TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Oct 99 Factory Floor

Volume Number: 15 (1999)
Issue Number: 10
Column Tag: From the Factory Floor

A Palm Update, Part 2

by Eric Cloninger and Dave Mark

Web apps with Lasso and FileMaker Pro

Last month's Factory Floor got us back in sync with the Palm development universe. We checked out some of the new features in the upcoming Palm OS SDK and CodeWarrior for Palm OS releases. This month, Eric Cloninger will take us through the process of developing an internationalized Palm OS application.

Eric Cloninger is the product manager and technical lead for CodeWarrior for Palm OS. When he isn't working on CodeWarrior, he spends way too much time on his research project - how to rid the world of the affliction known as the 'designated hitter rule'. He can be reached at ericc@metrowerks.com.

Dave: Tell me about the application you'll be taking us through.

Eric: This month, I'm going to go through an application I wrote using CodeWarrior for Palm OS Release 6 (available in October 1999). The application, called Base X, takes advantage of several new features that Palm has added to the OS, the SDK and the tools.

Since our goal is to make an international Palm OS application, I chose an example that is simple to describe but is also useful in a real-world sense. This example, called Base X, provides four edit fields that display the same 4 byte value as decimal, hexadecimal, octal, and binary. In addition to the user interface elements on the main form, Base X has a menu bar, an alert and an info string, all of which have been localized from English to German, French, and Japanese.

I started by creating a new project from the "Palm OS C App" stationery project. CodeWarrior for Palm OS provides stationery projects for Palm OS 3.1 (for the original Pilot, PalmPilot, Palm III, and Palm V), Palm OS 3.2 (for the wireless Palm VII), as well as Japanese examples.

I renamed the resource file to BaseX_english.rsrc and opened it with Constructor for Palm OS. Constructor for Palm OS is very similar to Constructor for PowerPlant - you can create menus, menu bars, pictures, icons, etc. In fact, all of these elements use standard MacOS resource types, so you can edit them with ResEdit or Resourcerer. The thing that is unique about Constructor for Palm OS is that it lets you create the Palm-specific resource types that define how forms look. Figure 1 is from Constructor for Palm OS - it shows the main form for Base X as it appears in the English resource file.


Figure 1. Constructor for Palm OS editing a Palm OS form.

After I created the user interface, I moved the resources that are language neutral into a separate resource file called BaseX_Common.rsrc. Then, I moved the English resource file into a directory named "English" and duplicated it for German, French, and Japanese and renamed the files appropriately.

In my CodeWarrior project, I created four targets, one each for English, German, French, and Japanese. Next, I added the common resources to all four targets and the language-specific resources to each of the language targets. At this point, for each target I have a source file, a common resource file, and a language-specific resource file. I have not yet written any code to operate my user interface, but the starter application has enough code in it to display my form.

Next came the localization part. First, I browsed to babelfish.altavista.com and tried their web interface. The engine that provides the translation on the web page is available as a commercial product called SYSTRAN. I used the web interface to convert my strings, but I found that the translations weren't quite right and it doesn't translate to Japanese. Since Metrowerks has offices in many parts of the world, I asked employees to do the translations instead. These employees aren't in our Austin office and they didn't have immediate access to the Palm tools, so I had to find a way to get the strings to them easily.

Using the CodeWarrior IDE, I created an empty target in my project called "DeRez". Then I added the English resource file to that target and changed the settings for the target to use the 68K linker (to activate preference panels - no linking occurred in this target). Next, I changed the "File Mappings" panel so that files of type "PLob" (Palm OS Constructor files) are compiled with the "Rez" compiler. Finally, I entered a file called PalmTypes.r for the Prefix file in the "Rez" panel. I saved these settings and returned to the "Files" view of the project window.

From the files view, I clicked on BaseX_english.rsrc and held the mouse button for a second until the pop-up menu appeared with an item called "Disassemble". The Rez compiler will disassemble resource files into .r files if it has type definitions for the resources, which is what PalmTypes.r provides. The result of the disassembly is a new text file that I sent to my colleagues. PalmTypes.r is available from Palms' developer web site, by the way.

I knew it would be several thousand Swatch beats before I got my replies back, so I decided to jump into the programming task.

Base X has four edit fields into which the user can enter text for decimal, hexadecimal, octal and binary numbers. When the user enters a character, Base X sees if the character is valid for the field with the edit focus and converts all the fields if it is. The code for all of BaseX is too long to include in this article, so I've put it on Metrowerks web site at the address shown at the end of this article. The code segment below is the part that converts strings from one base to another and is where I had to use the Palm OS internationalization manager.

// This struct describes how to convert strings 
// into different bases. It’s OK for this to be 
// single-byte chars because it’s never shown.
struct {      
 char *digits;
 char multiplier;
} cvtTable[4] = {
 {“0123456789”, 10},
 {“0123456789abcdef”, 16},
 {“01234567”, 8},
 {“01”, 2}
};

// Convert a string to a number using base ‘x’
ULong ToLong(WChar *str, short table_index) {
 unsigned long accum = 0;
 WChar ch = 0;
 short str_index = 0;
 short accum_index = 0;
 
 // Go through the input string, pull each 
 // character off and find the index of that
 // character in the table. That index is 
 // the amount to add to the accumulator.
 while (str_index < EDIT_SIZE) {
  str_index += TxtGlueGetNextChar(
     (Char *) str, str_index, &ch);
  if (ch)
  {
   accum_index = 0;
   while ((accum_index <
     StrLen(cvtTable[table_index].digits)) &&
     (WChar)
     cvtTable[table_index].digits[accum_index]
     != ch)
    accum_index++;

   accum *= cvtTable[table_index].multiplier;
   accum += accum_index;
  }
 }
 
 return accum;
}

// Creates a string of base ‘x’ from a long value
void ToString(ULong value, WChar *str, short table_index)
{
 short masked_value;
 char temp_str[EDIT_SIZE];
 char *p = temp_str;
 short str_index = 0;
 
 while (value > 0) {
  masked_value = value % 
      cvtTable[table_index].multiplier;
  *p++ = cvtTable[table_index].digits[masked_value];
  value /= cvtTable[table_index].multiplier;
 }

 // At this point, temp_str is in reverse order.
 // Create output by walking temp_str in reverse.
 str_index = 0;
 while ( — p >= temp_str) 
  str_index += TxtGlueSetNextChar(
    (Char *) str, str_index, (WChar) *p);
}

The functions prefixed by 'TxtGlue' are notable because they are implemented through a library called PalmOSGlue.lib instead of the A-trap mechanism used by most of the OS calls. These functions are safe to use on devices running version 2.0 or later of the Palm OS, regardless of whether it is a single-byte or multi-byte OS.

By the time I had the code working for English, my translations were done. Thanks to Andreas Hommel, Christophe Escobar, and Shoji Ueda for providing this service. Next came the task of getting the converted resources into the project without re-entering the text myself.

Developers who work with localized applications are faced with the same situation I found myself in - whether to keep localized resources in a text file where the text can be modified easily, or to keep them as resource files where their properties can be modified with a visual editor. Either method is fine and CodeWarrior allows me to use resource files or Rez files, so I chose to set up my project so that I could use either method.

I created a new target called 'Rez French' cloned from the 'French' target. I modified the settings so that the output file created by the MacOS linker is different from the output file generated by the resource file target. I also modified the 'Rez' panel to include the 'PalmTypes.r' file as the prefix file. Into this target, I added the translated BaseX_french.r file. Then, I built the project.

The output from the linker and post linker was the translated Palm OS application. An artifact of the build process is a file that also contains all my application's resources before they were modified by the post linker. I opened this intermediate file, called BaseXRsrc.tmp, with ResEdit and copied all the resources except 'CODE' and 'DATA' into my French resource file named BaseX_french.rsrc. At this point, I can create a French Palm OS application using either the .r file that is compiled by the Rez compiler or I can build the same application using resources included from the Constructor file. Next, I duplicated this work for the English, German, and Japanese targets.

After building my applications, I want to run them and see how they work. I could download them individually to my Palm OS device over the serial connection or I can use an extremely useful application called the Palm OS Emulator, or POSE for short. POSE is an application that contains a 68K emulator and it runs the Palm OS image that is in ROM. You must own a Palm device to get the ROM image, which is downloaded from your Palm device using an application called ROM Transfer.

Figure 2 shows the Palm OS Emulator running the Japanese version of BaseX. Any Palm device is capable of displaying English, French, and German applications. Japanese applications require a Japanese-enabled ROM to display the text correctly.


Figure 2. Palm OS Emulator and CodeWarrior debugger.

Let's suppose that I decide I don't like the way one of the Japanese screens looks - perhaps I want to change the text of the info string shown in the about box. Instead of sending the text file to Tokyo where it's early in the morning, I use Constructor for Palm OS to modify the strings myself. Palm has modified Constructor to work with the Japanese Language Kit. With the JLK installed on my Mac, I need only change the selection for the "Palm OS Target" in Constructor to "Palm OS for Japan" and then I can begin editing in Japanese.

Now, I open the editor for the string that I want to modify. I select Japanese mode input by clicking on the blue triangle on the menu bar in the upper right corner. As I type, the MacOS pops up a text entry window that converts the 'sounds' I am typing into the correct characters, as shown in Figure 3.



Figure 3. Constructors' string editor with Japanese text input.

At this point, BaseX is completed. I hope that I've been able to show that CodeWarrior for Palm OS and the Palm OS SDK provide a rich toolkit for developers who want to or need to write international applications. CodeWarrior Professional users who want to try out the Palm OS tools can do so after October by visiting the Metrowerks web site and downloading the tools.

Users who want to play with the BaseX project file or the application can download the archive from the Metrowerks Palm OS web site listed at the end of the article.

Resources

 
AAPL
$116.47
Apple Inc.
+0.16
MSFT
$47.98
Microsoft Corpora
-0.72
GOOG
$537.50
Google Inc.
+2.67

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Cobook 3.0.7 - Intelligent address book....
Cobook Contacts is an intuitive, engaging address book. Solve the problem of contact management with Cobook Contacts and its simple interface and powerful syncing and integration possibilities.... Read more
StatsBar 1.9 - Monitor system processes...
StatsBar gives you a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the following areas of your Mac: CPU usage Memory usage Disk usage Network and bandwidth usage Battery power and health (MacBooks only)... Read more
Cyberduck 4.6 - FTP and SFTP browser. (F...
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more
Maya 2015 - Professional 3D modeling and...
Maya is an award-winning software and powerful, integrated 3D modeling, animation, visual effects, and rendering solution. Because Maya is based on an open architecture, all your work can be scripted... Read more
Evernote 6.0.1 - Create searchable notes...
Evernote allows you to easily capture information in any environment using whatever device or platform you find most convenient, and makes this information accessible and searchable at anytime, from... Read more
calibre 2.11 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital... Read more
Herald 5.0.1 - Notification plugin for M...
Note: Versions 2.1.3 (for OS X 10.7), 3.0.6 (for OS X 10.8), and 4.0.8 (for OS X 10.9) are no longer supported by the developer. Herald is a notification plugin for Mail.app, Apple's Mac OS X email... Read more
Firetask 3.7 - Innovative task managemen...
Firetask uniquely combines the advantages of classical priority-and-due-date-based task management with GTD. Stay focused and on top of your commitments - Firetask's "Today" view shows all relevant... Read more
TechTool Pro 7.0.6 - Hard drive and syst...
TechTool Pro is now 7, and this is the most advanced version of the acclaimed Macintosh troubleshooting utility created in its 20-year history. Micromat has redeveloped TechTool Pro 7 to be fully 64... Read more
PhotoDesk 3.0.1 - Instagram client for p...
PhotoDesk lets you view, like, comment, and download Instagram pictures/videos! (NO Uploads! / Image Posting! Instagram forbids that! AND you *need* an *existing* Instagram account). But you can do... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Ubisoft Gives Everyone Two New Ways to E...
Ubisoft Gives Everyone Two New Ways to Earn In-Game Stuff for Far Cry 4 Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Golfinity – Tips, Tricks, Strategies, an...
Dig this: Would you like to know what we thought of being an infinite golfer? Check out our Golfinity review! Golfinity offers unlimited ways to test your skills at golf. Here are a few ways to make sure your score doesn’t get too high and your... | Read more »
Dark Hearts, The Sequel to Haunting Meli...
Dark Hearts, The Sequel to Haunting Melissa, is Available Now Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Meowza! Toyze Brings Talking Tom to Life...
Meowza! | Read more »
Square Enix Announces New Tactical RPG f...
Square Enix Announces New Tactical RPG for Mobile, Heavenstrike Rivals. Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] With their epic stories and gorgeous graphics, | Read more »
Quest for Revenge (Games)
Quest for Revenge 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: The great Kingdom of the west has fallen. The gods ignore the prayers of the desperate. A dark warlord has extinguished... | Read more »
Threadz is a New Writing Adventure for Y...
Threadz is a New Writing Adventure for You and Your Friends Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] In the tradition of round-robin storytelling, | Read more »
SteelSeries Stratus XL Hardware Review
Made by: SteelSeries Price: $59.99 Hardware/iOS Integration Rating: 4 out of 5 stars Usability Rating: 4.5 out of 5 stars Reuse Value Rating: 4.25 out of 5 stars Build Quality Rating: 4.5 out of 5 stars Overall Rating: 4.31 out of 5 stars | Read more »
ACDSee (Photography)
ACDSee 1.0.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Photography Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Capture, perfect, and share your photos with ACDSee. The ACDSee iPhone app combines an innovative camera, a powerful photo... | Read more »
ProTube for YouTube (Entertainment)
ProTube for YouTube 2.0.2 Device: iOS Universal Category: Entertainment Price: $1.99, Version: 2.0.2 (iTunes) Description: ProTube is the ultimate, fully featured YouTube app. With it's highly polished design, ProTube offers ad-free... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

CEA Study Finds More People Recycling Electro...
A new study by the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) finds that electronics recycling receives the continued and growing support of consumers. According to the CEA,s Recycling and Reuse Study,... Read more
15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $17...
 B&H Photo has the 2014 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale today for $1749. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. B&H will also include free copies of Parallels Desktop... Read more
27-inch 3.5GHz 5K iMac in stock today and on...
 B&H Photo has the new 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac in stock today and on sale for $2299 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available... Read more
21-inch 1.4GHz iMac on sale for $979, save $1...
B&H Photo has the new 21″ 1.4GHz iMac on sale for $979.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $120 off MSRP. B&H will also include free copies of Parallels Desktop... Read more
13-inch 1.4GHz/256GB MacBook Air on sale for...
B&H Photo has lowered their price on the 13″ 1.4GHz/256GB MacBook Air to $1059.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $140 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price for this... Read more
Save up to $400 with Apple refurbished 2014 1...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 15″ Retina MacBook Pros for up to $400 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping... Read more
New 13-inch 1.4GHz MacBook Air on sale for $8...
 Adorama has the 2014 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $899.99 including free shipping plus NY & NJ tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. B&H Photo has the 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook... Read more
Apple Expected to Reverse Nine-Month Tablet S...
Apple and Samsung combined accounted for 62 percent of the nearly 36 million branded tablets shipped in 3Q 2014, according to early vendor shipment share estimates from market intelligence firm ABI... Read more
Stratos: 30 Percent of US Smartphone Owners t...
Stratos, Inc., creator of the Bluetooth Connected Card Platform, has announced results from its 2014 Holiday Mobile Payments Survey. The consumer survey found that nearly one out of three (30 percent... Read more
2014 1.4GHz Mac mini on sale for $449, save $...
 B&H Photo has lowered their price on the new 1.4GHz Mac mini to $449.99 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $50 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this new... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC)- Retail S...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Financial Services...
**Job Summary** Apple Financial Services (AFS) offers consumers, businesses and educational institutions ways to finance Apple purchases. We work with national and Read more
*Apple* Store Leader Program - College Gradu...
Job Description: Job Summary As an Apple Store Leader Program agent, you can continue your education as you major in the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.