TweetFollow Us on Twitter

TinyViewer

Volume Number: 19 (2003)
Issue Number: 5
Column Tag: Programming

Getting Started

TinyViewer

by Dave Mark

When I first started programming the Mac, lo those many years ago, one of the earliest programs I wrote was a teeny app called PictViewer. PictViewer put up a standard document window, with scroll bars and a grow box, and drew a pict image, centered in the window. The first version just displayed the image, clipping it to the window FrameRect as needed. The scroll bars were mere decoration. When I tackled a more advanced version of PictViewer, I added the callback routines and other code to bring the scroll bars to life. In still a later incarnation, I added the ability to drag and drop an image on a PictViewer window.

As I was putting the finishing touches on this project, I remember thinking, "gee, it sure would be nice if all this was just a bit easier." Frameworks like PowerPlant did go a long way towards stringing all the pieces together, but there was still a lot of hand-coding to be done and lots of room for error.

As you'll see in this month's program, TinyViewer, the combination of the Objective-C runtime and tools like Interface Builder and Project Builder take working with objects to the next level.

Getters, Setters, and Key Value Coding

Before we dig into TinyViewer, I'd like to take a moment to emphasize a point I made in my March column. The issue was a naming convention for accessor functions. I suggested that you name your getter methods to match the name of the instance variable being retrieved, then put the word "set" in front of that (be sure to cap the first letter after the word "set") to name the setter function. Here's the example I gave:

- (int)height;        // Returns the value of the height field
- (void)setHeight:(int)h;    // Sets the height field to
                                     // the value in h

Bill Cheeseman, famous ex-attorney (remember the John Travolta movie A Civil Action? Bruce Norris played Bill in the movie. True.) and Cocoa aficionado (I highly recommend his most excellent book, Cocoa Recipes for Mac OS X: The Vermont Recipes), took the time to discuss the importance of this convention with me.

In a nutshell, consider this naming convention mandatory, not optional. In Bill's words:

    "The -height and -setHeight: getter and setter naming conventions are expected by many features of the AppKit and Foundation. While these are optional naming "conventions" from the perspective of Objective-C as a language, they are effectively mandatory if you want to use the Cocoa frameworks. You will lose a lot of important Cocoa framework functionality if you don't follow these naming conventions.

    The most important aspect of the Cocoa frameworks that depends on following these naming conventions is the key-value coding protocol. Look up key-value coding in the Cocoa documentation, and read the class reference document for the NSKeyValueCoding informal protocol in the Foundation frameworks. Several important Cocoa technologies use key-value coding, such as AppleScript. If you don't follow this naming convention for your accessors, you will not be able to take advantage of Cocoa's automatic support for AppleScriptability. There are several other areas where similar dependence on key-value coding requires you to follow these naming conventions.

    Basically, key-value coding lets you write code that calls methods by giving the names of instance variables as strings. This enables you to write a single method which will call other methods based on the strings you provide, rather than having to make actual method calls (er, "to send actual messages") in a long case statement. Because of this, the actual method calls ("messages") can be determined at run time, not hard-coded at compile time. Furthermore, key-value coding gives the separate, added benefit of providing the data in the correct type without your having to code type coercions in a case statement."

Thanks, Bill! As you develop more confidence with Objective-C and Cocoa, spend some time digging through the key-value coding doc and examples. Here's a good link to start with:

http://developer.apple.com/techpubs/macosx...

OK, let's get back to this month's program...

TinyViewer

Every time I sit down to tackle a new Mac programming environment or methodology, I always seem to find myself coming back to PictViewer. How am I going to get PictViewer up and running with this new setup. As soon as I had my first working version of Project Builder installed, the first thing I did was dig through the Cocoa doc, looking for the classes I'd need to master to create a resizable window, with scrollbars, I could usein which I could display an image. Once I figured that out, I'd then tackle some drag-and-drop classes so I could add that feature to the program.

Little did I know how easy (and cool) this would turn out to be.

Create the TinyViewer Project

Launch Project Builder and create a new project of type Cocoa Application. Name the app TinyViewer and save. In the Project Builder Files pane, click to open the triangle to the left of Resources, then open the triangle to the left of MainMenu.nib. This will reveal an item named English (assuming you are on an English-based Mac).

The .nib file is an Interface Builder file. Interface Builder is sort of like ResEdit on steroids. With it, you can customize all your favorite objects and encode them for later decoding when your program is actually run. The item named English in the Project Builder Files tab refers to the English-localized nib file. Figure 1 shows the Finder listing of my version of TinyViewer. Notice the directory named English.lproj and the file MainMenu.nib within that directory. That's the English version of the nib file, the one we'll be working with in this column.


Figure 1. The English.lproj folder inside the project folder.

Figure 2 shows a Terminal listing showing a localized application on my hard drive. I start by going into the /Applications directory, the doing a cd into the sub-directory Clock.app. If I looked at /Applications in a Finder window, Clock.app would just appear as a single application file. In reality, your packaged applications are a series of files, all rolled under a single directory, in this case named Clock.app. As Figure 2 shows, if you make your way down into /Applications/Clock.app/Contents/, you'll see a number of different files and directories, including a directory for each localized version of the app. You should definitely fire up Terminal and try this for yourself. Dive down into your favorite app, then look for English.lproj.


Figure 2. Follow the terminal commands to find your way to the localized .nib files

Editing the .nib File

Double-click on TinyViewer/Resources/MainMenu.nib/English in the project window Files tab. This will open your .nib file in Interface Builder. You'll likely see 4 Interface Builder windows appear. The window labeled Window (Figure 3) represents your app's main window. The window labeled MainMenu.nib - MainMenu (Figure 4) contains your app's menu bar. The window labeled MainMenu.nib (Figure 5) acts as a central repository for the resources/instances you'll be creating. And the window labeled Cocoa - Other (Figure 6) is a palette window.


Figure 3. The default TinyViewer window, shrunk for convenience.


Figure 4. The default application menubar.


Figure 5. The main .nib file navigation window.


Figure 6. The palettes window.

Note the row of icons at the top of the palette window (Figure 6). Clicking on one of the icons changes the set of items available from that section of the palette. Currently, there are 10 palette icons. In order, they are Menus, Views, Other, Windows, Data, Containers, GraphicsViews, AppleScript, MSFFormatterPalette, and Sherlock. Our focus will be on the third icon from the left, the Other palette. Click on the Other icon and your palette window should look like the one shown in Figure 6.

Click and drag an NSImageView out of the palette window into the window named Window. If you hover your cursor over an item in the palette window, a "tool tip" will appear that tells you the item type. Drag the NSImageView towards the upper-left corner of the Window window until a pair of crossed blue lines appear (see Figure 7).


Figure 7. Dragging an NSImageView onto your main window.

Next, click on the NSImageView icon to select it. 8 grow handles will appear. Drag the lower right grow handle to grow the NSImageView until the crossed blue lines appear as you approach the lower right corner of the window. The net result will be an NSImageView inset in the window about the thickness of a scrollbar on all four sides.

Now, let's bring up an inspector window and customize our NSImageView. Select Show Info from the Tools menu. The NSImageView Info window will appear (Figure 8). The Info window allows you to modify the currently selected object. In this case, we're inspecting our NSImageView object.


Figure 8. The Info window for our NSImageView.

Take a look at Figure 8. Your settings should look like this. Be sure the Editable checkbox is checked. This will enable "drag and drop". In fact, when you take the interface for a spin, try testing the interface with and without the Editable checkbox checked.

Next, select Size from the popup menu and compare your settings to those shown in Figure 9. Note that the Layout Rect fields will not necessarily match. Not to worry. It's just the difference between our window sizes. What's important is the Autosizing settings. To change those, click on the two lines in the inner square till each line turns into a pair of springs. Again, when you test the interface, play with these settings. Try it with one line and one spring, just to see what affect this has.


Figure 9. The NSImageView Info window, this time showing the Size settings.

Testing the Interface

OK, now let's take the interface for a spin. Select Test Interface from the File menu. Your window will appear, with an NSImageView area centered in the window. Click on a picture and drag it to the NSImageView field. The image should appear centered in the window. When you resize the window, the image should resize until it reaches its full size.

Play, play, play. Drag the image back out of the window and onto the desktop. A clipping file should appear. Double-click it and you can view your image directly in the Finder. Cool!

To exit the application, just select Quit from the File menu.

You should now be back in Interface Builder. Select Save from the File menu to save the .nib file. Now go back into Project Builder and run TinyViewer. Notice that TinyViewer appears in the dock as an icon, the main menu is titled "TinyViewer", your window appears, and is fully functional. Very cool!!

    There's a terrific new Cocoa book out there you should definitely check out. It's called Cocoa Programming by Scott Anguish, Erik M. Buuck, and Donald A. Yacktman, published by Sams. You can find it at http://www.devdepot.com/books.html.

    I can't say enough about Cocoa Programming. Chapter 1 has one of the clearest breakdowns of the Mac OS X development universe I've yet read. There's great coverage of Objective C, design patterns, memory management, strings, encoding/decoding, exhaustive coverage of the Cocoa frameworks, and just about anything else you might think of. And there, nestled in Chapter 3 you'll find the Cocoa Programming treatment of an NSImageView app. Great stuff. My highest recommendation.

Till Next Month...

Next month, we'll do more with Interface Builder, including exploring the details of the Info window and customizing the menu bar. See you then...


Dave Mark is a long-time Mac developer and author and has written a number of books on Macintosh development, including Learn C on the Macintosh, Learn C++ on the Macintosh, and The Macintosh Programming Primer series. Be sure to check out Dave's web site at http://www.spiderworks.com.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

TinkerTool 5.4 - Expanded preference set...
TinkerTool is an application that gives you access to additional preference settings Apple has built into Mac OS X. This allows to activate hidden features in the operating system and in some of the... Read more
Tinderbox 6.3.1 - Store and organize you...
Tinderbox is a personal content management assistant. It stores your notes, ideas, and plans. It can help you organize and understand them. And Tinderbox helps you share ideas through Web journals... Read more
Parallels Desktop 10.2.2 - Run Windows a...
Parallels Desktop is simply the world's bestselling, top-rated, and most trusted solution for running Windows applications on your Mac. With Parallels Desktop for Mac, you can seamlessly run both... Read more
Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2015 9.0.1 - Digit...
Premiere Pro CC 2015 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Premiere Pro customer). Premiere Pro CS6 is still available for... Read more
Adobe After Effects CC 2015 13.5.1 - Cre...
After Effects CC 2015 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous After Effects customer). After Effects CS6 is still available... Read more
Adobe Creative Cloud 2.2.0.129 - Access...
Adobe Creative Cloud costs $49.99/month (or less if you're a previous Creative Suite customer). Creative Suite 6 is still available for purchase (without a monthly plan) if you prefer. Introducing... Read more
Tower 2.2.3 - Version control with Git m...
Tower is a powerful Git client for OS X that makes using Git easy and more efficient. Users benefit from its elegant and comprehensive interface and a feature set that lets them enjoy the full power... Read more
Apple Java 2015-001 - For OS X 10.7, 10....
Apple Java for OS X 2015-001 installs the legacy Java 6 runtime for OS X 10.11 El Capitan, OS X 10.10 Yosemite, OS X 10.9 Mavericks, OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, and OS X 10.7 Lion. This package is... Read more
Adobe Muse CC 2015 2015.0.1 - Design and...
Muse CC 2015 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $14.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Muse customer). Muse CS6 is still available for purchase (without a... Read more
Adobe Illustrator CC 2015 19.1.0 - Profe...
Illustrator CC 2015 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Illustrator customer). Illustrator CS6 is still available for... Read more

This Week at 148Apps: July 20-24, 2015
July is Heating Up With 148Apps How do you know what apps are worth your time and money? Just look to the review team at 148Apps. We sort through the chaos and find the apps you're looking for. The ones we love become Editor’s Choice, standing out... | Read more »
Red Game Without A Great Name (Games)
Red Game Without A Great Name 1.0.3 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.3 (iTunes) Description: The mechanical bird is flying through an unfriendly, Steampunk world. Help it avoid obstacles and deadly... | Read more »
Warhammer: Arcane Magic (Games)
Warhammer: Arcane Magic 1.0.2 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $9.99, Version: 1.0.2 (iTunes) Description: Engage in epic battles and tactical gameplay that challenge both novice and veteran in Warhammer: Arcane Magic, a... | Read more »
Mazes of Karradash (Games)
Mazes of Karradash 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The city of Karradash is under attack: the monsters of the Shadow Realms are emerging from the depths.No adventurer is... | Read more »
Battle Golf is the Newest Game from the...
Wrassling was a pretty weird - and equally great - little wressling game. Now the developers, Folmer Kelly and Colin Lane, have turned their attention to a different sport: golfing. This is gonna be weird. [Read more] | Read more »
Qbert Rebooted has the App Store Going...
The weird little orange... whatever... is back, mostly thanks to that movie which shall remain nameless (you know the one). But anyway it's been "rebooted" and now you can play the fancy-looking Qbert Rebooted on iOS devices. [Read more] | Read more »
Giant Monsters Run Amok in The Sandbox...
So The Sandbox has just hit version number 1.99987 (seriously), and it's added a lot more stuff. Just like every other update, really. [Read more] | Read more »
Fish Pond Park (Games)
Fish Pond Park 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Nurture an idyllic slice of tourist's heaven into the top nature spot of the nation, furnishing it with a variety of... | Read more »
Look after Baby Buddy on your Apple Watc...
Parigami Gold is the new premium version of the match three puzzler that includes Apple Watch support and all new content. You won't simply be sliding tiles around on your wrist, the Apple Watch companion app is an all new mini-game in itself. You'... | Read more »
Swallow all of your opponents as the big...
Eat all of the opposition and become the largest ball in Battle of Balls now available in the App Store and Google Play. Battle of Balls pits you against other opponents in real time and challenges you to eat more balls and grow larger than all of... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Sale! 13″ 1.6GHz/256GB MacBook Air for $1099,...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 1.6GHz/256GB MacBook Air on sale for $1099 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Read more
iPad mini 4 To Be Upgraded To iPad Air 2 Spec...
There’s a certain inevitability about making Apple product predictions this time of year. Come September, we can pretty reliably count on the release of refreshed iPhones, along with the iOS 9... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished Mac minis for up t...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 Mac minis, with models available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $899,...
Best Buy has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro available for $899.99 on their online store. Choose free shipping or free instant local store pickup (if available). Their price is $200 off MSRP. Price is... Read more
21-inch 2.9GHz iMac on sale for $1299, save $...
Best Buy has the 21″ 2.9GHz iMac on sale today for $1299.99 on their online store. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest... Read more
Free Image Sizer 1.3 for iOS Offers Photo Edi...
Xi’An, China based G-Power has announced the release of Image Sizer 1.3 for the iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch, an important update to their free photo editing app. Image Sizer’s collection of easy to... Read more
Sale! 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air for $899,...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $899 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Read more
13-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for $100...
Best Buy has 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for $100 off MSRP on their online store. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Prices are for online orders only, in-store... Read more
Will BMW’s i3 Electric Vehicle Be The Automo...
The German-language business journal Manager Magazin’s Michael Freitag reports that Apple and the German performance/luxury automaker Bayerishe Motoren Werke (BMW) are back at far-reaching... Read more
Sale! $250 off 15-inch Retina MacBook Pro, $2...
B&H Photo has lowered their price for the 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro to $1749, or $250 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. They have the 27″ 3.3GHz 5K iMac on... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Customer Experience (ACE) Leader - A...
…management to deliver on business objectives Training partner store staff on Apple products, services, and merchandising guidelines Coaching partner store staff on Read more
Project Manager - *Apple* Pay Security - Ap...
**Job Summary** The Apple Pay Security team is seeking a highly organized, results-driven Project Manager to drive the development of Apple Pay Security. If you are Read more
*Apple* TV Product Design Internship (Spring...
…the mechanical design effort associated with creating world-class products with the Apple TV PD Group. Responsibilities will include working closely with manufacturing, Read more
*Apple* Watch SW Application Project Manager...
**Job Summary** The Apple Watch software team is looking for an Application Engineering Project Manager to work on new projects for Apple . The successful candidate Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.