TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Your First MySQL Database

Volume Number: 20 (2004)
Issue Number: 1
Column Tag: Programming

Untangling the Web

by Kevin Hemenway

Your First MySQL Database

Creating, administering, and maintaining are pretty easy.

Last month, besides exploring what was different between the Jaguar and Panther web serving configurations, we installed the MySQL database program (specifically, the "value-added" installer from third-party Server Logistics), used the provided System Preference to initialize the database and set the MySQL root password, then confirmed it was running through one of three avenues (log files, the Terminal, or the Activity Monitor).

We've yet to create a MySQL database or insert any data. We betta' rECtififffYYyy!

Exploring The MySQL Helper Programs

Along with the MySQL daemon (where "daemon" is an application that runs all the time, resolutely waiting for something to do), a bunch of other useful helper programs were installed alongside your new database server. Take a look in your /Library/MySQL/bin directory (Figure 1) for the complete list. Some of these programs (like msql2_mysql, make_win_src_distribution, mysql_install, and mysql_install_db) will never be used in normal (or even abnormal) operation. Others (like mysqladmin, mysql_setpermission, mysqlshow and mysqldump) will become regular additions to your MySQL administrating repertoire.

The most negative aspect of these helper utilities is that there's no central place to find information on what they all do. Some, like mysql_config, have no explanations for their purpose (commonly accessible by passing -?, -h, or --help as command line flags), but their source code can be viewed with vi, less, or BBEdit to divine their intent. Others, like mysqlshow, have manual pages that can be accessed with a command like man -M /Library/MySQL/man/ mysqlshow (see "Homework Malignments" for a shortcut), and still others, like mysql_setpermission, are Perl scripts that need an additional module (DBI) not installed by default.


Figure 1: A number of additional MySQL utilities were installed.

Since the DBI Perl module plays an important part (both in the mysql_setpermission script and any future database interaction in Perl), we'll install that onto our machines before we go much further. Prior to starting, however, we'll need to fix a bug that wasn't corrected in time for Panther's public release. Open /System/Library/Perl/5.8.1/darwin-thread-multi-2level/Config.pm in an authenticating text editor (I prefer BBEdit, but you can use something like sudo vi $filename), and look for the following line:

ld='MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET=10.3 cc'

Add the word env, creating the following correction:

ld='env MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET=10.3 cc'

After saving the file, we've got one more annoyance to take care of. Remember how we set the MySQL root password so that our database would be reasonably secure? Welp, the Perl module we're about to install requires access to MySQL to run some tests, and there's no simple way to give it what it needs without temporarily blanking out that root password. Using the installed MySQL System Preference doesn't allow us to set a null value, so we'll need to run the following in the shell: /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqladmin -u root -p password "" (no spaces between those quotes). You'll be prompted for your current password... once entered, the root password will be set to nothing.

We're now ready to start the DBI installation process. To do so, we're going to use Perl's CPAN (the "Comprehensive Perl Archive Network") to automatically download the module, check and enable any prerequisites, ensure everything is working properly with a bevy of tests, and finally, install the modules for regular use.

Normally, to start CPAN, we'd simply enter sudo perl -MCPAN -eshell at the command line. However, the module we'll be installing needs to know a bit about our MySQL installation so, just this once, we're going to use the following commands instead. These will, for the duration of our current shell, add the MySQL bin directory to the lookup path (instructions on how to set these permanently are available in "Homework Malignments"):

# if you're using the tcsh shell:
setenv PATH ${PATH}:/Library/MySQL/bin
sudo perl -MCPAN -eshell

# if you're using the bash shell, use the following:
PATH=$PATH:/Library/MySQL/bin sudo perl -MCPAN -eshell

If this is your first time using CPAN, you may be asked oodles and oodles of configuration questions, including whether you're using proxies, what CPAN sites you want to download from, and so on. In most cases, you can just accept the defaults. Eventually, you'll end up at a command prompt that looks something like this:

shell -- CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.76)
ReadLine support enabled

cpan>

Now, type install Bundle::DBD::mysql. This will install a bunch of modules related to the MySQL DBD ("database definition") of Perl's DBI ("database interface")--you'll see a dozen screens of information fly by before the process is finished. Depending on your CPAN configuration, you may be asked to follow some missing module prerequisite, which you should generally always agree to.

If the CPAN process complains about its inability to download modules from any of the mirror sites you chose during configuration, you probably have Panther's internal firewall enabled. Cancel the CPAN process, execute export FTP_PASSIVE=1 in the shell, and then start the CPAN process again. More information is available in "Homework Malignments".

If any critical errors occur, the install process will stop... in our case, we should have received a few during the testing phase of DBD::mysql (Figure 2). We could go nuts about actually hunting down and fixing these errors that caused the integrity checks to fail (thus canceling the installation), but honestly, you can "cheat" and force things forward anyways. Some will cluck at me for saying so, but run the following CPAN command to force the installation: force install Bundle::DBD::mysql. For more information about the failing tests, reference http://www.mail-archive.com/macosx@perl.org/msg05834.html.


Figure 2: Failures in the DBD::mysql module can be ignored.

Once the forced installation has finished, you'll be returned to the standard cpan> prompt. Type exit to finish the process, and then be sure to reset the MySQL root password back to what it was before. You can do this either from the command line (using /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqladmin -u root password "password") or by using the MySQL System Preference (Figure 3).


Figure 3: Using the System Preference to set the MySQL root password.

Creating Our First Database

The larger purpose of getting the Perl DBI and DBD modules installed was to use one of the MySQL helper utilities to create a new database, a new MySQL user, and set the proper permissions for access thereafter. There are many different ways and avenues this can be done; I happen to think that mysql_setpermission, a utility that requires DBI, is one of the easiest and friendlier paths to speed down.

We can start the mysql_setpermission script one of two different ways. Without any additional command line flags, it will attempt to connect to the MySQL database as the current user: morbus, in my case. Since that user has yet to be created within MySQL (remember, MySQL users and permissions have nothing to do with Linux users and permissions), I'll receive a disheartening error about lack of access:

~ > /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_setpermission
Password for user to connect to MySQL: 
Can't make a connection to the mysql server.
 The error: Access denied for user: 'morbus@localhost'  
 (Using password: YES) at /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_
 setpermission line 70, <STDIN> line 1.

We can solve this one of two ways: temporarily becoming the root user with sudo /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_setpermission, or by passing the MySQL username as a command line flag with /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_setpermission --user root. Regardless of the method, we'll reach a menu with numerous possibilities (Figure 4).


Figure 4: The starting menu of mysql_setpermission.

Since we've yet to create a database or MySQL user, we'll want to choose the second option, which allows us to do both. You'll be asked the name of the database to create, the username and password for the new MySQL user (passwords are heartily recommended if you plan on allowing the new user to modify data), and the hosts this user can access the database from. In our example (Figure 5), the new mactech database can be accessed by davemarksman from any host (represented by the % character). The host restriction determines whether other programs on other servers can connect to the mactech database. When a normal web visitor accesses any of our connecting code, it's considered localhost access (the visitor uses our Apache web server, which runs our PHP code, which connects to our MySQL installation.)


Figure 5: Adding a new MySQL database and user.

By default, the user that is created will have very slim access to the specified database (they'll only be able to read data with SELECT, not modify or delete). Since our next article will talk about inserting, modifying, and deleting, we'll want to next choose option 5, which allows us to give davemarksman heightened privileges (Figure 6).


Figure 6: Choosing the database to give heightened user privileges to.

Once you've created your database and configured your user permissions, you can exit the program by choosing option 0, which will send you back to the shell prompt. You can confirm your database has been created by running /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqlshow -u root -p, which gives output something like:

~ > /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqlshow --user root -p
Enter password: 
+-----------+
| Databases |
+-----------+
| mactech   |
| mysql     |
| test      |
+-----------+

Homework Malignments

I shall no longer prophesize about what will be in the next article, as I seemingly always overshoot my estimates. Instead, students may contact the teacher at morbus@disobey.com.

When you're in the Terminal, there are two environment variables that help control how much typing you have to do: PATH and MANPATH. The first controls what directories will be looked into when you attempt to run a binary program without a full path (like vi compared to /usr/bin/vi), and the second determines what directories are looked into for manual pages. You can see their current configuration by typing printenv in your Terminal. To make working with the MySQL shell programs easier, you'll want to add /Library/MySQL/bin to your PATH, and /Library/MySQL/man to your MANPATH. In Panther, which uses the bash shell by default, add PATH="$PATH:/Library/MySQL/bin" to your (possibly non-existent) /Users/username/.bash_profile. Then, with an authenticating text editor, add OPTIONAL_MANPATH /Library/MySQL/man and OPTIONAL_MANPATH /man to the /etc/manpath.config file. With that finished, restart your Terminal, and you should be able to type man mysqlshow.

You can also add export FTP_PASSIVE=1 to the .bash_profile (see previous Malignment). This instructs CPAN (specifically, the Net::FTP Perl module) to use passive file transfer mode which, for some, is required when the Panther firewall is enabled. Thanks to the macosx@perl.org mailing list for that tidbit.


Kevin Hemenway, coauthor of Mac OS X Hacks and Spidering Hacks, is better known as Morbus Iff, the creator of disobey.com, which bills itself as "content for the discontented." Publisher and developer of more home cooking than you could ever imagine (like the popular open-sourced aggregator AmphetaDesk, the best-kept gaming secret Gamegrene.com, the ever ignorable Nonsense Network, etc.), he has started to self-teach indexing and cataloging skills for his . .. . . "media collection". Contact him at morbus@disobey.com.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Firefox 49.0.1 - Fast, safe Web browser.
Firefox offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals and casual... Read more
Default Folder X 5.0.7 - Enhances Open a...
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click on... Read more
Safari Technology Preview 10.1 - The new...
Safari Technology Preview contains the most recent additions and improvements to WebKit and the latest advances in Safari web technologies. And once installed, you will receive notifications of... Read more
Pinegrow Web Designer 2.94 - Mockup and...
Pinegrow Web Designer is desktop app that lets you mockup and design webpages faster with multi-page editing, CSS and LESS styling, and smart components for Bootstrap, Foundation, Angular JS, and... Read more
ExpanDrive 5.4.1 - Access cloud storage...
ExpanDrive builds cloud storage in every application, acts just like a USB drive plugged into your Mac. With ExpanDrive, you can securely access any remote file server directly from the Finder or... Read more
MacUpdate Desktop 6.1.3 - Search and ins...
MacUpdate Desktop 6 brings seamless 1-click app installs and version updates to your Mac. With a free MacUpdate account and MacUpdate Desktop 6, Mac users can now install almost any Mac app on... Read more
VOX 2.8.6 - Music player that supports m...
VOX just sounds better! The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features and support for all audio formats you should ever need.... Read more
Espionage 3.6.6 - Simple, state-of-the-a...
Espionage offers state-of-the-art encryption and plausible deniability for your confidential data. Sometimes, encrypting your data isn't enough to protect it. That's why Espionage 3 goes beyond data... Read more
VOX 2.8.6 - Music player that supports m...
VOX just sounds better! The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features and support for all audio formats you should ever need.... Read more
MacUpdate Desktop 6.1.3 - Search and ins...
MacUpdate Desktop 6 brings seamless 1-click app installs and version updates to your Mac. With a free MacUpdate account and MacUpdate Desktop 6, Mac users can now install almost any Mac app on... Read more

3 tips for catching the gnarliest waves...
Like a wave breaking on the shore, Tidal Rider swept its way onto the App Store charts this week settling firmly in the top 10. It’s a one-touch high score-chaser in which you pull surfing stunts while dodging seagulls and collecting coins. The... | Read more »
The beginner's guide to destroying...
Age of Heroes: Conquest is 5th Planet Games’ all new turn-based multiplayer RPG, full of fantasy exploration, guild building, and treasure hunting. It’s pretty user-friendly as far as these games go, but when you really get down to it, you’ll find... | Read more »
Infinite Tanks (Games)
Infinite Tanks 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Agatha Christie - The ABC Murders (FULL)...
Agatha Christie - The ABC Murders (FULL) 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $6.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Agatha Christie: The ABC Murders Your weapon is your knowledge. Your wits will be put to the ultimate... | Read more »
HeadlessD (Games)
HeadlessD 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: HeadlessD is hand-painted dungeon crawler with intuitive touch controls and NO in-app purchases. | Read more »
Leaf for Twitter (Social Networking)
Leaf for Twitter 1.0.1 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Social Networking Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Banner Saga 2 (Games)
Banner Saga 2 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The epic award winning story-based role-playing game continues its emotional journey across a breaking world. Lead your Viking... | Read more »
Concrete Jungle (Games)
Concrete Jungle 1.16 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.16 (iTunes) Description: A follow up to the puzzle hit 'MegaCity'! Concrete Jungle is a new take on the city building genre that swaps micro-... | Read more »
5 great apps for the budget traveller
Travelling abroad, or even within your home country, has never been easier thanks to our handy smartphone companions. There are hundreds of apps on the market that promise to make your world journeys hassle-free, but we've selected five of the... | Read more »
Zip—Zap (Games)
Zip—Zap 1.01 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.01 (iTunes) Description: Touch to contract.Release to let go.Bring the clumsy mechanical beings home. · · · over 100 levelsno adsno in-app-purchases Zip—... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple refurbished Mac minis available startin...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Mac minis available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $419 $80 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro available for $928...
Overstock has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro available for $927.99 including free shipping. Their price is $171 off MSRP. Read more
Buying McLaren Would Give Apple Instant Car C...
Apple “iCar” rumors have waxed and waned over the years, piquing interest and speculation as to whether Apple is seriously interested in getting into the automotobile business, either in a joint... Read more
Aetna to Transform Members’ Consumer Health E...
Health care benefits company Aetna, which has an estimated 46.3 million clients, today announced a new initiative to revolutionize members consumer health experience by combining the power of iOS... Read more
USB-IF Announces USB Audio Device Class 3.0 S...
USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF), the support organization for the advancement and adoption of USB technology, today announced the USB Audio Device Class 3.0 specification to establish USB Audio over... Read more
Clearance 12-inch 1.2GHz Retina MacBooks, App...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 12″ 1.2GHz Retina MacBooks available for $1189, or $410 off original MSRP. Apple will include a standard one-year warranty with each MacBook, and shipping is free... Read more
Logitech SmartDock and Skype For Business Com...
Logitech has announced Logitech SmartDock, an AV meeting room solution designed in collaboration with Microsoft. Logitech SmartDock works with Skype for Business and qualified devices, including... Read more
27-inch iMacs on sale for up to $220 off MSRP
B&H Photo has 27″ Apple iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 27″ 3.3GHz iMac 5K: $2099 $200 off MSRP - 27″ 3.2GHz/1TB Fusion iMac 5K: $1899.99 $... Read more
Apple Macs and iPads available for up to $300...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad using Apple’s Education Store and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free, and... Read more
Save up to $600 with Apple refurbished Mac Pr...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Mac Pros available for up to $600 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each Mac Pro, and shipping is free. The following... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Chicago...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Raleigh...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
User Support Specialist *Apple* Product Spe...
…Description:Ciber, Inc. is seeking a User Support Specialist - Apple Product Support in Nashville, TN!Responsibilities:Support, implementation, and upgrade of Read more
Restaurant Manager (Neighborhood Captain) - A...
…in every aspect of daily operation. WHY YOU'LL LIKE IT: You'll be the Big Apple . You'll solve problems. You'll get to show your ability to handle the stress and Read more
US- *Apple* Store Leader Program - Apple (Un...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.