TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Dec 01 Cover Story

Volume Number: 17 (2001)
Issue Number: 12
Column Tag: Cover Story

by G.D. Warner

Error Messages: The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly

Writing Error Messages That Don’t Make Your Users Feel Stupid

“You are in error. You are a biological unit. You are imperfect.”

As error messages go, that quote from the original Star Trek episode, “The Changeling” is — well, actually kinda scary, considering what happened in that episode (Nomad, remember? A small robot that destroyed planets for fun — because that planet’s inhabitants were, in Nomad,’s “eyes,” imperfect).

While I’m sure RB developers don’t write error messages like that — and, coupled with REAL Software’s failure to insert a “Smite” command into the IDE makes carrying out the implied threat difficult, at best — I wanted to take this opportunity to run through, as the title says, ‘The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly’ of error messages.

The British magazine, MacFormat (which some would say is the British version of MacAddict, though in fact the reverse is true) has a section devoted to bad error messages, entitled “Silly Things Your Mac Says.” Alas, MacFormat’s web presence (http://www.macformat.co.uk) is not quite as strong as that of MacAddict’s (http://www.macaddict.com), so I’m afraid I can’t refer you to a page to view them all. Sorry abut that!

(Initiate Twilight Zone mode: que creepy music, Dim Rod Serling voice as True:)

Consider, if you will, the typical new computer user. S/he has just enrolled in the Computers For Dummies class at her local community college — using Windows ‘00 (pronounced “uh-oh,” in case you were wondering) as the Training Platform of Choice. Everything goes well in the class that first week (remember, we’re using our imaginations, here), and our new computer user finishes that first week, and goes out and buys her own computer.

And gets her first error message. The horror begins (see Figure 1).


Figure 1. Thanks a Lot (End Twilight Zone mode).

Alan Cooper, in his book About Face: The Essentials of User Interface Design, writes: “This is what all error messages feel like to users… No matter how nicely your error messages are worded, this is how they will be interpreted.”

But what makes a good error message?

The Microsoft Manual of Style, Second Edition, provides pointers for writing error messages:

“When you write error messages, use the passive voice to describe the error, and, if necessary, the third person (refer to ‘he computer’ or ‘the program’). You can also blame the product. Addressing the user directly as ‘you’ may imply that the user caused the problem. Try to make error messages friendly, direct, and helpful.”

Apple’s Aqua Human Interface Guidelines tells us:

“A good alert message states clearly what caused the alert to appear and what the user can do about it. Express everything in the user’s vocabulary.”

This is good advice … but Alan Cooper says it a bit better:

“Don’t make the user look stupid.”

Mr. Cooper later provides another interesting example of how error messages shouldn’t be written, reproduced here as Figure 2:


Figure 2. What the —!?

What would go through your mind if the above error message were to show up on your screen? Probably something similar to what Mr. Cooper wrote:

“Thank you so much for sharing that pithy observation with us. Why didn’t you notify the library? What did you want to notify it about? Why are you telling me? What do I care? Maybe you’d like to comment on what I’m wearing, too? And besides, what am I ‘OK’ing? It is not OK with me that this failure occurred!”

Couldn’t have said it better myself.

To reiterate Apple’s recommendations:

  • Tell the user what happened
  • Tell the user how to fix whatever is wrong
  • Tell the user what happened in their own vocabulary

This last one is particularly important: if your error message says something like “PrntSvrErr in Serial/USB port,” your user is most likely going to be confused by “PrntSvrErr.” Why not simply write “Printer Server Error,” if indeed that’s what it means?

The Good

There aren’t a lot of good examples out there… but I did find a few that come close. Take Figure 3 for example:


Figure 3. Example of a Good Error message.

This error message follows the basic guidelines of a good error message:

It tells the user what’s wrong (more or less)

It offers a fix

It delivers its message in plain language Figure 4, from Apple’s Aqua Human Interface Guidelines gets the job done:


Figure 4. Another Good Error Message.

It tells the user what’s wrong — and why

It offers not one, but two possible fixes

It delivers its message in plain language

The error message shown in Figure 5 seems to have done it correctly:


Figure 5. Another Good Error Message.
  • It tells the user what’s wrong — and why
  • It offers not one, not two, but three possible fixes — and includes a phone number for Tech Support
  • It delivers its message in plain language

By all rights, this should be the best of the best — but my technical writer instincts tell me it’s far too wordy. A user faced with this error message would most likely not bother to read it (“Too much information, too much information!”), then just click OK.

The Bad

It’s far easier to find examples of bad error messages than good ones… and a lot more fun! So here we go. Figure 6 is from an early version of Netscape:


Figure 6. Bad Error, Netscape Style.

In his article “Why You Can’t Run Java,” Mark Hurst said…well, basically he said that this error message might be difficult for most users to understand (yeah… that’s it!).

Another, shall we say, somewhat-less-than-useful error message is shown in Figure 7:


Figure 7. Really Bad Error Message.

I wonder what happened here? — Oh, yeah. “Some sort of error.” Obviously.

You’ve probably seen or heard about the e-mail that circulated some time back with error messages written in Haiku, the ancient Japanese form of poetry. For those of you who don’t know (or dozed off a lot during the poetry section of your English classes), Haiku has only three rules:

Three lines only

First and last lines are to be no more than three syllables

Second line consists of no more than seven syllables

Here’s one:

Three things are certain:
Death, taxes, and lost data.
Guess which has occurred.

I’ve placed the URL in the Reference section so you can read the rest… but if you can’t wait, fire up a computer running the BeOS, load up Be’s web browser, NetPositive, and type in a URL without being connected to a network … and see what you get.

Hopefully, you’ll get something like Figure 8:


Figure 8. NetPositive Haiku.

Uh-oh… I feel inspiration beating me about the head and shoulders!

In NetPositive
It is quite easy to find
Poetic Errors

(Sorry about that.)

Someone who identifies himself as “Johnnie Favorite” or “Happy Mega Fighting Man,” and a former Be employee tells me this feature can be turned off in one of the NetPositive settings.

I’ll get to that … one of these days.

Not to be outdone, a few Apple developers at Dantz have written a few of these (at least for early versions of the Retrospect manual) as shown in Figure 9 (thanks to ResExcellence.com):


Figure 9. Dantz Retrospect’s Haiku Error Message.

The Ugly

Not a lot of screenshots for this category, as some of these are Unix/Linux error messages, passed on by Word of Mouth. My favorite:

Printer on fire. See the Reference section for a link for more info on this one…

A close second, from Linux fsck (the Linux version of “Scandisk”):

“Either there is a bug in fsck or some bonehead (you!) is checking a live filesystem. Please report bugs in fsck to .”

‘Tacit’ writes in comp.lang.basic.realbasic:

“For the worst error messages ever written by God or man, I suggest you take a look at Windows 2000. It has some error messages you absolutely will not believe.

‘Attempt to propogate SUIDs across Active Directory failed with code 1602.’

“In English, this means: ‘You have special permissions set for a user who does not exist.’”

Interesting . . .

This error message uses error codes. Opinions on these are mixed: Some like them, some hate them… but they do have their uses.

Using that error code, a developer can track the number of times a particular error is displayed, compare it to other errors that report error codes, and from there decide which one to fix first.

MT-NewsWatcher uses similar error codes in some of its error messages, as shown in Figure 10:


Figure 10. MT-NewsWatcher Error with Error Code.

Tool Tips, the Balloon Help on the Windows side of things, is also something one needs to be careful of. The tool tip shown in Figure 11 cost a developer his job:


Figure 11. One Way Ticket Out the Door for this developer.

Here’s an interesting one, from Free Java:


Figure 12. Let’s Get Biblical.

I wonder if Free Java has a ‘Smite’ command…? Hmmmm …

And then, of course, there’s these:


Figure 13. Dude! (Welcome).


Figure 14. Dude —! (Okay).


Figure 15. Dude —! (Toast).

While it is true that a skilled linguist could probably differentiate between “Dude—!” as an expression of agreement, and “Dude—!” as a warning message, relying on this ability for your error messages is probably not a good idea … so the less said about the “Dude” family of error messages, the better.

In fact, forget I mentioned it, okay?

Okay. So What?

Good question. How about this quote:

“Nothing says more about what you think of your users than error messages.”

This quote, from Scott Berkun’s article, “The Web Shouldn’t be a Comedy of Errors,” really says it all. If it doesn’t ‘say it all’ to you, he follows up with a discussion of some excellent software engineering ideas on handling errors (see Scott Berkun in the Reference section … and take another look at Figure 11).

Like in one of the Karate Kid movies (“Kid? I’m thirty-five!”), when Mr. Miyagi describes the best way to block a punch by the ‘simple’ method of “No be there when punch arrive,” Scott’s article recommends designing your program so that it has fewer chances for your users to require an error message.

Chuck Martin, a posting to the Tech Writer’s list agrees. “…design, as much as possible, the interface so users can’t make errors, or at least will have a more difficult time making errors.”

For instance, a field that requires numerical input should screen out alphabetical characters, as illustrated in this code snippet (KeyDown event of an Edit field):

Listing 1: ASCII Only, Please

Disables non-numerical keystrokes in an edit field.

Function KeyDown(Key As String) As Boolean
 If (ASC(key) < 48) Or (ASC(key) > 57) Then
  If (ASC(key) = 8) Or ((ASC(key) >= 28) And (Asc(key) <= 31)) Then
   Return False
  Else
   Return True
  End If
 Else
  Return False
 End If
End Function

This kills the need for an error message that reads “Dumbkopf! Numbers ONLY in this field!” or something similar.

Another thing to consider (with some applications, anyway): disabling the ‘Okay’ or ‘Submit’ button until all required fields are filled in. This avoids the “You idiot! You forgot to type in your fax number!” error message — when your user doesn’t have a fax number to enter, and simply hits the Okay button, thinking s/he’s finished entering data.

Robert Heath, another member of the Tech Writer’s list (see the Reference section) says, “My own peeve is messages with exclamation points. ‘You must enter a date!,’ etc.

Wrapping Up

In this article, we’ve taken a look at what makes a good error message, what makes a bad error message, touched on some ‘ugly’ error messages, skimmed the surface of software design methodology, and dipped a metaphorical toe into the waters of user interface design. Hopefully, we’ve all learned something along the way… but there’s only one way to be sure! A quiz. Your question — for the grand prize of a bag of pre-cooked microwave popcorn, mailed to your house by our own managing editor, Jessica Stubblefield (first come, first served, no guarantees on how well cooked the popcorn will be):

If your user is trying to print but can’t, is it better to display an error message that reads —

A. “Failed to initialize printer port [OK},”
B. “Having trouble printing. Ensure the printer is connected to your computer and that the power cord is securely connected and press the ‘Retry’ button. {Retry} {Cancel}”

“Printer on fire! Get out now!! {Okay}”

“DUDE!!! {Okay}”

If you answered A, congratulations! Your users will hate you, and you are well on your way to becoming as infamous as the person that wrote that immortal phrase, “Someone put us the bomb.” Or perhaps the other immortal phrase, “All your base are belong to us.”

If you answered B, congratulations! Your users will love you, and actually pay for your shareware.

If you answered C, congratulations! You’re doomed to a lifetime of answering the telephone support lines for the software you wrote, which caused the printer to catch fire in the first place. Your days will be long (15 hours!) and you’ll only get minimum wage — unlike your fellow tech support-folk, who support applications written by the guy whose error messages read like those in answer B. These guys get more money because their developer gets paid for his software.

If you answered D … um … well, the less said about that the better!

You’re educated
Put away this magazine
And go code something.

Heh.

Bibliography and References

Haiku Error Messages:

“Printer On Fire” Error Messages:

‘Linux FSCK’ Error Message:

Just For Laughs . . .


G.D. Warner is a technical writer, a Web-Dev Ninja-In-Training, and resides in Seattle, where the Shadow of Redmond looms long and large. He can be reached at gdwarner@mac.com.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

The beginner's guide to Warbits
Warbits is a turn-based strategy that's clearly inspired by Nintendo's Advance Wars series. Since turn-based strategy games can be kind of tricky to dive into, see below for a few tips to help you in the beginning. Positioning is crucial [Read... | Read more »
How to upgrade your character in Spellsp...
So you’ve mastered the basics of Spellspire. By which I mean you’ve realised it’s all about spelling things in a spire. What next? Well you’re going to need to figure out how to toughen up your character. It’s all well and good being able to spell... | Read more »
5 slither.io mash-ups we'd love to...
If there's one thing that slither.io has proved, it's that the addictive gameplay of Agar.io can be transplanted onto basically anything and it will still be good fun. It wouldn't be surprising if we saw other developers jumping on the bandwagon,... | Read more »
How to navigate the terrain in Sky Charm...
Sky Charms is a whimsical match-'em up adventure that uses creative level design to really ramp up the difficulty. [Read more] | Read more »
Victorious Knight (Games)
Victorious Knight 1.3 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.3 (iTunes) Description: New challenges awaits you! Experience fresh RPG experience with a unique combat mechanic, packed with high quality 3D... | Read more »
Agent Gumball - Roguelike Spy Game (Gam...
Agent Gumball - Roguelike Spy Game 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Someone’s been spying on Gumball. What the what?! Two can play at that game! GO UNDERCOVERSneak past enemy... | Read more »
Runaway Toad (Games)
Runaway Toad 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: It ain’t easy bein’ green! Tap, hold, and swipe to help Toad hop to safety in this gorgeous new action game from the creators of... | Read more »
PsyCard (Games)
PsyCard 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: From the makers och Card City Nights, Progress To 100 and Ittle Dew PSYCARD is a minesweeper-like game set in a cozy cyberpunk... | Read more »
Sago Mini Robot Party (Education)
Sago Mini Robot Party 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Education Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: -- Children's Technology Review Editor's Choice -- | Read more »
Egz – The Origin of the Universe (Games...
Egz – The Origin of the Universe 1.0.2 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0.2 (iTunes) Description: ►►► Special offer until 2nd may : get the game at 2.99€ instead of 3.99€ ! ◄◄◄ Egz is a mesmerizing mix... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple restocks Certified Refurbished Mac mini...
Apple has restocked Certified Refurbished 2014 Mac minis, with models available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $419 $... Read more
15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
Amazon.com has the 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1699.99 including free shipping. Their price is $300 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model from any reseller (and... Read more
Apple Beats Microsoft at Own Game; Amazon Pri...
First quarter seasonality combined with an overall disinterested customer base led to an annual decline of 14.7% in worldwide tablet shipments during the first quarter of 2016 (1Q16). Worldwide... Read more
Tablets Had Worst Quarter Since 2012, says St...
The global tablet market began 2016 just as 2015 left off, down. Tablet shipments fell 10% to 46.5 million units during the Q1 2016, according to the new “Preliminary Global Tablet Shipments and... Read more
Clearance 13-inch MacBook Airs, Apple refurbi...
Apple recently dropped prices on certified refurbished 2015 13″ MacBook Airs with 4GB of RAM with models now available starting at $759. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and... Read more
Clearance 12-inch Retina MacBooks, Apple refu...
Apple has dropped prices on Certified Refurbished 2015 12″ Retina MacBooks with models now available starting at $929. Apple will include a standard one-year warranty with each MacBook, and shipping... Read more
Aleratec Releases Mac Software Upgrade for 1...
California based Aleratec Inc., designer, developer and manufacturer of Portable Device Management (PDM) charge/sync products for mobile devices and professional-grade duplicators for hard disk... Read more
Sale! Amazon offers 27-inch iMac, 13-inch 2.9...
Amazon has the 27″ 3.2GHz 5K iMac and the 13″ 3.9GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $300 off MSRP, each including free shipping, for a limited time: - 27″ 3.2GHz/1TB HD 5K iMac (model MK462LL/A): $... Read more
Apple refurbished 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 13″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $270 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.7GHz... Read more
13-inch 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro on sa...
Take $200 off MSRP on the price of a new 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro (model MF839LL/A) at Amazon. Shipping is free: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro: $1099.99 $200 off MSRP Act now if... Read more

Jobs Board

Restaurant Manager (Neighborhood Captain) - A...
…in every aspect of daily operation. WHY YOU'LL LIKE IT: You'll be the Big Apple . You'll solve problems. You'll get to show your ability to handle the stress and Read more
Automotive Sales Consultant - Apple Ford Linc...
…you. The best candidates are smart, technologically savvy and are customer focused. Apple Ford Lincoln Apple Valley is different, because: $30,000 annual salary Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple (United...
# Apple Solutions Consultant Job Number: 48260200 Phoenix, Arizona, United States Posted: Apr. 22, 2016 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Read more
Restaurant Manager (Neighborhood Captain) - A...
…in every aspect of daily operation. WHY YOU'LL LIKE IT: You'll be the Big Apple . You'll solve problems. You'll get to show your ability to handle the stress and Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.