TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Writing Contextual Menu Plugins for OS X, part 1

Volume Number: 18 (2002)
Issue Number: 8
Column Tag: Mac OS X

Writing Contextual Menu Plugins for OS X, part 1

Implementing the new COM-compatible API

by Brent Simmons

The API for contextual menu plugins is different in OS X than in OS 8/9. It's COM-compatible--it's based on Microsoft's Component Object Model.

That should be enough to scare you off, but don't let it. The good news is you can deal with the COM interface once and re-use that code. The even better news is that this article will provide it for you so you won't have to write it in the first place.

After getting the COM parts out of the way, this article will show how to add a Copy Path menu command to the Finder's contextual menu. This command will copy the path of a selected file or folder onto the clipboard (a path as in /Users/john/myCat.tiff). The second article in this series will go further: it will show how to add submenus, work with text selections, and execute Unix commands.


Figure 1. Copy Path command in Finder's contextual menu

You can download the source and project files for this article from

http://ranchero.com/downloads/mactech/CopyPathPluginSource.sit

The sample plugin is built with the April 2002 Developer Tools version of Project Builder.

Before we start coding, let's get the mile-high view of contextual menus on OS X.

Overview

The basic gist of contextual menus is that when you control-click on something--some files, a folder, some text--a menu appears with commands that do something with what you clicked on.

In other words, contextual menus act on a selection. You wouldn't, for example, put the Sleep command in a contextual menu, since Sleep doesn't act on a selection.

Also, you wouldn't put an Eject command in a menu that appears when text is selected. Though the Eject command acts on a selection, it doesn't act on text. An Eject command (or similar) should appear only when a removable disk is selected.

Contextual menu plugins are system-wide--almost, anyway. Not every app supports system contextual menus. But you'll find plenty that do, including Eudora, CodeWarrior IDE, BBEdit, Internet Explorer, and of course the Finder.

Plugins are bundles; they're CFPlugins. They can be installed at ~/Library/Contextual Menu Items/ or at /Library/Contextual Menu Items/. The first location makes a plugin accessible to a specific user; the second location makes a plugin accessible to all users.

Okay. Let's code.

Implementing the COM IUnknown Interface

A contextual menu plugin has three things it must do: add menu items when requested, run a chosen menu command, and satisfy the requirements of the COM-compatible API.

We'll start with the COM stuff, because it's not utterly thrilling--and, gotten out of the way once means it's out of the way forever. In fact, if you're in a hurry you can skip down to the UUIDs section below.

IUnknown

Think of COM as a framework for object-oriented plugins. Every plugin must implement the IUnknown interface. IUnknown is the base class; it implements interface querying and reference counting.

Specifically it implements three functions: addRef, which increments the reference count; release, which decrements the reference count and releases the object if the count goes to zero; and queryInterface, which is called to determine if a plugin implements a given interface.

Cocoa developers especially are familiar with reference counting. Each time a COM object is retained its reference count is incremented. When it's released, the reference count is decremented. When it goes to zero the object is disposed.

If you're not familiar with reference counting, you can think of it as a "friends" counter. Each time you get an addRef call, it's like someone ringing you up and saying, hey, I'm your friend. Each time you get a release call, it's like someone ringing you up and saying, hey, I'm no longer your friend. You keep a count of how many friends you have. When the count goes to zero you may as well not exist anymore. (It's a good thing people aren't COM objects.)

Incrementing the reference count

addRef, the first of the required IUnknown interface functions, is called to increment the reference count:

Listing 1: incrementing the reference count

addRef
static ULONG addRef (void *pluginInstance)
   {
      tyPlugin *instance = (tyPlugin*) pluginInstance;
      (*instance).refCount += 1;
      return ((*instance).refCount);
   }

It gets a pointer to an instance of the plugin and bumps refCount. (Note that though it returns the reference count, this is just a convention, not something to be relied on.)

tyPlugin is a struct defined in CopyPathPlugin.h:
typedef struct tyPlugin {
   ContextualMenuInterfaceStruct *cmInterface;
   CFUUIDRef factoryId;
   UInt32 refCount;
   } tyPlugin;

The first element of the tyPlugin struct is a pointer to a struct that lays out the functions implemented by the plugin. factoryId is the unique ID of the plugin. refCount is the current reference count.

ContextualMenuInterfaceStruct, also defined in CopyPathPlugin.h, looks like this:

static ContextualMenuInterfaceStruct interfaceTable = {
   NULL,
   queryInterface,
   addRef,
   release,
   examineContext,
   handleSelection,
   postMenuCleanup
   };

The first item is some necessary padding. The next three functions--queryInterface, addRef, and release--are required by the IUnknown interface. The final three functions--examineContext, handleSelection, and postMenuCleanup--are required by the contextual menus plugin interface.

Decrementing the reference count

release, the second of the required IUnknown interface functions, is called to decrement the reference count. When the reference count goes to zero, the instance is disposed.

Listing 2: decrementing the reference count

release
static ULONG release (void *pluginInstance)
   {
      tyPlugin *instance = (tyPlugin*) pluginInstance;
      (*instance).refCount -= 1;
      if ((*instance).refCount == 0) {      
         deallocateInstance (instance);
         return (0);
         }
      return ((*instance).refCount);
   }

The important part is where it checks if refCount has gone to zero and in that case calls deallocateInstance.

Listing 3: deallocating an instance of the plugin

deallocateInstance
static void deallocateInstance (tyPlugin *pluginInstance)
   {
      CFUUIDRef factoryId = (*pluginInstance).factoryId;
      free (pluginInstance);
   
      if (factoryId) {
         CFPlugInRemoveInstanceForFactory (factoryId);
         CFRelease (factoryId);
         } 
   }

The instance is passed to free which deallocates the memory. Then the instance is disassociated from its factory ID and the factory ID reference is released.

Allocating a new instance

How are instances allocated in the first place? The system calls the factory function pluginFactory to create new instances of the plugin object. It knows to call pluginFactory because in the Application Settings in Project Builder we've specified pluginFactory as the name of the factory method.

Choose Edit Active Target from the Project menu; click on the Bundle Settings tab; click on the Expert button (in the upper right of the window). Expand the CFPluginFactories line and underneath you'll see the UUID of this plugin with a value of pluginFactory.

Here's pluginFactory itself:

Listing 4: creating a new instance of the plugin

pluginFactory
void* pluginFactory (CFAllocatorRef allocator,
   CFUUIDRef typeId)
   {
      #pragma unused (allocator)
      if (CFEqual (typeId, kContextualMenuTypeID))
         return (allocateInstance (kCMPlugInFactoryId));
      return (NULL);
   }

First it does a sanity-check (via CFEqual) that what's wanted is a contextual menu plugin, then it calls allocateInstance to actually allocate a new instance.

Listing 5: allocating a new instance of the plugin

allocateInstance
static tyPlugin* allocateInstance (CFUUIDRef factoryId)
   {
      tyPlugin *newInstance;
      newInstance = (tyPlugin*) malloc (sizeof (tyPlugin));
      (*newInstance).cmInterface = &interfaceTable;
      (*newInstance).factoryId = CFRetain (factoryId);   
      CFPlugInAddInstanceForFactory (factoryId);
      (*newInstance).refCount = 1;
   
      return (newInstance);
   }

Malloc allocates the memory for a new instance, then the elements of the struct are filled in. cmInterface gets a pointer to the interface table (a ContextualMenuInterfaceStruct). The factory ID is set and retained via CFRetain. The instance is associated with this factory ID via CFPlugInAddInstanceForFactory. refCount is set to 1 and the instance is returned.

queryInterface

queryInterface, the third and last of the required IUnknown interface functions, is called to check to see if a given plugin implements a given interface.

Listing 6: handling an interface query

queryInterface
static HRESULT queryInterface (void* pluginInstance,
   REFIID iid, LPVOID* ppv)
   {
      if (isGoodInterface (iid)) {
         addRef (pluginInstance);
         *ppv = pluginInstance;
         return (S_OK);
         }
      *ppv = NULL;
      return (E_NOINTERFACE);
   }

If the interface is one that this plugin implements, then the reference count is incremented (via addRef) and a pointer to the plugin instance is returned. Otherwise an error code (E_NOINTERFACE) is returned.

isGoodInterface checks to see that the requested interface is either IUnknown or the contextual menu plugin interface.

Listing 7: determining if a requested interface is implemented by this plugin

isGoodInterface
static Boolean isGoodInterface (REFIID iid)
   {
      CFUUIDRef interfaceId =
         CFUUIDCreateFromUUIDBytes (NULL, iid);
      Boolean flGoodInterface = false;
      
      if (CFEqual (interfaceId, kContextualMenuInterfaceID))
         flGoodInterface = true;
      if (CFEqual (interfaceId, IUnknownUUID))
         flGoodInterface = true;
   
      CFRelease (interfaceId);
      return (flGoodInterface);
   }

It creates a CFUUIDRef that can be compared to the contextual menu interface ID and the IUnknown ID. If it matches either interface ID, then it's an interface that this plugin implements. isGoodInterface returns true if there's a match, false otherwise.

UUIDs

This is the only COM thing you have to re-do for each plugin you create. Luckily, it's a piece of cake, just slightly tedious.

A UUID is a universally unique identifier that identifies your plugin. In this sample it appears in CopyPathPlugin.h as the following un-aesthetic lines:

/*The unique ID for this plugin:
CEEFF462-6C32-11D6-A15C-0050E4591B3C*/
#define kCMPlugInFactoryId (CFUUIDGetConstantUUIDWithBytes \
   (NULL, 0xCE, 0xEF, 0xF4, 0x62, 0x6C, 0x32, 0x11, 0xD6, \
   0xA1, 0x5C, 0x00, 0x50, 0xE4, 0x59, 0x1B, 0x3C))

To generate a new UUID, launch Terminal.app, and on the command line type uuidgen and hit Return. Underneath will appear a new UUID. (See Figure 2.)


Figure 2. Generating a UUID via the command line

When you go to create your own plugins, copy the UUID generated by uuidgen into your code as in the sample. Then do the tedious bit of copy-and-paste needed to make it look like the above.

Then choose Edit Active Target from the Project menu; click the Bundle Settings tab; click the Expert button. Your UUID should appear in two places (as in this sample): under CFPlugInFactories and under CFPlugInTypes. (See Figure 3.)


Figure 3. Bundle settings

Enough COM. Let's do the fun part, the contextual menus interface.

Contextual Menus Interface

Contextual menu plugins must implement three functions beyond the three required IUnknown interface functions.

examineContext is called to give the chance for the plugin to add commands to the menu that's being built. The plugin can see what the current context is, and decide what commands to add or not add.

handleSelection is called to actually run the command the user chose.

postMenuCleanup is called afterward in case the plugin has any cleanup to do.

examineContext

You don't own the contextual menu, you just get the chance to add one or more commands. It's a shared menu: the system may add commands and other plugins may add commands.

This sample plugin will add a Copy Path command when a file or folder is selected in the Finder. examineContext is the first of the required contextual menus interface functions.

Listing 8: determining if a file object is selected

examineContext
static OSStatus examineContext (void *pluginInstance,
   const AEDesc *context, AEDescList *commandList)
   {
      if (getFileObject (context, nil))
         return (addCommandToMenu (commandList));
      if (getFileObjectFromList (context, nil))
         return (addCommandToMenu (commandList));
      return (noErr);
   }

Here's an important point: though we said above that we want this command to appear only in the Finder, in fact we'll do something smarter. Let's not care if it it's the Finder or not, let's care only that it's a file or folder object that's selected.

That way, if someone writes a Finder replacement that supports system contextual menus, this plugin will work there too.

A general rule of thumb is that the important part of the context is the type or types of objects selected. The application is of lesser importance, when it's even important at all. In this sample we don't care if it's Apple's Finder, John Doe's cool replacement Finder, or any other app that presents file objects.

context is an Apple event descriptor describing the object or objects selected. What we want to know is if it's a file or folder selected. To do that we see if the object either is or can be coerced to a descriptor of typeAlias (which points to a file or folder).

So examineContext calls getFileObject which returns true if context is already of typeAlias or can be coerced to typeAlias. (It may be of typeFSS, for instance.)

If getFileObject returns false, then examineContext calls getFileObjectFromList. If context is an AEDescList, then it checks to see if the first item in the list is of typeAlias or can be coerced to typeAlias. The reason we do this is because in testing we discovered that context is always an AEDescList when selecting even just one file or folder in the Finder. We could perhaps have gotten away with assuming that that would always be true, and skipped the call to getFileObject, but then a future version of the Finder might break our plugin. (Or the plugin might not work with other apps where context isn't always an AEDescList.)

getFileObject

This function checks to see if a descriptor is of typeAlias or can be coerced to typeAlias.

Listing 9: getting a file object from the context descriptor

getFileObject
static Boolean getFileObject (const AEDesc *desc,
   AEDesc *resultDesc)
   {
      AEDesc tempDesc = {typeNull, NULL};
      Boolean flFile = false;
      OSErr err = noErr;
   
      if ((*desc).descriptorType == typeAlias) {
         if (resultDesc != nil)
            return (AEDuplicateDesc (desc, resultDesc) == noErr);   
         else
            return (true);
         } 
   
      err = AECoerceDesc (desc, typeAlias, &tempDesc);
      if ((err == noErr) &&
         (tempDesc.descriptorType == typeAlias)) {      
         flFile = true;
   
         if (resultDesc != nil)
            flFile =(AEDuplicateDesc (&tempDesc, resultDesc)
               == noErr);
         } 
      AEDisposeDesc (&tempDesc);
      return (flFile);
   }

If context is already of typeAlias, then we know it's a file or folder, and the function returns true. The function checks (*desc).descriptorType to determine the type of the context descriptor.

If context can be coerced to typeAlias (via AECoerceDesc), then again the function returns true. Otherwise it returns false.

Note that this function will make a copy of context (via AEDuplicateDesc) in resultDesc if the caller wants. This will be used later when the plugin is called to run our menu command (via handleSelection).

getFileObjectFromList

This function gets a file object from a list (an AEDescList).

Listing 10: getting a file object from an AEDescList

getFileObjectFromList

static Boolean getFileObjectFromList (const AEDesc *desc,
   AEDesc *resultDesc)
   {   
      Boolean flFile = false;
      long numItems = 0;
      OSErr err = noErr;
      AEKeyword keyword;
      AEDesc tempDesc = {typeNull, NULL};
   
      if ((*desc).descriptorType != typeAEList)
         return (false);
   
      err = AECountItems (desc, &numItems);   
      require_noerr (err, getFileObjectFromList_fail);
      if (numItems == 1) {   
         err = AEGetNthDesc (desc, 1, typeWildCard,
            &keyword, &tempDesc);
         if (err == noErr) {
            flFile = getFileObject (&tempDesc, nil);         
            if ((flFile) && (resultDesc != nil))
               AEDuplicateDesc (&tempDesc, resultDesc);      
            AEDisposeDesc (&tempDesc);
            } 
         } 
      getFileObjectFromList_fail:
      return (flFile);
   }

First it makes sure that context is in fact an AEDescList. Then it counts the number of items in the list via AECountItems. If the number of items is one, then it gets the first item (AEGetNthDesc), then calls getFileObject to see if that first object is of typeAlias or can be coerced to typeAlias.

As with getFileObject, this function will return a copy of the file object in resultDesc as a typeAlias descriptor if the caller wishes. But for examineContext we don't want a copy, we just want to know if it's a file object or not.

Back to examineContext: if either getFileObject or getFileObjectFromList return true, then it calls addCommandToMenu to add the Copy Path command to the contextual menu.

Adding a command

The contextual menu being built is passed to examineContext as an AEDescList. To add a command to the menu, addMenuCommand creates an AERecord and adds the command string and command ID. Then it adds the record to the end of commandList.

Listing 11: adding the Copy Path command to the contextual menu

addCommandToMenu
static OSStatus addCommandToMenu (AEDescList *commandList)
   {
      AERecord command = {typeNull, NULL};
      Str255 commandString = copyPathCommand;
      OSErr err = noErr;
      SInt32 commandId = 2000;
   
      err = AECreateList (NULL, 0, true, &command);
      require_noerr (err, addCommandToMenu_complete_fail);
      err = AEPutKeyPtr (&command, keyAEName, typeChar,
         &commandString [1], commandString [0]);
      require_noerr (err, addCommandToMenu_fail);
   
      err = AEPutKeyPtr (&command, 'cmcd',
         typeLongInteger, &commandId, sizeof (commandId));
      require_noerr (err, addCommandToMenu_fail);
      /*0 means add to end of list.*/
      err = AEPutDesc (commandList, 0, &command); 
      addCommandToMenu_fail:
      AEDisposeDesc (&command);
      addCommandToMenu_complete_fail:
      return (err);
   }

The command is created via AECreateList. AEPutKeyPtr is used to add the text of the command and its command ID. (This sample doesn't actually use the command ID, since there's just one menu command--but if you have more than one command the command ID is quite useful.)

Finally the command record is added to the end of the command list via AEPutDesc.

After cleaning up, addCommandToMenu returns, then examineContext returns. Then we move on to implementing handleSelection.

handleSelection

This function, the second function required by the contextual menu interface, is called to run a contextual menu command. In this sample we run the Copy Path command. Our version of handleSelection looks like this:

Listing 12: handling the Copy Path command

handleSelection
static OSStatus handleSelection (void *pluginInstance,
   AEDesc *context, SInt32 commandId)
   {
      AEDesc aliasDesc = {typeNull, NULL};
      char path [MAXPATHLEN];
      OSErr err = noErr;
      if (!getAliasDesc (context, &aliasDesc))
         return (noErr);
      if (getPathStringFromAlias (&aliasDesc, path))
         writePathToClipboard (path);
      AEDisposeDesc (&aliasDesc);
      return (err);
   }

It takes a pointer to the plugin instance, a pointer to the context (the same context that examineContext gets, a description of the selected object(s)), and the command ID of the menu command that was chosen.

Just as in examineContext, we want to get a descriptor of typeAlias from context. So getAliasDesc is called to get a typeAlias descriptor. If it fails, the plugin does nothing.

Once it has the descriptor, it calls getPathStringFromAlias to get the path to the file object as a C string. Then it calls writePathToClipboard to write the path string to the clipboard. After cleaning up it returns.

getAliasDesc

Backing up... here's getAliasDesc:

Listing 13: getting a typeAlias descriptor

getAliasDesc
static Boolean getAliasDesc (const AEDesc *desc,
   AEDesc *resultDesc)
   {
      if (getFileObject (desc, resultDesc))
         return (true);   
      return (getFileObjectFromList (desc, resultDesc));
   }

It calls getFileObject and getFileObjectFromList, which are the same functions we used in examineContext to determine if a file object was selected. The difference here is that the second parameter to these functions is not null, it's a pointer to a descriptor that should become a typeAlias descriptor--a file object.

getPathStringFromAlias

handleSelection then calls getPathStringFromAlias:

Listing 14: getting a path string from a typeAlias descriptor

getPathStringFromAlias
static Boolean getPathStringFromAlias (const AEDesc *desc,
   char *path)
   {
      FSRef fileRef;
      Size dataSize = AEGetDescDataSize (desc);
      AliasHandle aliasRef;
      Boolean flChanged = false;
      OSErr err = noErr;
   
      aliasRef = (AliasHandle) NewHandle (dataSize);
      if (aliasRef == nil)
         return (false);
   
      err = AEGetDescData (desc, *aliasRef, dataSize);   
      require_noerr (err, getFileObjectFromAlias_fail);
   
      err = FSResolveAlias (NULL, aliasRef,
         &fileRef, &flChanged);
      require_noerr (err, getFileObjectFromAlias_fail);
   
      err = FSRefMakePath (&fileRef, (UInt8*) path,
         MAXPATHLEN);
   
      getFileObjectFromAlias_fail:   
      DisposeHandle ((Handle) aliasRef);
      return (err == noErr);
   }

It allocates a new AliasHandle via NewHandle, then gets its data by calling AEGetDescData to get it from the typeAlias descriptor.

Then it gets an FSRef from the AliasHandle by calling FSResolveAlias.

Then it gets a path string from the FSRef by calling FSRefMakePath. (Note: MAXPATHLEN is defined in sys/param.h, which is included by CopyPathPlugin.h.)

It returns after cleaning up.

writePathToClipboard

Finally handleSelection calls writePathToClipboard which writes the path string to the clipboard.

Listing 15: writing text to the clipboard

writePathToClipboard
static void writePathToClipboard (char *path)
   {
      ScrapRef scrap;
      ClearCurrentScrap ();
      GetCurrentScrap (&scrap);
      PutScrapFlavor (scrap, kScrapFlavorTypeText,
         kScrapFlavorMaskNone, strlen (path),
         (const void*) path);
   }

It clears the current scrap (clipboard), gets a reference to the current scrap, then writes the string as text to the scrap via PutScrapFlavor. Simple.

That's it for implementing handleSelection.

postMenuCleanup

This function is the third and last function required by the contextual menu interface. If the plugin had any cleanup to do after running the command, this would be the place to do it. But since there's no cleanup to do (in this sample), postMenuCleanup is a no-op:

Listing 16: cleaning up

postMenuCleanup
static void postMenuCleanup (void *pluginInstance)
   {
      /*This plugin has no cleanup to do.*/
   }

Testing and debugging plugins

After building your plugin, you'll find it in the build directory in the project directory. Copy it to ~/Library/Contextual Menu Items/. You may need to create the Contextual Menu Items folder if it doesn't already exist.

If you're replacing a plugin that's already installed, first trash the old version, then copy the new version into the Contextual Menu Items folder.

You'll need to quit and restart the Finder before it will see the new version of the plugin. What I do is put an AppleScript script in my dock that looks like this:

tell application "Finder"
   quit
end tell

OS X is just a bit unpredictable when it runs this script. Sometimes the Finder quits twice. Sometimes the Finder restarts, sometimes not. No harm is apparent. If the Finder doesn't restart, click the Mac smiley face icon in the Dock and the Finder will launch.

If you'd rather, you can log out then log back in instead, which also restarts the Finder.

To test this plugin, install it as above, then control-click (or right-click if you have a two-button mouse) on one file or folder in the Finder. You should see a Copy Path command in the menu that appears. Choose the command, then choose Show Clipboard from the Finder's Edit menu. The clipboard contents should be text, the path to the object you clicked on. Try doing a paste in another app just to make sure everything works as expected.

Tip: for debugging plugins I use printf calls. The output appears in Console.app, which you can find in the /Applications/Utilities/ directory.

Conclusion

As you've seen, implementing contextual menu plugins in OS X is not terribly difficult, it's just that the COM-compatible interface is not obvious. Given sample code and an understanding of how the COM interface works, you can concentrate on the code that's unique to your plugin.

Coming in part two

In the next article we'll go farther, we'll show how to build a submenu, how to send an update event to the Finder, how to handle selected text (in apps such as BBEdit and Internet Explorer), and how to call a Unix command from a menu command.

References


Brent Simmons is a Seattle-based independent Mac OS X developer and writer, a fan of both Cocoa and Carbon. He runs a Mac developer news weblog at ranchero.com; he can be contacted at brent@ranchero.com.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Fantastical 2.3.2 - Create calendar even...
Fantastical 2 is the Mac calendar you'll actually enjoy using. Creating an event with Fantastical is quick, easy, and fun: Open Fantastical with a single click or keystroke Type in your event... Read more
PCalc 4.4.4 - Full-featured scientific c...
PCalc is a full-featured, scriptable scientific calculator with support for hexadecimal, octal, and binary calculations, as well as an RPN mode, programmable functions, and an extensive set of unit... Read more
Alfred 3.2.1 - Quick launcher for apps a...
Alfred is an award-winning productivity application for OS X. Alfred saves you time when you search for files online or on your Mac. Be more productive with hotkeys, keywords, and file actions at... Read more
OmniPlan 3.6 - Robust project management...
With OmniPlan, you can create logical, manageable project plans with Gantt charts, schedules, summaries, milestones, and critical paths. Break down the tasks needed to make your project a success,... Read more
Backblaze 4.2.0.990 - Online backup serv...
Backblaze is an online backup service designed from the ground-up for the Mac. With unlimited storage available for $5 per month, as well as a free 15-day trial, peace of mind is within reach with... Read more
AppDelete 4.3.1 - $7.99
AppDelete is an uninstaller that will remove not only applications but also widgets, preference panes, plugins, and screensavers along with their associated files. Without AppDelete these associated... Read more
Apple GarageBand 10.1.4 - Complete recor...
The new GarageBand is a whole music creation studio right inside your Mac -- complete with keyboard, synths, orchestral and percussion instruments, presets for guitar and voice, an entirely... Read more
Adobe Lightroom 6.8 - Import, develop, a...
Adobe Lightroom is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $9.99/month bundled with Photoshop CC as part of the photography package. Lightroom 6 is also available for purchase as a... Read more
iMazing 2.1.3 - Complete iOS device mana...
iMazing (was DiskAid) is the ultimate iOS device manager with capabilities far beyond what iTunes offers. With iMazing and your iOS device (iPhone, iPad, or iPod), you can: Copy music to and from... Read more
Little Snitch 3.7.1 - Alerts you about o...
Little Snitch gives you control over your private outgoing data. Track background activity As soon as your computer connects to the Internet, applications often have permission to send any... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Galaxy on Fire 3 and four other fantasti...
Galaxy on Fire 3 - Manticore brings the series back for another round of daring space battles. It's familiar territory for folks who are familiar with the franchise. If you've beaten the game and are looking to broaden your horizons, might we... | Read more »
The best apps for your holiday gift exch...
What's that, you say? You still haven't started your holiday shopping? Don't beat yourself up over it -- a lot of people have been putting it off, too. It's become easier and easier to procrastinate gift shopping thanks to a number of apps that... | Read more »
Toca Hair Salon 3 (Education)
Toca Hair Salon 3 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Education Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Winter comes to Darkwood as Seekers Note...
MyTona, based in the chilly Siberian city of Yakutsk, has brought a little festive fun to its hidden object game Seekers Notes: Hidden Mystery. The Christmas update introduces some new inhabitants to players, and with them a chance to win plenty of... | Read more »
Bully: Anniversary Edition (Games)
Bully: Anniversary Edition 1.03.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $6.99, Version: 1.03.1 (iTunes) Description: *** PLEASE NOTE: This game is officially supported on the following devices: iPhone 5 and newer, iPod Touch... | Read more »
PINE GROVE (Games)
PINE GROVE 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: A pine grove where there are no footsteps of people due to continuous missing cases. The case is still unsolved and nothing has... | Read more »
Niantic teases new Pokémon announcement...
After rumors started swirling yesterday, it turns out there is an official Pokémon GO update on its way. We’ll find out what’s in store for us and our growing Pokémon collections tomorrow during the Starbucks event, but Niantic will be revealing... | Read more »
3 reasons why Nicki Minaj: The Empire is...
Nicki Minaj is as business-savvy as she is musically talented and she’s proved that by launching her own game. Designed by Glu, purveyors of other fine celebrity games like cult favorite Kim Kardashian: Hollywood, Nicki Minaj: The Empire launched... | Read more »
Clash of Clans is getting its own animat...
Riding on its unending wave of fame and success, Clash of Clans is getting an animated web series based on its Clash-A-Rama animated shorts.As opposed to the current shorts' 60 second run time, the new and improved Clash-A-Rama will be comprised of... | Read more »
Leaks hint at Pokémon GO and Starbucks C...
Leaked images from a hub for Starbucks employees suggests that a big Pokémon GO event with the coffee giant could begin this very week. The images appeared on Reddit and hint at some exciting new things to come for Niantic's smash hit game. | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

12-inch Retina MacBooks, Apple refurbished, n...
Apple has restocked a full line of Certified Refurbished 2016 12″ Retina MacBooks, now available for $200-$260 off MSRP. Refurbished 2015 models are available starting at $929. Apple will include a... Read more
Holiday sale: 12-inch Retina MacBook for $100...
B&H has 12″ Retina MacBooks on sale for $100 off MSRP as part of their Holiday sale. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 12″ 1.1GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook: $1199 $100... Read more
Apple refurbished 13-inch MacBook Airs availa...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 13″ MacBook Airs available starting at $849. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free: - 13″ 1.6GHz/8GB/128GB MacBook Air: $849 $... Read more
Apple refurbished iMacs available for up to $...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 21″ & 27″ iMacs available for up to $350 off MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free. The following models are available: - 21″ 3.... Read more
Apple’s Education discount saves up to $300 o...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad using Apple’s Education Store and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free: -... Read more
Back in stock: Apple refurbished Mac minis fr...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Mac minis available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $419 $80 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac... Read more
Twenty-Five Years Of Apple Laptops – A person...
Among many other things, the often tumultuous 16th year of the new century marked the 25th anniversary of Apple laptop computers, not counting the optimistically named 16-pound Mac Portable of 1989.... Read more
Landlordy iOS App Adds Support For Appliances...
Riga, Latvia based E-protect SIA is releasing major update (version 1.8) to its Landlordy app for managing rental business financials on the go. Landlordy is iPhone and iPad app designed for self-... Read more
Holiday sale, Apple iMacs for up to $200 off...
B&H Photo has 21″ and 27″ Apple iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 27″ 3.3GHz iMac 5K: $2099 $200 off MSRP - 27″ 3.2GHz/1TB Fusion iMac 5K: $... Read more
Holiday sale: Mac minis for $50 to $100 off M...
B&H Photo has Mac minis on sale for up to $100 off MSRP free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $449 $50 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac mini: $629 $70 off MSRP - 2.8GHz Mac mini: $899 $... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Trumbul...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Philade...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- San Ant...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Products Tester Needed - Apple (Unit...
…we therefore look forward to put out products to quality test for durability. Apple leads the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.