, within that, a table. We added to and deleted rows from the table, and ran some queries to report on the table data. Obviously, I don't want to repeat all that here, but I thought it would be worth repeating a few of the basics, just to make sure we were on the same page.

Start by making sure you have an alias set up for mysql. In Terminal, type this command:

alias

This will list your aliases. Hopefully, one of your aliases will be:

alias mysql='/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql'

If not, edit the file .profile in your home directory and add this line to the end of it:

alias mysql='/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql'

Now quit and re-launch Terminal, which will re-execute the commands in .profile. Now, when you type the alias command, your alias should appear. This lets us type mysql to launch the MySQL monitor.

Launch the monitor by typing:

mysql -u root -p

As a reminder, you are launching the monitor with a user of root. You'll be prompted for a password. Type in the password you created when you created your account. Remember, this root is not the same root as your Mac root account. If you are having trouble logging in as root, go back to your setup instructions or to the March Getting Started.

Here's what my monitor looks like:

Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1 to server version: 4.1.12-standard

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.

mysql>

If mysql does not launch your MySQL monitor, either your alias is not set correctly (in which case, go check to see if you've got a file called mysql in the directory /usr/local/mysql/bin/) or you did not install MySQL correctly. If MySQL was not installed correctly, get hold of the March MacTech and follow the installation process, or make your way through the MySQL installation instructions on http://mysql.com.

Assuming your monitor comes up as mine did, type this command:

show databases;

Don't foget the ending semicolon. Here's my result:

mysql> show databases;
+----------+
| Database |
+----------+
| test     |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.18 sec)

mysql>

If you've played with MySQL, you may find yourself with a different set of databases. Not a problem. As long as the command works, you're fine, no matter the result.

Driving MySQL From Within PHP

In April's column, we used the MySQL monitor to create a database, add rows, delete rows, and update values in a table. In the remainder of this month's column, we're going to do the same sorts of things, but do them from within PHP, instead of from the monitor.

Before we get into our PHP example, let's use the monitor to set up a database and table, then populate the table. This approach is pretty typical: Set up the database and table using the monitor, then query/populate the table from your PHP/web interface.

In the monitor, type this command:

mysql> create database products;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.06 sec)

Next, check to make sure the database got created:

mysql> show databases;
+----------+
| Database |
+----------+
| mysql    |
| products |
| test     |
+----------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Yup, there it is. Now, let's set products as our database and then create a new table:

mysql> use products;
Database changed
mysql> show tables;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

No tables exist yet. Let's create one:

mysql> create table cables(
   -> name varchar(60),
   -> lengthInCm int(2),
   -> cableType ENUM( 'firewire', 'usb' ),
   -> cableID int(10) auto_increment primary key );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.15 sec)

Imagine a database set up for an e-commerce web site, designed to store info on all the site's products. The site sells firewire and usb cables of various lengths. The cables table will store info on the various cables sold by the site. Obviously, this is a very simple example. If this were a real database, we'd want to create multiple tables and have them reference each other. For example, we'd probably create a manufacturer table and have a field in the cables table refer to an entry in that table. This table is not very complicated and would not be terrifically useful in the real world, but it will serve to demonstrate the connection between PHP and MySQL. Read on...

Now let's populate the table:

mysql> insert into cables values ('Varco DX100', 100, 'firewire', 0);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.13 sec)

Note that we embedded the manufacturer's name in the cable name field. Ick. As I mentioned, this should be a reference to a separate, manufacturer table. For now, this'll do.

Notice that we created an enumerated field. The cableType field can only take on one of two values, either 'firewire' or 'usb'.

We used a value of 0 for the cableID. This asks MySQL to create an index for this entry automatically.

Let's retrieve what we just put in:

mysql> select * from cables;
+------------- +------------+----------- + ------- +
| name         | lengthInCm | cableType  | cableID |
+------------- +------------+----------- + ------- +
| Varco DX100  | 100        | firewire   | 1       |
+------------- +------------+----------- + ------- +
1 row in set (0.04 sec)
Let's add a few more:
mysql> insert into cables values ('Genenco VT100', 100, 'firewire', 0);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.38 sec)

mysql> insert into cables values ('Genenco VT50', 50, 'firewire', 0);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> insert into cables values ('Genenco U100', 100, 'usb', 0);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> insert into cables values ('Plexicor uShorty', 20, 'usb', 0);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> insert into cables values ('Plexicor fShorty', 20, 'firewire', 0);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
Now let's take a look at what we've got in the table:
mysql> select * from cables;
+ ------------------+------------ +---------- + --------- +
| name              | lengthInCm  | cableType | cableID   |
+ ------------------+------------ +---------- + --------- +
| Varco DX100       | 100         | firewire  |    1      |
| Genenco VT100     | 100         | firewire  |    2      |
| Genenco VT50      | 50          | firewire  |    3      |
| Genenco U100      | 100         | usb       |    4      |
| Plexicor uShorty  | 20          | usb       |    5      |
| Plexicor fShorty  | 20          | firewire  |    6      |
+ ------------------+------------ +---------- + --------- +
6 rows in set (0.39 sec)

Accessing Your Data from PHP

So now we have a database and a table filled with data. Our next step is to access this data and make it appear on a web page.

As a reminder, your PHP statements will be embedded within your html code. Once your .php file has been handed off to the PHP pre-processor, the pre-processor will interpret the PHP code and replace the code with the output generated by the code. If this confuses you, here's a very short example from last November's column, just to refresh your memory.

Using your plain-text text editor, create a new file called mysqltest.php and save it in your Sites folder, right alongside your test.php file we created earlier. Enter this code in the file and save:

<html>
   <head>
      <title>PHP Test</title>
   </head>
   <body>
      <p>This is some pure HTML loveliness.</p>
      <?php
         echo "<p>Hello, World!</p>\n";
      ?>
      <p>Did we echo properly?</p>
      <?php
         echo date("r");
         echo "\n";
      ?>
      <p>It works!!!</p>
   </body>
</html>

Once your file is saved, go into Safari and enter this address:

http://127.0.0.1/~davemark/mysqltest.php

Make sure you replace "davemark" with your own user name. Figure 2 shows what I saw when my page loaded. The first line was produced by the HTML. The second line was the result of the output of the PHP echo function. The echo function produced some HTML which was added to the stream. Next came another line of HTML ("Did we echo properly?"), followed by another pair of echos, echoing a date string and a return. This is all polished off by a last line of HTML, generating the string "It works!!!".


Figure 2. A simple PHP test.

If you view source on this output, here's what you get:

<html>
   <head>
      <title>PHP Test</title>
   </head>
   <body>
      <p>This is some pure HTML loveliness.</p>
      <p>Hello, World!</p>
      <p>Did we echo properly?</p>
      Wed, 15 Jun 2005 19:43:02 -0400
      <p>It works!!!</p>
   </body>
</html>

Go back and look at the original PHP. Make sure you understand how the original PHP got translated into this source. Remember, every chunk of PHP code in the original source was replaced by its output to achieve this HTML listing.

Connecting to the Database

OK, now we're ready to fetch our data. Our first step is to connect to our database. Open mysqltest.php and replace the contents with this code:

<html>
   <head>
      <title>MySQL Test</title>
   </head>
   <body>
      <p>Connecting to the database...</p>
      <?php
         $host = 'localhost';
         $user = 'root';
         $pw = '';
         $db = 'products';
	
         $link = mysql_connect( $host, $user, $pw )
            or die( 'Could not connect: ' . mysql_error() );
         echo 'Connected successfully';
         mysql_select_db( $db );
      ?>
      <p>If we got here, we've connected!</p>
   </body>
</html>

In the above code, replace the $user and $pw string values with whatever user and password you used to create the database. Save the code and reload this page in Safari: http://127.0.0.1/~davemark/mysqltest.php. Figure 3 shows my results.


Figure 3. Connecting to the database.

In a nutshell, we used the function mysql_connect() to connect to the database and the function mysql_select_db() to select the database. This is like logging in using the MySQL monitor, then saying use products.

One line of code worth taking a second look at is this one:

         $link = mysql_connect( $host, $user, $pw )
            or die( 'Could not connect: ' . mysql_error() );

Notice the use of "or" here. This is a pretty common technique in PHP. The second part of the or clause will only execute if the first part fails. The die() function is equivalent to exit(). die() will post the passed in string as output, then exit.

Notice the use of the "." operator to concatenate two strings together. This is another common PHP technique. In this case, the "." operator will build a single string from 'Could not connect: ' and the string returned by mysql_error(). mysql_error() returns the error message from the previous MySQL operation.

Our next step is to query the database and to print the data we retrieved.

Querying the Database

Back in your text editor, open the file mysqltest.php and replace its contents with this:

<html>
   <head>
      <title>MySQL Test</title>
   </head>
   <body>
      <p>Connecting to the database...</p>
      <?php
         $host = 'localhost';
         $user = 'root';
         $pw = '';
         $db = 'products';

         $link = mysql_connect( $host, $user, $pw )
            or die( 'Could not connect: ' . mysql_error() );
         echo 'Connected successfully';
         mysql_select_db( $db );
      ?>
      <p>Here's the table data:</p>
      <?php
         $sql_statement = "SELECT * FROM cables";
         $results = mysql_query( $sql_statement )
            or printf( "Query error: %s", mysql_error() );

         while ( $row = mysql_fetch_assoc( $results ) )
         {
            echo $row['cableID'] . ": ";
            echo "\"" . $row['name'] . "\"" . ", ";
            echo $row['lengthInCm'] . ", ";
            echo $row['cableType'];
            echo "<p>";
         }
			
         mysql_close( $link );
      ?>
   </body>
</html>

Save the file and reload it from Safari. Figure 4 shows my version of this run. Notice that the data is lightly formatted, with a colon (":") after the item number and commas between each of the fields.


Figure 4. Retrieving the data from the database.

Let's take a look at the code. We started with the original code, connecting to and selecting the database.

<html>
   <head>
      <title>MySQL Test</title>
   </head>
   <body>
      <p>Connecting to the database...</p>
      <?php
         $host = 'localhost';
         $user = 'root';
         $pw = '';
         $db = 'products';

         $link = mysql_connect( $host, $user, $pw )
            or die( 'Could not connect: ' . mysql_error() );
         echo 'Connected successfully';
         mysql_select_db( $db );
      ?>

Next, we spit out a line of HTML, preparing us for the table data to follow.

      <p>Here's the table data:</p>

We load our query into a PHP string, then pass the string into mysql_query(). This is the equivalent of typing the string into the MySQL monitor as a query. Once again, we use the "or" operator and this time, instead of exiting with die(), we'll display an error message using printf(). printf() is derived from its C forbearer, but is a part of the PHP library. As a point of interest, echo is not a function, but is a language construct. You can use echo as a statement, but can't pass it as a function. Use printf() instead.

<?php
         $sql_statement = "SELECT * FROM cables";
         $results = mysql_query( $sql_statement )
            or printf( "Query error: %s", mysql_error() );

Next, we enter a while loop, using mysql_fetch_assoc() to fetch one row of the table at a time. mysql_fetch_assoc() returns an associative array, which is an array indexed by name instead of by number. Instead of $row[3], you'd refer to $row['cableType']. Associative arrays are one of my favorite parts of PHP. Note that you could have also used mysql_fetch_row(), which would have returned a more tradition, numerically indexed array.

while ( $row = mysql_fetch_assoc( $results ) )
         {

For each row of data, we echo the field value, interspersed with colons, spaces and commas. Note that we also make frequent use of the "." operator.

            echo $row['cableID'] . ": ";
            echo "\"" . $row['name'] . "\"" . ", ";
            echo $row['lengthInCm'] . ", ";
            echo $row['cableType'];
            echo "<p>";
         }

Finally, we close the database using the value returned by mysql_connect(), then exit our PHP area and return to HTML.

mysql_close( $link );
      ?>
   </body>
</html>

Until Next Month...

Once again, seems we just get started when I've run out of room to write. <sigh>. Your assignment for this month is to first do a bit of research, then take the result of this month's query and build a nice HTML table instead of just dumping the data using echo. On the research side of things, go to http://php.net and dig down through the PHP manual, looking up the various functions we played with in this month's code. For example, here's a link to the page that talks about mysql_fetch_assoc():

http://php.net/manual/en/function.mysql-fetch-assoc.php

Take some time to get to know the PHP documentation. You'll find it chock full of examples and incredibly useful. Enjoy!


Dave Mark is a long-time Mac developer and author and has written a number of books on Macintosh development. Dave has been writing for MacTech since its birth! Be sure to check out the new Learn C on the Macintosh, Mac OS X Edition at http://www.spiderworks.com.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Luminar 1.0.2 - Powerful, adaptive, conf...
Luminar is the new full-featured image editor that adapts to the way you edit photos. Over 300 essential tools to fix, edit, and enhance your photos with comfort. The future of photo editing is here... Read more
WhatRoute 2.0.10 - Geographically trace...
WhatRoute is designed to find the names of all the routers an IP packet passes through on its way from your Mac to a destination host. It also measures the round-trip time from your Mac to the router... Read more
Slack 2.3.3 - Collaborative communicatio...
Slack is a collaborative communication app that simplifies real-time messaging, archiving, and search for modern working teams. Version 2.3.3: Fixed window zoom jumping back-and-forth OS X 10.9... Read more
Lens Blur 1.4.3 - True out-of-focus boke...
Lens Blur transforms your existing photo into true SLR-quality out-of-focus bokeh effect! Everyone needs a gorgeous personalized background for a social profile, blog, Web/UI design, presentation, or... Read more
CleanMyMac 3.6.0 - $39.95
CleanMyMac makes space for the things you love. Sporting a range of ingenious new features, CleanMyMac lets you safely and intelligently scan and clean your entire system, delete large, unused files... Read more
DEVONthink Pro 2.9.8 - Knowledge base, i...
DEVONthink Pro is your essential assistant for today's world, where almost everything is digital. From shopping receipts to important research papers, your life often fills your hard drive in the... Read more
MacFamilyTree 8.1 - Create and explore y...
MacFamilyTree gives genealogy a facelift: modern, interactive, convenient and fast. Explore your family tree and your family history in a way generations of chroniclers before you would have loved.... Read more
HoudahSpot 4.2.7 - Advanced file-search...
HoudahSpot is a powerful file search tool. Use HoudahSpot to locate hard-to-find files and keep frequently used files within reach. HoudahSpot will immediately feel familiar. It works just the way... Read more
TunnelBear 3.0.7 - Subscription-based pr...
TunnelBear is a subscription-based virtual private network (VPN) service and companion app, enabling you to browse the internet privately and securely. Features Browse privately - Secure your data... Read more
Garmin Express 4.5.0.0 - Manage your Gar...
Garmin Express is your essential tool for managing your Garmin devices. Update maps, golf courses and device software. You can even register your device. Update maps Update software Register your... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Telltale Games really is working on a Gu...
Telltale Games' next episodic adventure is indeed Guardians of the Galaxy. A document tied to the voice actors strike suggested that the project was in the work, but now we have direct confirmation following an announcement at the Game Awards that... | Read more »
Amateur Surgeon returns to iOS and Andro...
Amateur Surgeon and its two sequels disappeared from the App Store some time and it was sad days for all. But now, just in time for the holidays, the Adult Swim favorite makes its joyous return in the shape of Amateur Surgeon 4, a remake with... | Read more »
The best board games on mobile
Sometimes you need to ditch all of the high speed, high action games in favor of something a little more traditional. If you don't feel like parting ways from your mobile device, though, there are still plenty of ways to get that old-school fix.... | Read more »
The best Facebook Messenger Instant Game...
Facebook's new Instant Games is now here, meaning you can play games with your friends directly via Facebook. It's a fun new way to connect with friends, of course, but it's also proving to be a solid gaming experience in its own right, with a... | Read more »
You can now play game's on Facebook...
Facebook launched its new Instant Games platform in an exciting new attempt to engage its user base. As a result, you can now play a number of different games directly through Facebook Messenger. All of these games run with HTML5, meaning you play... | Read more »
Apollo Justice Ace Attorney (Games)
Apollo Justice Ace Attorney 1.00.00 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.00.00 (iTunes) Description: Court Is Back In Session Star as rookie defense attorney, Apollo Justice, as he visits crime scenes,... | Read more »
KORG iWAVESTATION (Music)
KORG iWAVESTATION 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Music Price: $19.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: A revolutionary new world of sound.The Wave Sequence Synthesizer for iPad - KORG iWAVESTATION | Read more »
Don't Grind Guide: Tips for becomin...
Don’t Grind is a surprising, derpy little one touch game with fun hand-drawn graphics. The goal is simple -- get the high score without being chopped to bits. That can be tough when you’re not used to the game, and that’s compounded by the fact... | Read more »
The top 4 Final Fantasy games on mobile
Final Fantasy XV is out today, and to celebrate we’re breaking down the best Final Fantasy games on mobile. Porting a game to mobile is always tricky business, but many of the early Final Fantasy games have made the transition quite well. Let’s... | Read more »
Swap Sword (Games)
Swap Sword 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Parallels Toolbox 1.3 for Mac Offers 25 Singl...
Parallels has launched Parallels Toolbox 1.3 for Mac, an upgrade that adds five new utilities to the stand-alone application which was released in August and is available exclusively online at http... Read more
OWC Mercury Elite Pro Dual mini Ultra-Portabl...
OWC has introduced the new OWC Mercury Elite Pro Dual mini, a powerful yet ultra-portable dual-drive RAID solution. The new Mercury Elite Pro Dual mini packs phenomenal performance into a small... Read more
Clearance 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros availab...
B&H Photo has clearance 2015 13″ Retina Apple MacBook Pros available for up to $200 off original MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro: $... Read more
Roundup of 2016 13-inch 2.0GHz MacBook Pro sa...
B&H has the non-Touch Bar 13″ MacBook Pros in stock today for $50-$100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray (MLL42LL/A): $1449 $... Read more
New 13-inch 2.0GHz Space Gray MacBook Pro in...
Adorama has the new 13″ 2.0GHz Space Gray MacBook Pro (non-Touch Bar, MLL42LL/A) in stock for $1499 including a free 3-year AppleCare Protection Plan. Shipping is free, and Adorama charges sales tax... Read more
Finnair Adopts iOS Enterprise iPad Apps from...
Finnair and IBM have announced a first-of-its-kind agreement to utilize iOS enterprise apps from IBM to support the airline’s overall digital transformation. Finnair is focused on Asia-Europe traffic... Read more
Tech21 Launches Evo Go iPhone 7 Case Availabl...
Tech21 has announced the launch of the Evo Go case for Apple iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus, exclusively at T-Mobile. Available online and at participating T-Mobile stores nationwide, Evo Go cases start... Read more
Apple Turns (RED) with More Ways to Join the...
In recognition of World AIDS Day, Apple is offering more ways than ever for customers to join (RED) in its mission to create an AIDS-free generation. Apple is the worlds largest corporate contributor... Read more
Deals on new 15-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros,...
B&H Photo has new 2016 Apple 15″ Touch Bar MacBook Pro models in stock today with some available for $50 off MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.7GHz Touch Bar... Read more
12-inch Retina MacBooks on sale for up to $10...
12-inch Retina MacBooks remain on sale at B&H Photo with models available for up to $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. B&H will also include a free copy... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
US- *Apple* Store Leader Program - Apple (Un...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on Read more
*Apple* & PC Desktop Support Technician...
Apple & PC Desktop Support Technician job in Dallas TX Introduction: We have immediate job openings for several Desktop Support Technicians with one of our most Read more
*Apple* &Amp Pc Desktop Support Technici...
Apple & PC Desktop Support Technician job in Monroe, CT Introduction: We have immediate job openings for several Desktop Support Technicians with one of our most Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions, Fort Wo...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.