TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Oct 99 Factory Floor

Volume Number: 15 (1999)
Issue Number: 10
Column Tag: From the Factory Floor

A Palm Update, Part 2

by Eric Cloninger and Dave Mark

Web apps with Lasso and FileMaker Pro

Last month's Factory Floor got us back in sync with the Palm development universe. We checked out some of the new features in the upcoming Palm OS SDK and CodeWarrior for Palm OS releases. This month, Eric Cloninger will take us through the process of developing an internationalized Palm OS application.

Eric Cloninger is the product manager and technical lead for CodeWarrior for Palm OS. When he isn't working on CodeWarrior, he spends way too much time on his research project - how to rid the world of the affliction known as the 'designated hitter rule'. He can be reached at ericc@metrowerks.com.

Dave: Tell me about the application you'll be taking us through.

Eric: This month, I'm going to go through an application I wrote using CodeWarrior for Palm OS Release 6 (available in October 1999). The application, called Base X, takes advantage of several new features that Palm has added to the OS, the SDK and the tools.

Since our goal is to make an international Palm OS application, I chose an example that is simple to describe but is also useful in a real-world sense. This example, called Base X, provides four edit fields that display the same 4 byte value as decimal, hexadecimal, octal, and binary. In addition to the user interface elements on the main form, Base X has a menu bar, an alert and an info string, all of which have been localized from English to German, French, and Japanese.

I started by creating a new project from the "Palm OS C App" stationery project. CodeWarrior for Palm OS provides stationery projects for Palm OS 3.1 (for the original Pilot, PalmPilot, Palm III, and Palm V), Palm OS 3.2 (for the wireless Palm VII), as well as Japanese examples.

I renamed the resource file to BaseX_english.rsrc and opened it with Constructor for Palm OS. Constructor for Palm OS is very similar to Constructor for PowerPlant - you can create menus, menu bars, pictures, icons, etc. In fact, all of these elements use standard MacOS resource types, so you can edit them with ResEdit or Resourcerer. The thing that is unique about Constructor for Palm OS is that it lets you create the Palm-specific resource types that define how forms look. Figure 1 is from Constructor for Palm OS - it shows the main form for Base X as it appears in the English resource file.


Figure 1. Constructor for Palm OS editing a Palm OS form.

After I created the user interface, I moved the resources that are language neutral into a separate resource file called BaseX_Common.rsrc. Then, I moved the English resource file into a directory named "English" and duplicated it for German, French, and Japanese and renamed the files appropriately.

In my CodeWarrior project, I created four targets, one each for English, German, French, and Japanese. Next, I added the common resources to all four targets and the language-specific resources to each of the language targets. At this point, for each target I have a source file, a common resource file, and a language-specific resource file. I have not yet written any code to operate my user interface, but the starter application has enough code in it to display my form.

Next came the localization part. First, I browsed to babelfish.altavista.com and tried their web interface. The engine that provides the translation on the web page is available as a commercial product called SYSTRAN. I used the web interface to convert my strings, but I found that the translations weren't quite right and it doesn't translate to Japanese. Since Metrowerks has offices in many parts of the world, I asked employees to do the translations instead. These employees aren't in our Austin office and they didn't have immediate access to the Palm tools, so I had to find a way to get the strings to them easily.

Using the CodeWarrior IDE, I created an empty target in my project called "DeRez". Then I added the English resource file to that target and changed the settings for the target to use the 68K linker (to activate preference panels - no linking occurred in this target). Next, I changed the "File Mappings" panel so that files of type "PLob" (Palm OS Constructor files) are compiled with the "Rez" compiler. Finally, I entered a file called PalmTypes.r for the Prefix file in the "Rez" panel. I saved these settings and returned to the "Files" view of the project window.

From the files view, I clicked on BaseX_english.rsrc and held the mouse button for a second until the pop-up menu appeared with an item called "Disassemble". The Rez compiler will disassemble resource files into .r files if it has type definitions for the resources, which is what PalmTypes.r provides. The result of the disassembly is a new text file that I sent to my colleagues. PalmTypes.r is available from Palms' developer web site, by the way.

I knew it would be several thousand Swatch beats before I got my replies back, so I decided to jump into the programming task.

Base X has four edit fields into which the user can enter text for decimal, hexadecimal, octal and binary numbers. When the user enters a character, Base X sees if the character is valid for the field with the edit focus and converts all the fields if it is. The code for all of BaseX is too long to include in this article, so I've put it on Metrowerks web site at the address shown at the end of this article. The code segment below is the part that converts strings from one base to another and is where I had to use the Palm OS internationalization manager.

// This struct describes how to convert strings 
// into different bases. It’s OK for this to be 
// single-byte chars because it’s never shown.
struct {      
 char *digits;
 char multiplier;
} cvtTable[4] = {
 {“0123456789”, 10},
 {“0123456789abcdef”, 16},
 {“01234567”, 8},
 {“01”, 2}
};

// Convert a string to a number using base ‘x’
ULong ToLong(WChar *str, short table_index) {
 unsigned long accum = 0;
 WChar ch = 0;
 short str_index = 0;
 short accum_index = 0;
 
 // Go through the input string, pull each 
 // character off and find the index of that
 // character in the table. That index is 
 // the amount to add to the accumulator.
 while (str_index < EDIT_SIZE) {
  str_index += TxtGlueGetNextChar(
     (Char *) str, str_index, &ch);
  if (ch)
  {
   accum_index = 0;
   while ((accum_index <
     StrLen(cvtTable[table_index].digits)) &&
     (WChar)
     cvtTable[table_index].digits[accum_index]
     != ch)
    accum_index++;

   accum *= cvtTable[table_index].multiplier;
   accum += accum_index;
  }
 }
 
 return accum;
}

// Creates a string of base ‘x’ from a long value
void ToString(ULong value, WChar *str, short table_index)
{
 short masked_value;
 char temp_str[EDIT_SIZE];
 char *p = temp_str;
 short str_index = 0;
 
 while (value > 0) {
  masked_value = value % 
      cvtTable[table_index].multiplier;
  *p++ = cvtTable[table_index].digits[masked_value];
  value /= cvtTable[table_index].multiplier;
 }

 // At this point, temp_str is in reverse order.
 // Create output by walking temp_str in reverse.
 str_index = 0;
 while ( — p >= temp_str) 
  str_index += TxtGlueSetNextChar(
    (Char *) str, str_index, (WChar) *p);
}

The functions prefixed by 'TxtGlue' are notable because they are implemented through a library called PalmOSGlue.lib instead of the A-trap mechanism used by most of the OS calls. These functions are safe to use on devices running version 2.0 or later of the Palm OS, regardless of whether it is a single-byte or multi-byte OS.

By the time I had the code working for English, my translations were done. Thanks to Andreas Hommel, Christophe Escobar, and Shoji Ueda for providing this service. Next came the task of getting the converted resources into the project without re-entering the text myself.

Developers who work with localized applications are faced with the same situation I found myself in - whether to keep localized resources in a text file where the text can be modified easily, or to keep them as resource files where their properties can be modified with a visual editor. Either method is fine and CodeWarrior allows me to use resource files or Rez files, so I chose to set up my project so that I could use either method.

I created a new target called 'Rez French' cloned from the 'French' target. I modified the settings so that the output file created by the MacOS linker is different from the output file generated by the resource file target. I also modified the 'Rez' panel to include the 'PalmTypes.r' file as the prefix file. Into this target, I added the translated BaseX_french.r file. Then, I built the project.

The output from the linker and post linker was the translated Palm OS application. An artifact of the build process is a file that also contains all my application's resources before they were modified by the post linker. I opened this intermediate file, called BaseXRsrc.tmp, with ResEdit and copied all the resources except 'CODE' and 'DATA' into my French resource file named BaseX_french.rsrc. At this point, I can create a French Palm OS application using either the .r file that is compiled by the Rez compiler or I can build the same application using resources included from the Constructor file. Next, I duplicated this work for the English, German, and Japanese targets.

After building my applications, I want to run them and see how they work. I could download them individually to my Palm OS device over the serial connection or I can use an extremely useful application called the Palm OS Emulator, or POSE for short. POSE is an application that contains a 68K emulator and it runs the Palm OS image that is in ROM. You must own a Palm device to get the ROM image, which is downloaded from your Palm device using an application called ROM Transfer.

Figure 2 shows the Palm OS Emulator running the Japanese version of BaseX. Any Palm device is capable of displaying English, French, and German applications. Japanese applications require a Japanese-enabled ROM to display the text correctly.


Figure 2. Palm OS Emulator and CodeWarrior debugger.

Let's suppose that I decide I don't like the way one of the Japanese screens looks - perhaps I want to change the text of the info string shown in the about box. Instead of sending the text file to Tokyo where it's early in the morning, I use Constructor for Palm OS to modify the strings myself. Palm has modified Constructor to work with the Japanese Language Kit. With the JLK installed on my Mac, I need only change the selection for the "Palm OS Target" in Constructor to "Palm OS for Japan" and then I can begin editing in Japanese.

Now, I open the editor for the string that I want to modify. I select Japanese mode input by clicking on the blue triangle on the menu bar in the upper right corner. As I type, the MacOS pops up a text entry window that converts the 'sounds' I am typing into the correct characters, as shown in Figure 3.



Figure 3. Constructors' string editor with Japanese text input.

At this point, BaseX is completed. I hope that I've been able to show that CodeWarrior for Palm OS and the Palm OS SDK provide a rich toolkit for developers who want to or need to write international applications. CodeWarrior Professional users who want to try out the Palm OS tools can do so after October by visiting the Metrowerks web site and downloading the tools.

Users who want to play with the BaseX project file or the application can download the archive from the Metrowerks Palm OS web site listed at the end of the article.

Resources

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

A Better Finder Rename 10.00b1 - File, p...
A Better Finder Rename is the most complete renaming solution available on the market today. That's why, since 1996, tens of thousands of hobbyists, professionals and businesses depend on A Better... Read more
CrossOver 14.1.6 - Run Windows apps on y...
CrossOver can get your Windows productivity applications and PC games up and running on your Mac quickly and easily. CrossOver runs the Windows software that you need on Mac at home, in the office,... Read more
Printopia 2.1.14 - Share Mac printers wi...
Run Printopia on your Mac to share its printers to any capable iPhone, iPad or iPod Touch. Printopia will also add virtual printers, allowing you to save print-outs to your Mac and send to apps.... Read more
Google Drive 1.24 - File backup and shar...
Google Drive is a place where you can create, share, collaborate, and keep all of your stuff. Whether you're working with a friend on a joint research project, planning a wedding with your fiancé, or... Read more
Chromium 45.0.2454.85 - Fast and stable...
Chromium is an open-source browser project that aims to build a safer, faster, and more stable way for all Internet users to experience the web. Version 45.0.2454.85: Note: Does not contain the "... Read more
OmniFocus 2.2.5 - GTD task manager with...
OmniFocus helps you manage your tasks the way that you want, freeing you to focus your attention on the things that matter to you most. Capturing tasks and ideas is always a keyboard shortcut away in... Read more
iFFmpeg 5.7.1 - Convert multimedia files...
iFFmpeg is a graphical front-end for FFmpeg, a command-line tool used to convert multimedia files between formats. The command line instructions can be very hard to master/understand, so iFFmpeg does... Read more
VOX 2.6 - Music player that supports man...
VOX is a beautiful music player that supports many filetypes. The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features and support for all... Read more
Box Sync 4.0.6567 - Online synchronizati...
Box Sync gives you a hard-drive in the Cloud for online storage. Note: You must first sign up to use Box. What if the files you need are on your laptop -- but you're on the road with your iPhone? No... Read more
Carbon Copy Cloner 4.1.4 - Easy-to-use b...
Carbon Copy Cloner backups are better than ordinary backups. Suppose the unthinkable happens while you're under deadline to finish a project: your Mac is unresponsive and all you hear is an ominous,... Read more

You Can Play Madfinger Games' Unkil...
Madfinger Games - probably best known for the Dead Trigger series - has officially launched their newest zombie shooter (that isn't called Dead Trigger), named Unkilled. [Read more] | Read more »
KORG iELECTRIBE for iPhone (Music)
KORG iELECTRIBE for iPhone 1.0.1 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Music Price: $9.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: ** 50% OFF Special Launch Sale - For a Limited Time **The ELECTRIBE reborn in an even smaller form A full-fledged... | Read more »
I am Bread (Games)
I am Bread 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ‘I am Bread’ is the latest quirky adventure from the creators of 'Surgeon Simulator', Bossa Studios. This isn't the best thing... | Read more »
Rock(s) Rider - HD Edition (Games)
Rock(s) Rider - HD Edition 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: *** PLEASE NOTE: Compatible with iPhone 4s, iPad 2, iPad mini, iPod touch (5th generation) or newer *** Do you... | Read more »
Rebuild 3: Gangs of Deadsville (Games)
Rebuild 3: Gangs of Deadsville 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: It's been a few years since the zombpocalypse turned the world's cities into graveyards and sent the few... | Read more »
Power Ping Pong (Games)
Power Ping Pong 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Do you wield your bat with zen-like focus or do your balls of fury give you a killer spin? Table tennis goes mobile with a... | Read more »
Z.O.N.A Project X (Games)
Z.O.N.A Project X 1.00 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.00 (iTunes) Description: Z.O.N.A Project X - shooter in the post-apocalyptic world. | Read more »
Trick Shot (Games)
Trick Shot 1.0.6 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0.6 (iTunes) Description: A game where all you have to do is throw a ball into a box, simple? Trick Shot is a minimalist physics puzzler with 90 levels... | Read more »
VoxelCity (Games)
VoxelCity 1.0.2 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0.2 (iTunes) Description: Looking for a new city builder? Tired of social media anti-games with no strategy? Look no further! NO IAP EVER! VoxelCity is a... | Read more »
Goat Simulator MMO Simulator (Games)
Goat Simulator MMO Simulator 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ** IMPORTANT - SUPPORTED DEVICESiPhone 4S, iPad 2, iPod Touch 5 or better.** Coffee Stain Studios brings next-gen... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Near-Office Input Functionality Virtually Any...
Today Logitech introduced the Logitech K380 Multi-Device Bluetooth Keyboard and the Logitech M535 Bluetooth Mouse, giving users the freedom to work on any device, most anywhere. According to... Read more
College Student Deals: Additional $100 off Ma...
Take an additional $100 off all MacBooks and iMacs at Best Buy Online with their College Students Deals Savings, valid through September 4, 2015. Anyone with a valid .EDU email address can take... Read more
Will You Buy An iPad Pro? – The ‘Book Mystiqu...
It looks like we may not have to wait much longer to see what finally materializes as a new, larger-panel iPad (Pro/Plus?) Usually reliable Apple product prognosticator KGI Securities analyst Ming-... Read more
eFileCabinet Announces SMB Document Managemen...
Electronic document management (EDM) eFileCabinet, Inc., a hosted solutions provider for small to medium businesses, has announced that its SecureDrawer and eFileCabinet Online services will be... Read more
WaterField Designs Unveils American-Made, All...
San Francisco’s WaterField Designs today unveiled their all-leather Cozmo 2.0 — an elegant attach laptop bag with carefully-designed features to suit any business environment. The Cozmo 2.0 is... Read more
Apple’s 2015 Back to School promotion: Free B...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad at The Apple Store for Education and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free,... Read more
128GB MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off MSRP,...
B&H Photo has 11″ & 13″ MacBook Airs with 128GB SSDs on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 11″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air: $799.99, $100 off MSRP... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro (refurbished) avai...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pros available for $829, or $270 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.... Read more
27-inch 3.2GHz iMac on sale for $1679, save $...
B&H Photo has the 27″ 3.2GHz iMac on sale for $1679.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $120 off MSRP. Read more
Apple and Cisco Partner to Deliver Fast-Lane...
Apple and Cisco have announced a partnership to create a “fast lane” for iOS business users by optimizing Cisco networks for iOS devices and apps. The alliance integrates iPhone with Cisco enterprise... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Desktop Analyst - KDS Staffing (Unit...
…field and consistent professional recruiting achievement. Job Description: Title: Apple Desktop AnalystPosition Type: Full-time PermanentLocation: White Plains, NYHot Read more
Simply Mac *Apple* Specialist- Repair Techn...
Simply Mac is the greatest premier retailer of Apple products expertise in North America. We're looking for dedicated individuals to provide personalized service and Read more
Simply Mac *Apple* Specialist- Service Repa...
Simply Mac is the greatest premier retailer of Apple products expertise in North America. We're looking for dedicated individuals to provide personalized service and Read more
*Apple* Desktop Analyst - KDS Staffing (Unit...
…field and consistent professional recruiting achievement. Job Description: Title: Apple Desktop AnalystPosition Type: Full-time PermanentLocation: White Plains, NYHot Read more
Simply Mac- *Apple* Specialist- Store Manag...
Simply Mac is the largest premier retailer for Apple products and solutions. We're looking for dedicated individuals with a passion to simplify and enhance the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.