TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Getting Started: Circa 2002

Volume Number: 18 (2002)
Issue Number: 11
Column Tag: Getting Started

Getting Started: Circa 2002

by Dave Mark

I have to tell you, it feels great to be back. It's been a little more than five years since my last Getting Started column, but it feels like an eternity. The long and winding road from the days of Inside Macintosh, Nubus cards, black and white monitors, GetPort() and SetPort(), trap patching, 68K emulation, etc. has turned a radical new corner.

Though the vast majority of all Macs still run System 9 or earlier, the future is clear. This is a unique moment in time and you have a unique opportunity. Back in the frontier days of Macintosh development, an unusual mix of elements was taking shape. There was a wonderful new computing platform that freed you from the traditional bonds of DOS. Instead of a limited (and frequently cryptic) set of commands that governed your interaction with your computer, applications such as MacWrite and MacPaint allowed you to express yourself in revolutionary new ways.

As with any revolutionary change, opportunities blossomed. People loved the Macintosh and, as word spread, their hunger for new applications grew dramatically. Problem was, developing a Mac application was completely different than the relatively simple process of building a DOS or Unix app. Back in the day, Inside Macintosh was a single volume that came in a loose leaf binder, and deciphering its mysteries required dedication and a great deal of trial and error. But, for those "in the know", there was money to be made. Startups were everywhere. This was fertile ground. Exciting times.

I loved those early days. The excitement of learning about something so new and so beautifully crafted inspired me. And once I understood the basics, I felt compelled to share my knowledge with the Mac development community. I wrote books like the Macintosh Programming Primer series, Learn C on the Macintosh and, of course, 7 years worth of Getting Started columns for MacTech.

Over time, each new release of the Mac OS brought less dramatic changes and the process moved from revolutionary to evolutionary. As the process of building a Mac application became less mystical and more practical, money came to the table and getting a Mac application to market and competing with established brands became harder and much more expensive. What was once a fun, "programming for the beauty of it" process moved from the computer science end of the spectrum to the marketing end of the spectrum. The pioneer days were dead.

And now we've come full circle. Mac OS X is a whole new beast. New APIs to learn, a new development environment to explore, new widgets to play around with. We've got a whole new frontier to explore and there are opportunities here for all of us.

Getting Started

There are a number of paths to explore here. We'll start with the most straightforward, building an app using the Objective C programming language and Apple's Cocoa framework. Over the coming months, we'll dig into the basics of Objective C. Over time, we'll take on Cocoa and, eventually, explore some of the other paths to build our Mac OS X apps. I'd also like to spend some time under the hood, exploring the OS upon which Mac OS X is based, Apple's port of the Unix operating system.

Go get the tools

There are a number of good choices out there when it comes to development tools. There's CodeWarrior from Metrowerks, REALbasic from REAL Software, a variety of AppleScript environments, and many others. For the moment, we're going to focus our attention on the tools that Apple provides, gratis, to ensure we all start on the same footing.

    When Apple bought NeXT back in December of '96, they got Steve Jobs back and they also got Steve's OS and the development tools crafted to work alongside the OS. The OS evolved into Mac OS X, and the tools became Apple's official Mac OS X dev tools.

Many of you already have Apple's dev tools in hand. Newer Macs ship with a Developer Tools CD. You may find that your Mac came with the tools pre-installed. Nonetheless, go through the web site, download the latest and greatest, and install them on your machine.

First step: Navigate to:

http://developer.apple.com

This is the home for the Apple Developer Connection, also known as ADC. There is a ton of great material on this site. You can sign up for Apple's various developer programs, including the Premier (US$3500 per year), Select (US$500 per year), Student (US$99 per year), Mailing (US$199 per year), and Online (FREE) programs. Take some time to go through the program descriptions to see if one of them is right for you.

To get the tools, all you have to do is register for the Online program. To register, send your browser to:

http://connect.apple.com

Click the "Join" button, read the license, click "Agree", then fill out the form and select your new Apple ID. Once your account is set up, log in, then select Download Software from the nav bar on the left hand side of the ADC window. Next, click Mac OS X from the sub-nav bar (Figure 1).


Figure 1. Click the Download Software link, then Mac OS X

There are a lot of choices on this page. As I write this, the latest releases are the July 2002 Mac OS X 10.2 Developer Tools and the August 2002 Dev Tools 10.2 Update. By the time this column gets to you, however, there may be a new release of the tools or another update. As a rule, download the most recent Developer Tools package first. Then, check to see if an Update package was released after the Developer Tools package. If so, download it as well. Install the Developer Tools package and the Update, if applicable.

Checking the Install

Once the tools are installed, you should have a directory named Developer at the top level of your hard drive. My Developer directory listing is shown in Figure 2. Take a few moments to go through the various Developer sub-directories.


Figure 2. The Developer directory after the tools install.

In the Applications directory, you'll find a number of interesting tools, including one we'll fire up in just a sec called Project Builder. For you CodeWarrior fans, Project Builder is sort of the equivalent of the CodeWarrior IDE, a command central for all your project files and the application that actually calls the compiler and other code building tools.

The Documentation folder is also filled with important goodies. Get to know what docs are available. There's a lot of good reading in there, and it's all free. One short file worth reading is the README.html file in the Documentation directory. This file will open in your web browser and lists various ways to access the documentation from within Project Builder.

If you'd like to get ahead of the game, take a look at the file:

/Developer/Documentation/Cocoa/ObjectiveC/ObjC.pdf

ObjC.pdf will give you a fairly thorough grounding in the Objective C language.

Take 'em For a Spin

Now that the tools are installed, let's take them for a spin. This month's project will be a simple C "Hello World" project, just to get a sense of the environment. Next month, we'll try our hand at some Objective C code.

Navigate into the /Developer/Applications folder and launch Project Builder. Select New Project... from the File menu. The New Project dialog appears, allowing you to specify the type of project you'd like to build. Scroll all the way to the bottom and select Standard Tool (Figure 3). Standard Tool builds an ANSI C command line program. Click the Next button.


Figure 3. Select the Standard Tool project template.

You'll be prompted for a directory in which to store all the project related files (Figure 4), including all source, object, and binaries. Name your project Hello World, then click the Choose... button to browse on your hard drive for a location for the Hello World folder. I created a Projects folder within my personal folder rather than storing the projects within the /Developer directory. I don't want to wipe out my projects when I decide to do a wipe and reinstall of the dev tools.


Figure 4. Saving your new project files.

Now click the Finish button. Project Builder will build a project for you, complete with a source code file named main.c containing a main() function any C programmer will recognize in a heartbeat.

The project window that appears contains a number of elements. We'll get into them in detail in next month's column. For now, the important elements are the "Groups & Files" pane, the code editing pane, and the toolbar (at the top of the window, the one with all the funny hammer icons).

In the "Groups & Files" pane, click on the disclosure triangle to the left of the Source folder icon. You'll reveal a single file named main.c within the Source group. Click on main.c. Notice the source code that appears in the code editing pane (Figure 5).


Figure 5. The Hello World source code listed in the project window's code editing pane.

Let's run this sucker. Click on the 3rd icon in the toolbar (the one with the hammer covered by a computer display). If you hover over the icon, a tooltip appears with the words "Build and run active executable". That's the one we want. This will compile our source, link our object code into an executable and run the executable. Do it.

Your result should be eerily similar to the one shown in Figure 6. Cool!


Figure 6. Hello World does its thing.

When you asked Project Builder to build and run your project, Project Builder did just that. If you click in the Window menu, you'll see three sub-items under the "Hello World - (Hello World)" item. The one selected in Figure 7 is the Build window. Under that is the Project window (in this case, listing the main.c source code). Under that is the Run window showing the output of the program execution.


Figure 7. Project Builder's Window menu.

You can close any of these windows at any time, though you'll likely want to keep the project window open so you can make changes to your source code and build and run your app.

Till Next Month...

Want to play some more? Good! Try making some changes to the source code. Got an old copy of Learn C on the Macintosh lying around? Try typing in some of that source code. And if you are really adventuresome, take the debugger for a spin. Hint: The tooltip for the 2nd icon from the left in the project window's toolbar says "Build and debug active executable".

Next month, we'll go through Project Builder in a bit more detail and go through the debugger as well. It's good to be back - Thanks for reading!


Dave Mark is very old. He's been hanging around with Apple since before there was electricity and has written a number of books on Macintosh development, including Learn C on the Macintosh, Learn C++ on the Macintosh, and The Macintosh Programming Primer series. Dave maintains a primitive web site at http://www.spiderworks.com

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Apple iTunes 12.2 - Play Apple Music...
Apple iTunes lets you organize and stream Apple Music, download and watch video and listen to Podcasts. It can automatically download new music, app, and book purchases across all your devices and... Read more
Apple Security Update 2015-005 - For OS...
Apple Security Update 2015-005 is recommended for all users and improves the security of OS X. For detailed information about the security content of this update, please visit: http://support.apple.... Read more
Apple HP Printer Drivers 3.1 - For OS X...
Apple HP Printer Drivers includes the latest HP printing and scanning software for OS X Lion or later. For information about supported printer models, see this page. Version 3.1: The latest printing... Read more
Epson Printer Drivers 3.1 - For OS X 10....
Epson Printer Drivers installs the latest software for your EPSON printer or scanner for OS X Yosemite, OS X Mavericks, OS X Mountain Lion, and OS X Lion. For more information about printing and... Read more
Xcode 6.4 - Integrated development envir...
Xcode provides everything developers need to create great applications for Mac, iPhone, and iPad. Xcode brings user interface design, coding, testing, and debugging into a united workflow. The Xcode... Read more
OS X Yosemite 10.10.4 - Apple's lat...
OS X Yosemite is Apple's newest operating system for Mac. An elegant design that feels entirely fresh, yet inherently familiar. The apps you use every day, enhanced with new features. And a... Read more
Dash 3.0.2 - Instant search and offline...
Dash is an API Documentation Browser and Code Snippet Manager. Dash helps you store snippets of code, as well as instantly search and browse documentation for almost any API you might use (for a full... Read more
FontExplorer X Pro 5.0 - Font management...
FontExplorer X Pro is optimized for professional use; it's the solution that gives you the power you need to manage all your fonts. Now you can more easily manage, activate and organize your... Read more
Typinator 6.6 - Speedy and reliable text...
Typinator turbo-charges your typing productivity. Type a little. Typinator does the rest. We've all faced projects that require repetitive typing tasks. With Typinator, you can store commonly used... Read more
Arq 4.12.1 - Online backup to Google Dri...
Arq is super-easy online backup for the Mac. Back up to your own Google Drive storage (15GB free storage), your own Amazon Glacier ($.01/GB per month storage) or S3, or any SFTP server. Arq backs up... Read more

Vector 2 is Officially a Thing and it...
Vector is a pretty cool parkour-driven runner that's gotten a pretty decent following since it first came out - although personally I think more people could stand to show it some love. Anyway, Nekki has announced that a sequel isofficially on its... | Read more »
This Week at 148Apps:June 22-26, 2015
June's Summer Journey Continues With 148Apps How do you know what apps are worth your time and money? Just look to the review team at 148Apps. We sort through the chaos and find the apps you're looking for. The ones we love become Editor’s Choice,... | Read more »
LEGO® Minifigures Online (Games)
LEGO® Minifigures Online 1.0.1 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
World of Tanks Blitz celebrates its firs...
Today marks the first anniversary of the launch of World of Tanks Blitz, the mobile version of the PC tank battler, World of Tanks. World of Tanks Blitz launched on iOS and Android on June 26th last year and to celebrate, Wargaming is giving all... | Read more »
Heroes and Castles 2 Has its Own Standal...
Heroes and Castles 2 is a third-person castle defense game from the same team behind Block Fortress and Bug Heroes. It's cool, it's fun, and now it has its very own free version. [Read more] | Read more »
Formula Cartoon All-Stars Lets You Race...
Ever want to pit your favorite characters from shows like Steven Universe, Adventure Time, and Regular Show against each other in a not quite death race? Well once upon a time you could, but Formula All Stars Touch N' Go doesn't exist anymore. Hope... | Read more »
Retype - Typography Photo Editor (Photo...
Retype - Typography Photo Editor 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Photography Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Retype is built out of passion for great typography and it's all about adding text to photo with style... | Read more »
Hungry Shark Evolution Celebrates Shark...
Shark Week is almost here, as is Independence Day, so naturally Hungry Shark Evolution is going to get in on the action. Yes, even the fireworks. [Read more] | Read more »
The New Trivia Crack Will Feature a Musi...
It's official: iHeartMedia (you may know them from iHeartRadio) will be in charge of providing music-related questions for Trivia Crack's upcoming sequel. Also Trivia Crack is getting a sequel. [Read more] | Read more »
Toca Life: City (Education)
Toca Life: City 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Education Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Welcome to Toca Life: City, a metropolis filled with everyday fun! Customize characters, explore exciting locations and... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

12-inch 1.2GHz Gray MacBook on sale for $1487...
Amazon.com has the new 12″ 1.2GHz Gray MacBook in stock and on sale for $1487 including free shipping. Their price is $102 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. We expect... Read more
15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
Amazon.com has the 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1819 including free shipping. Their price is $180 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Read more
OtterBox Releases New Symmetry Series Metalli...
Otterbox’s new Symmetry Series of smartphone cases flaunts the best of both both street style and street smarts with their new metallic finishes and trusted OtterBox protection for iPhone 6 and... Read more
Eliminate Cable Chaos with New GE Branded Wra...
GE licensee Jasco Products has introduced a new line of GE branded Wrap-n-Charge USB wall chargers with built-in cable management. “We are always working to combine great technology with innovative... Read more
2015 13-inch 2.7GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sal...
B&H Photo has the new 2015 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro on sale today for $1199 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price for... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro (refurbished) avai...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pros available for $829, or $270 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.... Read more
Apple refurbished iPad Air 2s available for u...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished iPad Air 2s available for up to $140 off the price of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 128GB... Read more
MacBook Airs on sale for up to $75 off MSRP
Save up to $75 on the purchase of a new 2015 13″ or 11″ 1.6GHz MacBook Air at the following resellers. Shipping is free with each model: 11" 128GB MSRP $899 11" 256GB... Read more
Apple’s Education discount saves up to $300 o...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad at The Apple Store for Education and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free,... Read more
Save up to $600 with Apple refurbished Mac Pr...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished Mac Pros available for up to $600 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each Mac Pro, and shipping is free. The... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* TV Live Streaming Frameworks Test En...
**Job Summary** Work and contribute towards the engineering of Apple 's state-of-the-art products involving video, audio, and graphics in Interactive Media Group (IMG) at Read more
Project Manager, WW *Apple* Fulfillment Ope...
…a senior project manager / business analyst to work within our Worldwide Apple Fulfillment Operations and the Business Process Re-engineering team. This role will work Read more
Senior Data Scientist, *Apple* Retail - Onl...
**Job Summary** Apple Retail - Online sells Apple products to customers around the world. In addition to selling Apple products with unique services such as iPad Read more
*Apple* Music Producer - Apple (United State...
**Job Summary** Apple Music seeks a Producer to help shepherd some of the most important content and editorial initiatives within the music app, with a particular focus Read more
Sr. Technical Services Consultant, *Apple*...
**Job Summary** Apple Professional Services (APS) has an opening for a senior technical position that contributes to Apple 's efforts for strategic and transactional Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.