TweetFollow Us on Twitter

The Web from Cocoa

Volume Number: 19 (2003)
Issue Number: 2
Column Tag: Cocoa Development

The Web from Cocoa

Integrating web content with desktop applications, Part 1 in a series

by Fritz Anderson

Introduction

More and more information is available through the World-Wide Web, and more and more computers are constantly connected to the Web. The public Internet aside, private intranets host HTTP servers to make corporate information available in-house. The problem with information presented on a web page is that once on the screen, it has reached a dead end: It has been formatted and presented for human consumption, and unless a human intervenes to copy it, the information will go no further. Often, you want to bring web content into an application so it can do further work.

One solution to this problem is the use of remote-procedure-call (RPC) protocols like SOAP and XML-RPC, whereby information providers supply computed or stored answers to queries submitted in a simple language. This is the ideal solution, because both provider and client have agreed on what service is on offer, on how to ask for it, and on how the result is formatted. It works especially well when both provider and client are "on the same team"--for instance, working on the client and server ends of a single system.

But there are always going to be information providers that don't offer RPC interfaces. A provider, for instance, might have a budget and a mandate to make its information public, but not enough of a budget to do the extra development needed to take its system beyond web service. There will always be a need for programs that retrieve web pages and process the results.

Road Map

This series will take you through two simple projects that explore the two ways a web client requests pages from a server, GET and POST. GET queries are simple, and built into many of the classes in the Cocoa framework; in this article we'll see how it's possible to do a rough-and-ready fetch in just a few lines. We can take advantage of the ease of making GET queries to put effort into making the user experience better.

POST queries are a little trickier, as there is no support for them built into Cocoa. Apple has, however, provided powerful tools to make up for it, in the Core Foundation framework, the procedural layer that underlies both Cocoa and Carbon. Many Cocoa programmers are chary of getting into Core Foundation, and that's a shame, because while there is a slight learning hump to overcome at first, the rewards are great. The remaining two articles will focus on getting over that hump, and packaging a simple POST facility in a Cocoa wrapper.

Thomas: Our Example

My introduction to page-scraping came in my project Jefferson, an application to put a Cocoa face on the Library of Congress's legislative-history database Thomas. Located at http://thomas.loc.gov/, Thomas is a comprehensive, well-indexed compendium of summaries of every bill considered in Congress over the past three decades. A variety of queries, including simple bill numbers and keyword searches, are offered, and produce a great wealth of information. The Library's staff appears to be working continuously to improve the content and appearance of the site, which fills me with as much pride (as a taxpayer) as it does chagrin (as a programmer trying to parse the pages).

We'll be using the Thomas site as the target for our examples. These worked at the time this article was written, but the Library may have improved their site out from under me by the time you read this. The examples, however, apply to any site, not just Thomas.

The Easy Part

Web browsing is a conversation between a browser on the user's machine, and a program that serves the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) on the server machine. Most web browsing gets done through GET requests: At its simplest, the browser sends a message with the command "GET" and the URL for the desired web page. The server decodes the URL into the name of a specific file, and sends the contents of the file, wrapped in a suitable HTTP envelope, in the reply. The browser then does what it needs to with the file--usually displaying it on-screen.

The simplest kind of web-server computing comes from this insight: If the server has to do some computing anyway to decode the URL, why not encode requests to do more sophisticated computing tasks in the URL? Such URLs are still presented by GET requests, but include parameters for the desired computation after a question mark.

Apple has made it very easy to perform GET requests in Cocoa. The steps are: Form an NSURL for the request URL; ask for the result; wait for either the result or an error; handle the result or the error.

Basic Etiquette

But first, we pause for courtesy.

The user's computer won't necessarily be connected to the Internet when our code runs. It would be nice to know whether it's connected before we try to place the query, for two reasons. First, it's easier and cleaner to program that way. Second, if the user's computer has dial-up access to the Internet, making the query will cause the modem to dial out. Dialing the user's telephone without permission is rude; it would be a good idea to ask permission. Our first task is to check for connectivity, and ask permission if necessary.

Apple provides the necessary information through the SystemConfiguration framework. SystemConfiguration is not normally linked into a Cocoa project, so we add it to the project by selecting Add Frameworks... in Project Builder's Project menu, and selecting SystemConfiguration.framework in the /System/Library/Frameworks directory.

Listing 1 shows how to use the call SCNetworkCheckReachabilityByName in SystemConfiguration to preflight the net connection. All our main function needs to do is call ConnectivityApproved() to know whether to proceed with the query.

Listing 1a: Connectivity.h

Function declaration
#import <Cocoa/Cocoa.h>
BOOL      ConnectivityApproved(void);

Listing 1b: Connectivity.m

HowAmIReachingHost 
At the lowest level, ask the SystemConfiguration framework whether, and how, we can reach a named 
host. Render the result as an instance of HowConnected.

#import "Connectivity.h"
#import <SystemConfiguration/SCNetwork.h>
typedef enum {
   kCantReach,
   kWillConnect,
   kAmConnected
}   HowConnected;
HowConnected
HowAmIReachingHost(char *   hostName)
{
   SCNetworkConnectionFlags      theFlags;
   if (SCNetworkCheckReachabilityByName(hostName,
         &theFlags)) {
      if (theFlags & kSCNetworkFlagsReachable)
         return kAmConnected;
      if (theFlags & kSCNetworkFlagsConnectionAutomatic)
         return kWillConnect;
      else
         return kCantReach;
   }
   else
      return kCantReach;
   //   When in doubt, say it's unreachable.
}

ConnectivityApproved
For the particular case of thomas.loc.gov, see whether and how we can reach it. If we can't, inform 
the user and return NO. If we can without further action, return YES. If connecting requires dialing 
out, ask the user for permission, and return whether the user granted it.

BOOL
ConnectivityApproved(void)
{
   BOOL      retval = YES;   //   Assume connection is OK
   int      alertResult;
   switch (HowAmIReachingHost("thomas.loc.gov")) {
      case kCantReach:
         NSRunCriticalAlertPanel(
               @"Can't reach the Internet",
               @"Your computer could find no way to get a "
                  @"connection to the Library of Congress "
                  @"server (thomas.loc.gov).", 
               @"OK", nil, nil);
         //   Note that C compilers will join consecutive strings.
         //   GCC does this for @-strings as well as for C-strings.
         retval = NO;         //   Unreachable; return NO
         break;
      case kWillConnect:
         alertResult = NSRunAlertPanel(
               @"Will connect to the Internet",
               @"Your computer must connect to the Internet "
                  @"to answer your query. Is this all right?",
               @"Connect", @"Cancel", nil);
         if (alertResult == NSCancelButton)
            retval = NO;      //   User didn't want to dial out
            break;
      case kAmConnected:
         break;
   }
   
return retval;
}

Performing the GET

Even with preflighting, a GET transaction is embarrassingly easy. We start with the simple Cocoa application template in Project Builder. In Interface Builder, we can throw together a simple display of two text fields, a large text scroller, and a button, and instantiate a simple controller class in the application's .nib file, as shown in Figure 1. We don't have to change the Interface Builder-generated header file (Listing 2a) at all, and all that remains is to fill in the action method that Interface Builder generated for the Fetch button (Listing 2b).

Listing 2a: GETController.h

Class GETController
Notice that this is unchanged from the way Interface Builder generated it.
/* GETController */
#import <Cocoa/Cocoa.h>
@interface GETController : NSObject
{
    IBOutlet NSTextField *billField;
    IBOutlet NSTextField *congressField;
    IBOutlet NSTextView *resultText;
}
- (IBAction)doFetch:(id)sender;
@end


Figure 1. A simple GET window and its controller

Listing 2b: GETController.m

#import "GETController.h"
#import "Connectivity.h"
@implementation GETController
                                                            doFetch:
- (IBAction)doFetch:(id)sender
{
   //   Do nothing if we can't connect:
   if (! ConnectivityApproved())
      return;
   
   //   [1] Harvest the query parameters
   int               congress = [congressField intValue];
   int               bill = [billField intValue];
   
   //   [2] Format the query URL
   NSString *         urlString =
               [NSString stringWithFormat:
               @"http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?"
               @"d%d:hr%05d:@@@L&summ2=m&",
               congress, bill];
   //   [3] Make an NSURL out of the string...
   NSURL *         theURL = [NSURL URLWithString: urlString];
   //   [4] ... and fetch the data as a single chunk of bytes
   NSData *         theHTML = [NSData dataWithContentsOfURL:
                                    theURL];
   //   [5] Turn the web page into styled text...
   NSAttributedString *
                     styledText = [[NSAttributedString alloc]
                                             initWithHTML: theHTML
                                             documentAttributes: nil];
   //   [6] ... and display it.
   [[resultText textStorage] 
         setAttributedString: styledText];
}
@end

The actual work of connecting to the Thomas server and retrieving the results occurs at [4] in Listing 2b, where an NSData is initialized with the class message dataWithContentsOfURL:. Many Cocoa classes--NSString, NSData, NSImage, and NSSound among them--can be initialized directly from URLs. I chose an NSData in this case, because I wanted to render the resulting HTML as styled text in an NSAttributedString at line [5], and the relevant initializer accepts an NSData object. If I had wanted to parse the results instead of just displaying them, I might use an NSString instead.

We can do better

That's all you need to do a GET query in a Cocoa application, but Cocoa makes it easy for us to do better. In the example we just saw, our program waits for the server's response to finish before proceeding with any other work: If the server takes more than a few seconds, the Quartz window server will detect that our program isn't handling user events, and will put up the dreaded "spinning beach-ball" cursor.

NSURL and NSURLHandle provide another way to perform GETs, offering more control and flexibility. A second Cocoa application, BetterGET, illustrates their use. BetterGet is just like CocoaGET, except that

  • Our controller class, BetterController, adds an outlet for the Fetch button.

  • BetterController adds a method, pendingTimer: to handle the progress bar animation.

  • BetterController implements the Objective-C protocol NSURLHandleClient.

You may be familiar with protocols under their Java name of "interfaces." A protocol defines a set of Objective-C messages. When a class claims to implement a protocol (by listing the protocol's name in <angle brackets> after its superclass in its @interface declaration), it makes a promise, enforced by the Objective-C compiler, that the class implements methods for every message in that protocol.

Our doFetch: method proceeds more or less as before, but instead of loading an NSData object directly from the target URL, we ask the NSURL for its underlying NSURLHandle. We register the BetterController as the NSURLHandle's client, and then tell it to loadInBackground.

Because NSURLHandleClient is a formal protocol (though some versions of the Cocoa documentation mistakenly claim it is "informal"), you must implement all five methods of the protocol. This is actually a blessing, because they provide a framework that takes you through the whole life cycle of your query.

  • URLHandleResourceDidBeginLoading is sent at the start of the download process. BetterController uses this opportunity to change the Fetch button to a Cancel button.

  • URLHandle:resourceDataDidBecomeAvailable: is ignored. BetterController doesn't use incoming data on-the-fly.

  • URLHandleResourceDidCancelLoading: reports the case in which the user canceled the downoad. BetterController cleans itself up in preparation for the next query.

  • URLHandle:resourceDidFailLoadingWithReason: informs BetterController that the query failed on the network side. Again, BetterController cleans up, but also puts up an alert informing the user of the problem.

  • URLHandleResourceDidFinishLoading:, last of all, is the "normal" end of the process. All of the data has come back from our query, and it's here we see the same few lines that finished the doFetch: method in the simple, one-step CocoaGET.

With practically no effort, Cocoa gave us a way to load and passively display web content in a simple application. With very little more, it gave us an application that downloads web content in the background, permits cancellation, and reports errors. Listing 3 tells the whole story.

Listing 3a: BetterController.h

//   BetterController.h
//   BetterGET
//   Copyright (c) 2002 Frederic F. Anderson
#import <Cocoa/Cocoa.h>
class BetterController
@interface BetterController : NSObject <NSURLHandleClient>
{
  IBOutlet NSTextField *      billField;
  IBOutlet NSTextField *      congressField;
   IBOutlet NSTextView *      resultText;
   IBOutlet NSButton *         fetchButton;
   NSURLHandle *                  myURLHandle;
}
- (IBAction) doFetch: (id) sender;
@end

Listing 3b: BetterController.m

//   BetterController.m
//   BetterGET
//   Copyright (c) 2002 Frederic F. Anderson
#import "BetterController.h"
#import "Connectivity.h"
@implementation BetterController
doFetch:
The default action method for the "Fetch" button in the application window. It harvests the bill and 
Congress numbers from the respective fields, forms the query URL, and initiates the query.

- (IBAction) doFetch: (id) sender
{
   if (! ConnectivityApproved())
      return;
   //   Harvest the numbers...
   int            congress = [congressField intValue];
   int            bill = [billField intValue];
   //   .. convert them to a URL...
   NSString *      urlString =
      [NSString stringWithFormat:
         @"http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?"
            @"d%d:hr%05d:@@@L&summ2=m&",
         congress, bill];
   NSURL *         theURL = [NSURL URLWithString: urlString];
   //   ... and start a background fetch.
   myURLHandle = [theURL URLHandleUsingCache: NO];
   [myURLHandle addClient: self];
   [myURLHandle loadInBackground];
}

cancelFetch:
The alternate action method for the "Fetch" button, for use while the query is in progress. It simply 
tells the query to stop processing.

- (IBAction) cancelFetch: (id) sender
{
   [myURLHandle cancelLoadInBackground];
}

resetDownload
A common utility for the various URLHandleClient methods that signal the end of the query. It tears 
down the query and resets the UI for another query.

- (void) resetDownload
{
   //   Unsubscribe from the NSURLHandle
   if (myURLHandle) {
      [myURLHandle removeClient: self];
      myURLHandle = nil;
   }
   //   Change the Cancel button back to a Fetch button
   [fetchButton setTitle: @"Fetch"];
   [fetchButton setAction: @selector(doFetch:)];
}

URLHandleResourceDidBeginLoading
The URLHandleClient method signaling the start of a download. Starts the progress-bar timer and 
changes the Fetch button to be a Cancel button.

- (void) URLHandleResourceDidBeginLoading:
                                                                (NSURLHandle *)sender
{
   //   Change the fetch button to a Cancel button
   [fetchButton setTitle: @"Cancel"];
   [fetchButton setAction: @selector(cancelFetch:)];
}
URLHandle:resourceDataDidBecomeAvailable:
The URLHandleClient method signaling the arrival of data. Ignored.
- (void) URLHandle: (NSURLHandle *) sender
       resourceDataDidBecomeAvailable: (NSData *) newBytes
{
   //   Ignore. We're interested only in the completed data.
}

URLHandleResourceDidCancelLoading:
The URLHandleClient method signaling a user cancellation. Reset the UI for a new download.

- (void) URLHandleResourceDidCancelLoading: 
                                                                (NSURLHandle *)sender 
{
   [self resetDownload];
}

URLHandle:resourceDidFailLoadingWithReason:
The URLHandleClient method signaling a communications failure. Inform the user of the failure, using 
the message provided, and reset the UI for a new download.

- (void) URLHandle: (NSURLHandle *) sender
       resourceDidFailLoadingWithReason: (NSString *) reason
{
   [self resetDownload];
   NSRunAlertPanel(@"Fetch Failed", reason, 
                              @"OK", nil, nil);
}

URLHandleResourceDidFinishLoading:
The URLHandleClient method signaling a successful download. Display the results and reset the UI for 
a new download.

- (void) URLHandleResourceDidFinishLoading: 
                                                                (NSURLHandle *)sender
{
   //   Clean up Fetch button, etc.
   [self resetDownload];
   //   Collect the data and display it.
   NSData *            theHTML = [sender resourceData];
   NSAttributedString *   styledText =
      [[NSAttributedString alloc] initWithHTML: theHTML
                       documentAttributes: nil];
   [[resultText textStorage] 
            setAttributedString: styledText];
}
@end

Now it gets tricky

The GET request consists of an empty HTTP "envelope"--headers identifying the URL sought and other information like the referring web page, the browser being used, the browser's preferred language--and nothing more: The URL itself specifies the whole query.

The other way web browsers interact with server applications is through the POST query. Whereas queries in GET transactions are typically requests for simple lookups, POSTs are generally meant for transactions that are more complex, involving more data than can conveniently be put into a single URL. Alas, Cocoa doesn't include any direct way to make POST requests. Adding POST queries to Cocoa will be the subject of the rest of this series.

See you next month!


Fritz Anderson has been programming and writing about the Macintosh since 1984. He works (and seeks work) as a consultant in Chicago. You can reach him at fritza@manoverboard.org.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Hopper Disassembler 4.2.13- - Binary dis...
Hopper Disassembler is a binary disassembler, decompiler, and debugger for 32- and 64-bit executables. It will let you disassemble any binary you want, and provide you all the information about its... Read more
iFFmpeg 6.4.3 - Convert multimedia files...
iFFmpeg is a comprehensive media tool to convert movie, audio and media files between formats. The FFmpeg command line instructions can be very hard to master/understand, so iFFmpeg does all the hard... Read more
Firefox 55.0.2 - Fast, safe Web browser.
Firefox offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals and casual... Read more
FileZilla 3.27.1 - Fast and reliable FTP...
FileZilla (ported from Windows) is a fast and reliable FTP client and server with lots of useful features and an intuitive interface. Version 3.27.1: Fixed Vulnerabilities: Change client... Read more
Merlin Project 4.2.7 - $289.00
Merlin Project is the leading professional project management software for OS X. If you plan complex projects on your Mac, you won’t get far with a simple list of tasks. Good planning raises... Read more
Dashlane 4.8.4 - Password manager and se...
Dashlane is an award-winning service that revolutionizes the online experience by replacing the drudgery of everyday transactional processes with convenient, automated simplicity - in other words,... Read more
f.lux 39.984 - Adjusts the color of your...
f.lux makes the color of your computer's display adapt to the time of day, warm at night and like sunlight during the day. Ever notice how people texting at night have that eerie blue glow? Or wake... Read more
Sketch 46.2 - Design app for UX/UI for i...
Sketch is an innovative and fresh look at vector drawing. Its intentionally minimalist design is based upon a drawing space of unlimited size and layers, free of palettes, panels, menus, windows, and... Read more
Microsoft Office 2016 15.37 - Popular pr...
Microsoft Office 2016 - Unmistakably Office, designed for Mac. The new versions of Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook and OneNote provide the best of both worlds for Mac users - the familiar Office... Read more
Slack 2.7.1 - Collaborative communicatio...
Slack is a collaborative communication app that simplifies real-time messaging, archiving, and search for modern working teams. Version 2.7.1: You're nearly finished signing in when suddenly – bonk... Read more

Bottom of the 9th (Games)
Bottom of the 9th 1.0.1 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: Play the most exciting moment of baseball in this fast-paced dice and card game! | Read more »
The best apps for viewing the solar ecli...
If you somehow missed the news, many parts of the United States will be witness to a total solar eclipse on August 21 for the first time in over 90 years. It'll be possible to see the eclipse in at least some capacity throughout the continental U... | Read more »
The 5 best mobile survival games
Games like ARK: Survival Evolved and Conan Exiles have taken the world of gaming by storm. The market is now flooded with hardcore survival games that send players off into the game's world with nothing but maybe the clothes on their back. Never... | Read more »
Portal Walk (Games)
Portal Walk 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Portal Walk is adventure and relaxing platform game about Eugene. Eugene stuck between worlds and trying to find way back home.... | Read more »
Technobabylon (Games)
Technobabylon 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: City of Newton, 2087. Genetic engineering is the norm, the addictive Trance has replaced almost any need for human interaction,... | Read more »
5 reasons why 2v2 is the best mode in Cl...
Supercell has been teasing fans with 2v2 windows that allow players to team up for limited periods of time. The Summer of 2v2 was just this past July, but players are already clamoring for more of that sweet, sweet team-based action. The fans have... | Read more »
The best deals on the App Store this wee...
It seems like the week's only just started, and yet here we are with a huge pile of discounted games to sort through. There are some real doozies on sale this week. We're talking some truly stellar titles. Let's take a look at four of the best... | Read more »
Cat Quest Guide - How to become a purrfe...
Cat Quest is an absolutely charming open-world RPG that's taken the gaming world quite by storm. This game about a world populated by furry kitty warriors is actually a full-length RPG with sturdy mechanics and a lovely little story. It's certainly... | Read more »
Silly Walks Guide - How to strut your st...
Silly Walks is an all new adventure game that lives up to its name. It sees you playing as a variety of snack foods as you teeter-totter your way to rescue your friends from the evil blender and his villainous minions. It's all very . . . well... | Read more »
The best mobile point-and-click adventur...
Nostalgia for classic point-and-click adventure games has reached an all-time high in recent years, and the rise of mobile games have provided a perfect platform for this old-school genre. This week we're going to take a look at some of the best... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

New iOS 11 Productivity Features Welcome But...
The iOS community is in late summer holding mode awaiting the September arrival of the iPhone 8 and iOS 11. iOS 11 public betas have been available for months — number six was released this week —... Read more
Samsung Electronics Launches New Portable SSD...
Samsung Electronics America, Inc. has announced the launch of Samsung Portable SSD T5 – its newest portable solid state drive (PSSD) that raises the bar for the performance of external memory... Read more
TrendForce Reports YoY Gain of 3.6% for 2Q17...
Market research firm TrendForce reports that the global notebook shipments for this second quarter registered a sequential quarterly increase of 5.7% and a year-on-year increase of 3.6%, totaling 39.... Read more
Sale! 10-inch iPad Pros for $50 off MSRP, no...
B&H Photo has 10.5″ iPad Pros in stock today and on sale for $50 off MSRP. Each iPad includes free shipping, and B&H charges sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 10.5″ 64GB iPad Pro: $599, save $... Read more
Sale! 2017 13-inch Silver 2.3GHz MacBook Pro...
Amazon has new 2017 13″ 2.3GHz/128GB Silver MacBook Pro on sale today for $100 off MSRP including free shipping. Their price is the lowest available for this model from any reseller: – 13″ 2.3GHz/... Read more
WaterField Unveils Collaboratively-Designed,...
In collaboration with customers and seasoned travelers, San Francisco maker WaterField Designs set out to create the preeminent carry-on system to improve the experience of frequent fliers. The... Read more
Miya Notes Mac-Client for Google Keep (Launch...
MacPlus Software has announced te launch of Miya Notes for Google Keep 1.0, a powerful Mac-client for Google Keep. Millions of people use Google Keep on their phones and online, but a convenient Mac... Read more
Apple refurbished iMacs available starting at...
Apple has previous-generation Certified Refurbished 2015 21″ & 27″ iMacs available starting at $849. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free. The following models are... Read more
2017 13-inch MacBook Airs on sale for $100 of...
B&H Photo new 2017 13″ MacBook Airs on sale today for $100 off MSRP, starting at $899: – 13″ 1.8GHz/128GB MacBook Air (MQD32LL/A): $899, $100 off MSRP – 13″ 1.8GHz/256GB MacBook Air (MQD42LL/A... Read more
12-inch MacBooks on sale for $100 off MSRP
Amazon has 2017 12″ Retina MacBooks on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free: 12″ 1.2GHz Space Gray MacBook: $1199.99 $100 off MSRP 12″ 1.2GHz Silver MacBook: $1198 $101 off MSRP 12″ 1.2GHz Gold... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Customer Experience (ACE) Leader - A...
…management to deliver on business objectivesTraining partner store staff on Apple products, services, and merchandising guidelinesCoaching partner store staff on Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Poole -...
Job Summary The people here at Apple don't just create products - they create the kind of wonder that's revolutionised entire industries. It's the diversity of those Read more
Business Development Manager, *Apple* iClou...
Job Summary Apple is seeking an entrepreneurial person to help grow the Apple iCloud business, a service that is integral to the Apple customer experience. Read more
Product Metrics Manager - *Apple* Media Pro...
Job Summary Apple is seeking a product manager responsible for overseeing the instrumentation and analysis of usage data, in order to make data driven product Read more
iOS Wallet & *Apple* Pay Engineer - App...
Job Summary The iOS Apple Pay & Wallet team is looking for talented,...now add credit and debit cards to Wallet using Apple Pay. You can use Apple Pay in Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.