TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Enabling CGI Scripts

Volume Number: 19 (2003)
Issue Number: 9
Column Tag: Programming

Untangling the Web

Enabling CGI Scripts

by Kevin Hemenway

Prepare your server for more powerful dynamic capabilities

Last month, we started down the road of adding dynamic content to our web server with the use of Server Side Includes (SSI). Often regarded as "simple" compared to languages like Perl and PHP, they can provide some quick turnaround to minor features like small single-item databases, changing content based on user whim or URL, and so forth. Regardless of whether you plan on using SSIs or not, we laid some important groundwork with our understanding of how modules work, Apache's "block" configuration format, and a soft introduction to GET and POST.

All relatively Lego. Let's break out the Technix.

A Quick 'How do ya do?' To CGI

SSI's are built into Apache through the use of a module--when they're enabled, the web server handles the request of a resource, processes the SSI statements within, and then sends the final output back to the user. Since Apache is a web server and not a programming language, the capabilities of the built-in SSIs are minimal--they're not intended to be a full-fledged coding environment, and they never will be.

This is where CGI comes in. Meaning "Common Gateway Interface", it defines a way for a web server to interact with external programs: Apache handles the request, sends some relevant information to the requested resource, and trusts the resource to handle the rest (including sending back the final content). If the resource doesn't respond properly (either due to bad programming, incorrect permissions, etc.), Apache generates an error.

What does this really mean? Ultimately, it allows you to use any shell programming language to "do stuff" before showing the results to your visitors. Whether this means displaying content from a database, resetting passwords, saving a comment to a weblog, etc., as long as your program finishes properly, Apache doesn't give a darn.

Most commonly, these "CGI scripts" are written in Perl, but you can use PHP, C, Bash, Ruby, Python, and anything else you may be interested in. Likewise, you can use them all in tandem--you're not locked into any one programming language at any one time. Be forewarned, however: you are locked into security concerns: anything possible in your programming language of choice is doable within your CGI script, including deletion of files, exhaustion of memory, buffer overflows, poor security, and impolite use of resources. Add in the fact that all of these errors in judgment become publicly run-able by anyone who accesses your server, and you've got a whole mess of potential trouble.

Enabling The Gateway to Your Scripts

Learning about CGI follows my oft-repeated method of "search the httpd.conf for the feature you want". So, open up /etc/httpd/httpd.conf in your favorite text editor and search for the word "CGI"--our first two matches look vaguely familiar:

LoadModule cgi_module         libexec/httpd/mod_cgi.so
AddModule mod_cgi.c

If you recall from our previous articles, Apache contains most of its features broken up into modules--the equivalent of plugins. To enable a module, two lines must exist uncommented (not preceded by a # character) in the httpd.conf file, an AddModule and a LoadModule. As previously with SSI, so too with CGI: our two lines already exist, and are already enabled. Let's move on to our next search result, which is also similar to what we saw last month:

<Directory "/Library/WebServer/Documents">
    # This may also be "None", "All", or any combination of 
    # "Indexes", "Includes", "FollowSymLinks", "ExecCGI",   
    # or "MultiViews".
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
    AllowOverride None
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
</Directory>

Whereas last article the above result was triggered by the word Includes, it's ExecCGI this time around. Unfortunately, explaining ExecCGI without some prior knowledge will cause a little bit of confusion, so let's skip ahead to our next few matches before we go much further. I've truncated them for relevance:

# ScriptAlias: This controls which directories
# contain server scripts. ScriptAliases are essentially
# the same as Aliases, except that documents in the 
# realname directory are treated as applications and
# run by the server when requested rather than as
# documents sent to the client. 
#
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/Library/WebServer/CGI-Executables/"
# "/Library/WebServer/CGI-Executables" should be changed
# to whatever your ScriptAliased CGI directory exists,
# if you have that configured.
#
<Directory "/Library/WebServer/CGI-Executables">
    AllowOverride None
    Options None
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
</Directory>

The most common CGI configuration is all about segregation: "only files in this directory should be executed as programs--everything else, anywhere else, are just plain old files that should be processed normally." From the standpoint of an overbearing system administrator, this makes sense. With only one directory that can execute code unconditionally, and only one person (you) who can put programs there, it can bring a little sanity to your day-to-day security paranoia.

This is how Apache is configured by default, and the above httpd.conf snippet shows these settings. Our first directive, ScriptAlias, lets us pick and choose which directory we'd like CGI scripts to live in. Anything within that directory, CGI script or not, will be executed by the web server as if it were a program. If something goes wrong, Apache will return an "Internal Server Error" to the requesting user-agent (ie. your visitor's browser).

ScriptAlias consists of two space-separated parts: the fake name and the real name. The fake name, /cgi-bin/, defines what URL will be used to access the real name, /Library/WebServer/CGI-Executables/. In the currently configured settings, whenever we access a URL like http://127.0.0.1/cgi-bin/printenv, we'll really be accessing the matching file stored at /Library/WebServer/CGI-Executables/printenv.

The second part of our configuration is a block directive focusing on that specific location of our hard drive. It merely ensures that said directory has no special privileges besides that ScriptAlias: it can't override anything in the Apache configuration (AllowOverride None), and there are no special capabilities (Options None) associated with it.

At this point, if you only care about the directory segregation of CGI, you can skip over to our next subheading, "Let's See One of These CGI Thingies In Action!" If, on the other hand, you'd like to hear me get high-and-mighty over the "right" way of doing things, read on.

CGI EVERYWHERE: "A Brilliant Psychological Thriller!"

In the very first "Untangling the Web", I professed a fondness and desire to teach you the "right" way to create URLs (MacTech Magazine, June 2003, "Untangling The Web", "Familiarity That Breeds An Uh-Oh!"). A good URL will remain in existence until the dusk of time, never needing to be changed, never needing to be refactored. It's not a snap-decision: if you find yourself changing your URLs around, you designed your site poorly (from an engineering, not visual, standpoint).

One of the maxims, which I'll reiterate here, is that "Your URLs Should Not Reveal Your Technical Capabilities". This has absolutely nothing to do with the oft-maligned "security through obscurity"--the belief that hiding information makes you less susceptible to risk. Instead, removing the technicalities of your URL will allow your site to grow with your needs.

Consider the default configuration of CGI: anytime you want to add some dynamic functionality to your site (with Perl, Python, etc.), you've got to stick your script in a directory and point to it with a URL like http://127.0.0.1/cgi-bin/add_user.pl (where .pl denotes a Perl script) or http://127.0.0.1/cgi-bin/del_user.py (.py denoting Python). What happens, though, when you no longer need CGI scripts, but have moved to an embedded language like PHP? Suddenly, all of your pages that point to that ugly /cgi-bin/ URL are broken, useless, and inaccurate. You find yourself refactoring pages to point to new locations.

The solution? Remove /cgi-bin/ and the file extension from the URL. By clearing this needless technical cruft, you get stronger addresses with less need for change. http://127.0.0.1/admin/add_user and http://127.0.0.1/admin/del_user contain no indication of the technology behind them, merely their purpose in the grande scheme of things.

We're already halfway through removing /cgi-bin/ from our URLs (file extensions I keep putting off, but I'll get to 'em eventually, I promise!). Our very first match for our "CGI" search was for an ExecCGI addition to the Options line of our root web directory (/Library/WebServer/Documents/). ExecCGI works similarly to Includes, which helped get our SSIs running last month. By adding it to the Options line of any Directory we, like SSIs, are telling Apache to allow CGI scripts at that location:

Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews ExecCGI

To make the comparison even more apt, there's one other thing we need to do before we can use CGIs wherever we need them: we need to add a handler that says "Apache! Listen up! Whenever we request a file with this extension, we want you to treat it as an executable program!" This handler was also needed last month--we told Apache that anytime it ran across a file with an shtml extension, it should process it for SSIs statements.

Thankfully, there's not much brainwork involved here, as our final relevant search match for "CGI" brings us to the below. Simply uncomment the AddHandler (by removing the #), restart Apache (sudo apachectl restart in your Terminal) and you're ready to go:

# If you want to use server side includes, or CGI outside
# ScriptAliased directories, uncomment the following lines.
#
# To use CGI scripts:
#
#AddHandler cgi-script .cgi

Two caveats that may be running through head: "what about the cgi extension?" and "what about that security brouhaha you cautioned us about?" Concerning the file extension, yes, we're swapping /cgi-bin/ for cgi, but this will never be an issue once we remove the need for them in our URLs. As for security, there's not much I can say besides "be careful"--you'll no longer have the niceties of a single and central directory for your code execution, so double and triple check the scripts you'll be programming or using. I'll talk a little more about script security in next month's column.

Let's See One of These CGI Thingies In Action!

Browse to your /Library/WebServer/CGI-Executables/ directory, the default location that Apache has been configured for CGI scripts. You should see two files, printenv and test-cgi, there already. These are some default Apache CGI scripts that will help you quickly test if things are a-ok. Since CGI was already pre-configured in the httpd.conf, we should be able to just load one of these files in the browser and see some fireworks, right? Load http://127.0.0.1/cgi-bin/test-cgi, and we'll receive the response in Figure 1.


Figure 1: An error after loading our test-cgi, but why?

If CGI scripts were already configured, why this rather rude error message? Let's check Apache's error_log, which will always contain some sort of light bulb enlightening response. After running tail /var/log/httpd/error_log on the command line, we'll see something similar to the below as the last line of output:

[Sun Aug 17 10:41:16 2003] [error] [client 127.0.0.1] file 
permissions deny server execution: /Library/WebServer/CGI-
Executables/test-cgi

This is one of the more common errors you'll experience with CGI scripts: the test-cgi file doesn't have the proper credentials to be considered an executable program. I won't get into the vagaries of file ownership or permissions, but follow through the bolded commands below to give both of the default CGI files "execute" access for all users:

> cd /Library/WebServer/CGI-Executables/
> ls -l
total 24
-rw-r--r--  1 root  admin  5398 Jul 27  2002 printenv
-rw-r--r--  1 root  admin   757 Jul 27  2002 test-cgi
> sudo chmod 755 *
Password: **********
> ls -l
total 24
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root  admin  5398 Jul 27  2002 printenv
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root  admin   757 Jul 27  2002 test-cgi

Now, let's try our URL again. Figure 2 shows our new output:


Figure 2: The correct output of our test-cgi script.

Figure 3 shows the output from the other script, http://127.0.0.1/cgi-bin/printenv:


Figure 3: Similar output from the default printenv script.

If you followed the instructions under the "CGI EVERYWHERE!" subheading, you can also move either of the printenv or test-cgi scripts out of their current location and stick them in /Library/WebServer/Documents/ with a cgi file extension. Once you do so, you should then be able to run them under the non-/cgi-bin/ URL and receive the same output (if not, what's your first course of action? Check the error_log!).

Assuming you get similar output as Figures 2 and 3, what does all this gibberish mean? What exactly did we just do? Both scripts show a number of environment variables, which is just a fancy term for data that exists "invisibly" and floats around waiting to be used or read. Some of the variables were set by the browser (like HTTP_USER_AGENT), and some have been set by the server (like SERVER_PROTOCOL). When I first introduced CGI, I mentioned that Apache "sends some relevant information to the requested resource". This "relevant information" is stored in environment variables.

Environment variables can exist outside of your web server too. For instance, if you run printenv in your Terminal, you'll see a listing of variables similar to Figure 4:


Figure 4: Environment variables in your Terminal.

Believe it or not, we've dealt with environment variables already in this series. In our article on Server Side Includes, we checked the $QUERY_STRING variable to see which quote should be displayed at the user's request. If you check back to Figure 3, you'll see an environment variable named QUERY_STRING, which is currently empty. Try adding ?q02 to the end of our URL (http://127.0.0.1/cgi-bin/printenv?q02), and see how that changes the output (Figure 5):


Figure 5: Our QUERY_STRING now has a value.

With the above two scripts working correctly, our CGI capabilities are ready for use.

Homework Malignments

In our next column, we'll chat further about CGI: how to begin creating our own, the most common errors during development and deployment, security issues we should be aware of, and how to find the "good ones" from the immense ocean of crap. If we have time, we'll show you how to install a few that have stood the test of time. For now, students may contact the teacher at morbus@disobey.com.

  • Take a look inside printenv and test-cgi in a text editor.

  • View the printenv script from various browsers and machines. Determine how the output changes, and see if you can figure out what each setting actually means.

  • Forgive me for not including anything amusing in this article.


Kevin Hemenway, coauthor of Mac OS X Hacks, is better known as Morbus Iff, the creator of disobey.com, which bills itself as "content for the discontented." Publisher and developer of more home cooking than you could ever imagine (like the popular open-sourced aggregator AmphetaDesk, the best-kept gaming secret Gamegrene.com, articles for Apple's Internet Developer and the O'Reilly Network, etc.), he's been spending the last two months listening to every song in his iTunes library twice. Contact him at morbus@disobey.com.

 
AAPL
$98.38
Apple Inc.
-0.64
MSFT
$43.89
Microsoft Corpora
-0.09
GOOG
$585.61
Google Inc.
-4.99

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Drive Genius 3.2.4 - Powerful system uti...
Drive Genius is an OS X utility designed to provide unsurpassed storage management. Featuring an easy-to-use interface, Drive Genius is packed with powerful tools such as a drive optimizer, a... Read more
Vitamin-R 2.15 - Personal productivity t...
Vitamin-R creates the optimal conditions for your brain to work at its best by structuring your work into short bursts of distraction-free, highly focused activity alternating with opportunities for... Read more
Toast Titanium 12.0 - The ultimate media...
Toast Titanium goes way beyond the very basic burning in the Mac OS and iLife software, and sets the standard for burning CDs, DVDs, and now Blu-ray discs on the Mac. Create superior sounding audio... Read more
OS X Yosemite Wallpaper 1.0 - Desktop im...
OS X Yosemite Wallpaper is the gorgeous new background image for Apple's upcoming OS X 10.10 Yosemite. This wallpaper is available for all screen resolutions with a source file that measures 5,418... Read more
Acorn 4.4 - Bitmap image editor. (Demo)
Acorn is a new image editor built with one goal in mind - simplicity. Fast, easy, and fluid, Acorn provides the options you'll need without any overhead. Acorn feels right, and won't drain your bank... Read more
Bartender 1.2.20 - Organize your menu ba...
Bartender lets you organize your menu bar apps. Features: Lets you tidy your menu bar apps how you want. See your menu bar apps when you want. Hide the apps you need to run, but do not need to... Read more
TotalFinder 1.6.2 - Adds tabs, hotkeys,...
TotalFinder is a universally acclaimed navigational companion for your Mac. Enhance your Mac's Finder with features so smart and convenient, you won't believe you ever lived without them. Tab-based... Read more
Vienna 3.0.0 RC 2 :be5265e: - RSS and At...
Vienna is a freeware and Open-Source RSS/Atom newsreader with article storage and management via a SQLite database, written in Objective-C and Cocoa, for the OS X operating system. It provides... Read more
VLC Media Player 2.1.5 - Popular multime...
VLC Media Player is a highly portable multimedia player for various audio and video formats (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, DivX, MP3, OGG, ...) as well as DVDs, VCDs, and various streaming protocols. It... Read more
Default Folder X 4.6.7 - Enhances Open a...
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Note Review
Note Review By Jennifer Allen on July 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: TOO SIMPLEiPhone App - Designed for the iPhone, compatible with the iPad Note is a note taking app that’s a little too short on features to be worth its asking price... | Read more »
Chainsaw Warrior Goes on Sale & Ther...
Chainsaw Warrior Goes on Sale & There’s a Chance to Win a Copy of the Original Board Game Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 29th, 2014 [ permalink | Read more »
It Came From Canada: Tiny Tower Vegas
If you go to a casino, you might make a lot of money. If you run a casino, you’re guaranteed to make a lot of money. The choice seems pretty obvious. So while waiting for your shady real estate deals to move forward, get prepared with Tiny Tower... | Read more »
Z Hunter Review
Z Hunter Review By Lee Hamlet on July 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: RIGHT ON TARGETUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad While it might not necessarily break new ground, Z Hunter has enough tricks up its sleeve to ensure that... | Read more »
Huge Update Comes To Duet, Adding 48 New...
Huge Update Comes To Duet, Adding 48 New Stages Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 29th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Sharknado: The Video Game Available Now....
Sharknado: The Video Game Available Now. Seriously. Posted by Rob Rich on July 29th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Frog Orbs 2 Review
Frog Orbs 2 Review By Nadia Oxford on July 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: THIS MAGIC IS A TAD MONOTONOUS Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Frog Orbs 2 is repetitive, but younger players should enjoy it nonetheless.   | Read more »
Puzzix Review
Puzzix Review By Jennifer Allen on July 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: NICE IDEAUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad A little like Tetris, Puzzix is all about piecing together blocks and watching them vanish. It could do with... | Read more »
Cannonball eMail is Now Live – Works Wit...
Cannonball eMail is Now Live – Works With Gmail, Yahoo, Outlook, Hotmail, and AOL Posted by Jessica Fisher on July 29th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
To The End Review
To The End Review By Lee Hamlet on July 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: A VICIOUS CYCLEUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad To The End will test players’ patience, timing, and dedication as they try to navigate all 13 levels in... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

The lowest prices on leftover Retina MacBook...
Best Buy has dropped prices on leftover 13″ and 15″ Retina MacBook Pros by up to $300 off original MSRP on their online store for a limited time. Choose free local store pickup (if available) or free... Read more
Apple Updates MacBook Pro with Retina Display...
Apple today updated its MacBook Pro with Retina display with faster processors and double the amount of memory in both entry-level configurations. MacBook Pro with Retina display features a Retina... Read more
Up to $250 price drop on leftover 15-inch Mac...
B&H Photo has dropped prices on 2013 15″ Retina MacBook Pros by as much as $250 off original MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.3GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $2349... Read more
Updated MacBook Pro Price Trackers
We’ve updated our MacBook Pro Price Trackers with the latest information on prices, bundles, and availability on the new 2014 models from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers as well as... Read more
Apple updates MacBook Pros with slightly fast...
Apple updated 13″ and 15″ Retina MacBook Pros today with slightly faster Haswell processors. 13″ models now ship with 8GB of RAM standard, while 15″ MacBook Pros ship with 16GB across the board. Most... Read more
Apple drops price on 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro b...
The Apple Store has dropped their price for the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro by $100 to $1099 including free shipping. Read more
Apple drops prices on refurbished 2013 MacBoo...
The Apple Store has dropped prices on Apple Certified Refurbished 13″ and 15″ 2013 MacBook Pros, with model now available starting at $929. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free... Read more
iOS 8 and OS X 10.10 To Support DuckDuckGo As...
Writing for Quartz, Dan Frommer reports that Apple’s forthcoming iOS 8 and OS X 10.10 operating systems version updates will allow users to select DuckDuckGo as their default search engine. He notes... Read more
U.K. Hospital Using iPods and iPads To Record...
British news journal GazetteLive’s. Ian McNeal notes that the old “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” proverb is being turned on its head at http://southtees.nhs.uk/hospitals/james-cook/ James... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $1099,...
Best Buy has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro available for $1099.99 on their online store. Choose free shipping or free instant local store pickup (if available). Their price is $100 off MSRP. Price is... Read more

Jobs Board

Sr Software Lead Engineer, *Apple* Online S...
Sr Software Lead Engineer, Apple Online Store Publishing Systems Keywords: Company: Apple Job Code: E3PCAK8MgYYkw Location (City or ZIP): Santa Clara Status: Full Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Sr. Product Leader, *Apple* Store Apps - Ap...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.