TweetFollow Us on Twitter

July 01 ADC Direct

Volume Number: 17 (2001)
Issue Number: 07
Column Tag: ADC Direct

Internationalization and Localization

(Translation: Why you should read this article.)

by Xavier Legros

I'm not going to talk about localization or why you should have your application translated to French. Instead, I'm going to talk about something we both can relate to: money.

In 2000, almost half of Apple's revenues came from outside the U.S. So, if your application supports only U.S. English, you may be missing out on half of the market (and revenue) for your product. That's the bad news.

Here's the good news: With Mac OS X, Apple introduced new technologies to help you bring your application to international markets quickly and easily. Read on for more information and remember: If you don't get your product to foreign markets, you can always count on your competitors to do so.

Mac OS X: An International OS

With the introduction of Mac OS X, Apple redefined what a truly international platform should be. Take a look at a clean install of Mac OS X and you'll notice support for many languages—seven to be exact. At its introduction, Mac OS X was released in seven languages: English, Japanese, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Dutch. A new version of Mac OS X was released during the 2001 Worldwide Developers Conference that contains support for Korean, simplified and traditional Chinese (as well as the rest of the European languages.)

Mac OS X streamlines internationalization. From a new International pane in the System Preferences, to new technologies that help developers take advantage of Unicode™, Mac OS X streamlines internationalization. A new delivery mechanism enables developers to ship several languages in one bundle. In addition, Mac

OS X includes new technologies that handle Unicode and complex scripts. Both will be discussed in more detail here. These advents will undoubtedly make Mac OS X "Le international OS."

Internationalization Made Easy


(Translation: Why you should bundle your application.)

Mac OS X makes it easy to internationalize software and it does so in such a way that a single binary can support localizations for multiple languages and regional dialects. It also lets software developers dynamically add localized resources for new languages or regions. In Mac OS X, most software comes in the form of a bundle, of which an application package is just one type.

A bundle is an opaque directory in the file system that contains one or more executables and the resources that go with those executables. One of the primary benefits of bundles is the infrastructure they provide for localizing software. Localized resources such as image and string files, as well as Mac OS 9–style resources (rscs), can be put in bundle subdirectories whose names reflect a particular language or regional dialect (for example, Canadian French). A properly constructed Mac OS X application (or plug-in or shared library) does not hardwire paths to the resource files in these directories. Instead, when the application needs a resource, it uses a special system routine to obtain the localization that best matches the user's language preferences. (Please download "Inside Mac OS X: System Overview" if you'd like more information on Application Packaging and Bundles.). Go to:
http://developer.apple.com/macosx/

The new International pane in the System Preferences introduces users to a new paradigm in selection. In the following example (see fig. 1a), you'll see preferences regarding language ordering. The preferences were changed to have Japanese as the first language, French second, and English third. Next time the user logs in, the Finder will have its UI in Japanese. (Apple introduced a new font called Hiragino with Mac OS X to display Japanese text. It looks gorgeous on the screen and in print.) The ordering of the languages means that if a user has an application that has been localized in French and English, the Finder will launch the application and load the resources in the French folder. From a developer's point of view, if you bundle your application and have the localized resources in the appropriate folders, then you don't have to do anything special in order to generate this behavior. The System will load the appropriate resources corresponding to the user's preferences.


Fig 1a. This is the International pane from the System Preferences.

As illustrated in fig. 2a, one can see that TextEdit has been localized in seven languages. The "MacOS" folder contains the binary and "Resources" contains all the localized resources (as well as some global resources like the "icns" files.) The file "info.plist" is the heart of the bundle. It contains the version of the application, the icon to be used for the documents the application creates, as well as the application icon and many other parameters specific to the application.


Fig 2a. An example of what is inside a bundle. (TextEdit in this case.)

You can see the localized packages supported by the application through the Finder as well when you access the "Show Info" panel (CMD+I) (fig. 3a).


Fig 3a. Localized languages installed as shown in the "Show Info" panel.

Text Support in Mac OS X: International by Default

Use CFString to Store Your Text

Core Foundation enables internationalization through Unicode strings and provides abstractions that contribute to operating system independence.

CFString and CFCharacter-Set provide a full suite of fast and efficient string manipulation and conversion functionality. String Services offer seamless Unicode support and thus greatly simplify internationalization. String Services also facilitate sharing of string data between Carbon and Cocoa applications.

Use MLTE for Your Text Editing Needs in Carbon

MLTE, the MultiLingual Text Engine, is available on Mac OS X. MLTE is a replacement for TextEdit and is a full Unicode text engine that uses ATSUI (Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging). When an MLTE text object is created in an application, Unicode layout is included as well as support for 2-byte scripts. No need to install the necessary TSM handlers to support Japanese, Chinese, and Korean as MLTE does this. No need to install scrollbars, drag-and-drop handlers as MLTE can provide these services as well.

MLTE is an important piece of text rendering in Mac OS X. MLTE supports the usual QuickDraw anti-aliased text but it can also render on Mac OS X with Quartz. The result gives text-editing fields the look and feel typical to Mac OS X.

You'll find more information on MLTE at:
http://developer.apple.com/techpubs/macosx/Carbon/text/MultilingualTextEngine/Multilingual_Text_Engine/index.html

You'll find sample code on MLTE in the CarbonLib SDK, downloadable from:
http://connect.apple.com

What's Next?

If you need resources, or help localizing an application, visit: http://developer.apple.com/intl/ for information. You'll find resources for companies and organizations that can help you make the step to be international.

Remember, in order to be internationally correct in text rendering, you have to use Unicode. Unicode support in the system is achieved through MLTE and ATSUI. If you do Cocoa development you don't have to worry, all the text objects in Cocoa support Unicode layout and have built in support for Input Methods.

And last but not least, package your application! This will enhance the user experience of your customers and make your life easier.


New Mac OS X Related Releases

Unless otherwise indicated, the following software is available from the Download Software area of the ADC Member Site at:
http://connect.apple.com/

  • CarbonLib 1.4a2 SDK
    The latest pre-release version of the CarbonLib 1.4 SDK for Mac OS, is now available to all ADC Members. This SDK provides all the files needed to begin Carbon development. CarbonLib 1.4 supports Mac OS 8.6 and greater.
    http://connect.apple.com
  • Mail Import Scripts 1.1
    A bundle of AppleScripts that help you import mail messages from your current email program into Mail, the Mac OS X e-mail client.
    http://asu.info.apple.com/swupdates.nsf/artnum/n12038/
  • Mac OS X 10.0.3 Update
    This update delivers CD-burning support for iTunes; a number of improvements for overall application stability; and latest version of the Internet file transfer service (ftpd), which features important security improvements.
    http://asu.info.apple.com/swupdates.nsf/artnum/n12181/
  • Cocoa Mailing List
    The Cocoa development mailing list is a focal point for discussions on native Mac OS X application development using the Cocoa Frameworks: Foundation and Application Kit. Cocoa is based on advanced object oriented APIs that allow development in Java and Objective-C. Subscribers to this list will be discussing frameworks, features, and technical issues specific to Cocoa application development.
    http://lists.apple.com/mailman/listinfo/cocoa-dev/
  • Glossaries for Mac OS X
    These are translated strings of commonly used words and phrases that developers can use in their applications. Download these updated glossaries in French, German, Italian, or Spanish.
    http://developer.apple.com/intl/

    Developer Documentation

    The following new and updated documentation is available to help with successful Mac OS X application and peripheral development at:
    http://developer.apple.com/techpubs/

    Inside Mac OS X: Performance
    Carbon Documentation
    Aqua Human Interface Guidelines
    Handling Carbon Events
    Understanding Text Input and the Text Services Manager in Carbon
    Unarchiving Interface Objects With Interface Builder Services
    Interface Builder Services Reference
    Text Services Manager Reference
    Multilingual Text Engine Reference
    Navigation Services Reference
    Providing User Assistance With Apple Help
    Apple Help Reference
    Carbon Event Manager
    Aqua Human Interface Guidelines
    Carbon Documentation
    Developing Cocoa Java Applications: A Tutorial
    Aqua Human Interface Guidelines
    Kernel Development
    IO Kit Fundamentals
    HID Device Interfaces
    USB Device Interfaces

    Technical Notes
    TN2013 - The 'plst' Resource (Also available in Japanese)
    TN2020 - Browser Plug-ins in Mac OS X
    TN2002 - Compatibility between JDirect 2 and JDirect 3

    Technical Q and As
    QA1036 - Displaying PCI Configuration Resister contents in Open Firmware

    Sample Code
    SC - Cocoa: ToolbarSample
    SC - Sound: PCI Sound Input Driver
    SC - Interapplication Comm: BasicInputMethod
    SC - Devices and Hardware: ATA: ATADemo


Finding Technical Information with Sherlock

Apple has created a set of Sherlock plug-ins for searching technical documentation on its Apple Developer Connection (ADC) web site. You can download these plug-ins from the web site at http://developer.apple. com/techpubs/indexes/sherlock/Sherlock_Files.sit. Install the plug-ins on a Mac OS X system by moving them to the Library/Internet Search Sites/Apple directory in your home directory. Install them on a Mac OS 9 system by dragging them to the Apple folder within the Internet Search Sites folder of your System Folder.

There is one plug-in for each set of technical documentation: Carbon, QuickTime, Mac OS X, Mac OS 9, hardware, and WebObjects. These plug-ins let you perform focused searches of the latest published documentation on Apple's web site in addition to using Help Viewer to search the documentation installed on Mac OS X.


Did You Know?

Guides for Internationalization

Apple's Technical Publications group is currently working on a book that will cover internationalization, localization, file encoding, and related issues for all Mac OS X application environments. However, you don't have to wait for that book to find out how to internationalize you application. Here are several sources of information:

  • Mac OS X: System Overview. Includes a chapter on internationalization and multiscript support.
  • Project Builder Help. Contains a section, under Files, on "Customizing for Different Regions and Platforms."
  • Cocoa Developer Documentation. Includes a programming topic on internationalization for Cocoa applications.
  • Carbon Developer Documentation. Includes several manuals on technologies that relate to internationalization and localization, including ATSUI, International Resources, and Text Encoding Conversion. These documents are listed under "Text and Other International Services" on the Carbon developer documentation home page.

    You can access this documentation from the Help Viewer's Developer Help Center or from the ADC web site for Mac OS X documentation:
    http://developer.apple.com/techpubs/macosx/macosx.html


"Built for MAC OS X"
Artwork Now Available

Now that customers have Mac OS X in their hands, they'll be looking for great products to run on it. Tell the world that your product runs on Mac OS X by displaying the "Built for Mac OS X" badge on your product's packaging. The artwork, licensing requirements, and usage guidelines are available on the ADC Software Licensing web site.
http://developer.apple.com/mkt/swl/agreements.html#macosx


Upcoming Seminars and Events

For more information on Apple developer events please visit the developer Events page at: http://developer.apple.com/events/

Training and Seminars

R/com Offers Mac OS X Developer Training Online
R/com, also known as MediaSchool , has partnered with Apple Developer Connection to create online training for Mac OS X developers. The first courses to be released in June include "Application Development for Mac OS X," "Carbon Development for Mac OS X," and "Cocoa: The Object-Oriented Application Solution." All classes have been reviewed by Apple engineers for technical accuracy. Check out their site to take a free virtual seminar, to learn more about current and upcoming courses, and to find out about the significant discounts offered to Premier, Select, and Student members of the Apple Developer Connection.
http://www.mediaschool.com/adc/

Apple iServices 5-day Cocoa Training
For application developers who want to learn how to develop Mac OS X applications using Cocoa, Apple iServices offers a five-day comprehensive, hand-on Cocoa training course. This course uses real-world examples and is perfect for developers who have a general understanding of Object-oriented concepts and practical experience with the C programming language or a C-derived language (Objective-C, Java, or C++). The course costs US $2,495.
http://www.apple.com/iServices/technicaltraining/cocoadev.html

Developer Related Conferences
1394 (FireWire) Developers' Conference 2000
June 31-Aug 2, Redmond, WA
Apple, Intel, and Microsoft are cosponsors
http://www.1394ta.org/Events/2001_DevCon/index.htm

MACWORLD Expo, New York 2001
July 17-20 in Jacob Javits Convention Center, NYC
Discounted exhibitor packages available
http://developer.apple.com/mkt/mwny2001.html

FileMaker Developer Conference 2001
August 12-15, Orlando, FL
More than 40 sessions and a product showcase
http://www.filemaker.com/devcon/
Various FileMaker training classes offered concurrently
http://www.DevconTraining.com


Xavier Legros has been an Apple employee for four years, three of which were working as an engineer on MLTE. Most recently, he joined the ranks of Apple's Technology Managers in Worldwide Developer Relations to promote Apple technologies. He regularly drinks champagne with developers each time they adopt one of his technologies...you could be next! He can be reached at xavier@apple.com.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

TunnelBear 3.0.1 - Subscription-based pr...
TunnelBear is a subscription-based virtual private network (VPN) service and companion app, enabling you to browse the internet privately and securely. Features Browse privately - Secure your data... Read more
ExpanDrive 5.4.0 - Access cloud storage...
ExpanDrive builds cloud storage in every application, acts just like a USB drive plugged into your Mac. With ExpanDrive, you can securely access any remote file server directly from the Finder or... Read more
Opera 40.0.2308.62 - High-performance We...
Opera is a fast and secure browser trusted by millions of users. With the intuitive interface, Speed Dial and visual bookmarks for organizing favorite sites, news feature with fresh, relevant content... Read more
Apple iOS 10.0.2 - The latest version of...
iOS 10 is the biggest release of iOS ever. A massive update to Messages brings the power of the App Store to your conversations and makes messaging more personal than ever. Find your route with... Read more
Herald 7.0 - Notification plugin for Mai...
Note: Versions 2.1.3 (for OS X 10.7), 3.0.6 (for OS X 10.8), 4.0.8 (for OS X 10.9), 5.0.2 (for OS X 10.10), and 6.0.3 (for OS X 10.11) are no longer supported by the developer. Herald is a... Read more
Postbox 5.0.2 - Powerful and flexible em...
Postbox is a new email application that helps you organize your work life and get stuff done. It has all the elegance and simplicity of Apple Mail, but with more power and flexibility to manage even... Read more
Yummy FTP Pro 1.11.10 - $29.99
Yummy FTP Pro is an advanced Mac file transfer app which provides a full-featured professional toolkit combined with blazing speeds and impeccable reliability, so whether you want to transfer a few... Read more
Tidy Up 4.1.17 - $29.99
Tidy Up is a full-featured duplicate finder and disk-tidiness utility. Features With Tidy Up you can search for duplicate files and packages by the owner application, content, type, creator,... Read more
Logitech Control Center 3.9.5 - Keyboard...
Logitech Control Center (LCC) is designed to support OS X and allows you to take full advantage of your Logitech keyboard, mouse, or trackball. With the LCC you can: Browse the Internet using... Read more
Macgo Blu-ray Player 2.16.17 - Blu-ray p...
Macgo Blu-ray Player can bring you the most unforgettable Blu-ray experience on your Mac. Overview Macgo Mac Blu-ray Player can satisfy just about every need you could possibly have in a Blu-ray... Read more

How to build and care for your team in D...
Before you hit the trail and become a dog sledding legend, there’s actually a fair bit of prep work to be done. In Dog Sled Saga, you’re not only racing, you’re also building and caring for a team of furry friends. There’s a lot to consider—... | Read more »
How to win every race in Dog Sled Saga
If I had to guess, I’d say Dog Sled Saga is the most adorable racing game on the App Store right now. It’s a dog sled racing sim full of adorable, loyal puppies. Just look at those fluffy little tails wagging. Behind that cute, pixelated facade is... | Read more »
Let the war games commence in Gunship Ba...
Buzz Lightyear famously said, “This isn’t flying, this is falling – with style!” In the case of Gunship Battle: Second War, though, this really is flying - with style! The flight simulator app from Joycity puts you in control of 20 faithfully... | Read more »
How to get a high score in Fired Up
Fired Up is Noodlecake Games’ high score chasing, firefighting adventure. You take control of a wayward firefighter who propels himself up the side of a highrise with blasts of water. Sound silly? It is. It’s also pretty difficult. You can’t... | Read more »
NBA 2K17 (Games)
NBA 2K17 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $7.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Following the record-breaking launch of NBA 2K16, the NBA 2K franchise continues to stake its claim as the most authentic sports video... | Read more »
Dog Sled Saga (Games)
Dog Sled Saga 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: A game by Dan + Lisa As a rookie musher, foster a dogsledding team whose skills will grow if they're treated right. Week by... | Read more »
60 Seconds! Atomic Adventure (Games)
60 Seconds! Atomic Adventure 1.2 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.2 (iTunes) Description: 60 Seconds! is a dark comedy atomic adventure of scavenge and survival. Collect supplies and rescue your family... | Read more »
Tons of Bullets! (Games)
Tons of Bullets! 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Tons of BulletsA retro 2D pixel platformer infused with tons of bullets and tons of features!Fight as Kenji the Ninja and... | Read more »
Sorcery! 4 (Games)
Sorcery! 4 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: *** PLEASE NOTE: Sorcery! 4 requires a minimum of iPad 3 or iPhone 4 *** An epic adventure through a cursed citadel of monsters,... | Read more »
Building the perfect Animation Throwdown...
Animation Throwdown is a casual card game full of plenty of inside jokes from some of your favorite cartoons. It’s accessible as far as card games go, but that’s not to say that it hands your victories to you easily. There’s quite a bit that goes... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Duplicate Sweeper Free On Mac App Store For O...
To celebrate the launch of Apple’s latest macOS Sierra, Stafford, United Kingdom based Wide Angle Software has announced that its duplicate file finder software, Duplicate Sweeper, is now available... Read more
13-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to...
B&H Photo has 13″ Retina Apple MacBook Pros on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro: $1174.99 $125 off MSRP - 13... Read more
Evidence Surfaces Pointing To New A10X Chip F...
Citing a job description for a Project Lead position at Apple’s Austin, Texas engineering labs, Motley Fool’s Ashraf Eassa deduces that development is progressing well on Apple’s next-generation in-... Read more
Check Print’R for macOS Allows Anyone to Easi...
Delaware-based Match Software has announced the release and immediate availability of Check Print’R 3.21, an important update to their easy-to-use check printing application for macOS. Check Print’R... Read more
Apple refurbished 11-inch MacBook Airs availa...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 11″ MacBook Airs (the latest models), available for up to $170 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is... Read more
Apple refurbished 15-inch Retina MacBook Pros...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 15″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $380 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 15″ 2... Read more
Major Version 5 Release Of Free myTuner Radio...
AppGeneration Software has announced the release of myTuner Radio 5.0.1, an important update to their live radio app for iOS and Android platforms. With myTuner Radio, you can listen to more than 30,... Read more
TheAppStore Searches And Filters iOS And macO...
Boston based InchWest has announced the official launch of TheAppStore, a free web based service that lets users search iOS and Mac apps on the web without iTunes or the App store. TheAppStore... Read more
2TB Time Capsule on sale for $199, save $100
Amazon has 2TB Apple Time Capsules on sale for $199 including free shipping. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Choose Amazon as the seller when making your purchase, rather than a third party seller. Read more
12-inch 1.2GHz Rose Gold Retina MacBook on sa...
Amazon.com has the 2016 12″ 1.2GHz Rose Gold Retina MacBook on sale for $1254.02 including free shipping. Their price is $345 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model from any... Read more

Jobs Board

Senior *Apple* Administrator - Pratt Instit...
POSITION SUMMARY: Directs the coordination and standardization of campus-wide Apple systems, including planning, analysis and implementation of Apple -related Read more
Restaurant Manager (Neighborhood Captain) - A...
…in every aspect of daily operation. WHY YOU'LL LIKE IT: You'll be the Big Apple . You'll solve problems. You'll get to show your ability to handle the stress and Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Napervi...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
US- *Apple* Store Leader Program - Apple (Un...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.