TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Feb 98 MacTech Online

Volume Number: 14 (1998)
Issue Number: 2
Column Tag: MacTech Online

MacTech Online

by Nicholas C. "nick.c" DeMello, online@mactech.com

What is TCP/IP?

When Paul Baron first developed the concept that became today's Internet, he was trying to solve a military problem. His 1964 proposal described a communications network that had no central authority and could adapt to massive failures -- therefore one that could not be easily disabled by enemy bombardment. Baron's solution was to break communications down into small pieces, each labeled with the address of a remote computer. These "packets" of information would then be passed through an intricate network of computers -- like pails in a firefighter's bucket brigade. If a telephone line or fire hose is cut, the flow is interrupted, but if someone steps out of line in a bucket brigade or a computer goes offline, the system can pass it's cargo around the disruption. The more intricate the web of computer connections available in the network, the more reliable communication became. This packet based communications concept and the mechanisms for transferring packets along a network is the basis for the internet protocol -- IP.

Vinton Cerf was a graduate student at UCLA in 1969, when he helped put the first computer on the internet. As more and more machines were added to the internet, standards needed to be developed for translating data from a system level into a format that could be transferred by the internet protocol. The InerNetworking Working Group (INWG) was founded in 1972 to develop these standards, with Vinton Cerf as the chairman. Two years later, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn published "A Protocol for Packet Network Internetworking" which specified a standard protocol for converting a stream of data into a series of packets, for reassembling the packets into a stream of data, requesting lost packets be resent, and basically controlling communication through Baron's internet protocol. First titled the network control protocol (NCP), it was later renamed the transmission control protocol -- TCP.

What kind of computer do these visionaries and founders of the information age use today? According to the MacAddict a 1996 television interview with Paul Baron showed him at his computer -- a Power Mac 7100. During an interview for the Netinsider, Vint Cerf was asked what kind of computer he uses today. His response was an emphatic: "I'm a Mac Freak!"

A Short History of the Internet, by Bruce Sterling
http://www.ubicom.com/history.html
The Internet Valley, History of the Internet by Gregory R. Gromov
http://www.internetvalley.com/intval.html
Introduction to TCP/IP by H. Gilbert
http://pclt.cis.yale.edu/pclt/comm/tcpip.htm
RFC 1180: A TCP/IP Tutorial
ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1180.txt
Paul Baron Appears on the Evangelist List of Famous Mac Users
http://www.evangelist.macaddict.com/advocacy_action.html
Interview with Vint Cerf, Internet Founder and "Mac Freak"
http://www.netinsider.com/profile/vcerf/profile/

Using TCP/IP on a Mac

TCP/IP is accessed through Apple's Open Transport system. When you review the OT technology on Apple's web site (or in Inside Macintosh: Open Transport) you should realize that OT was designed to support transport independent code -- your code use data streams to send information without knowing what kind of network the user is on (TCP/IP, AppleTalk, or other). Open Transport does allow you to design transport specific applications though, and especially with TCP/IP this may be desirable. The place to start for TCP/IP specific development is with Apple's OpenTransport/TCP dev note, which can be found on the same FTP site as the OT SDK. Also visit Mark Sproul's Open Transport Development web pages and Eric Scouten's Macintosh TCP/IP Programmer's Guide on the Metrowerks web site.

John Norstad has made the Newswatcher source code publicly available. This extremely popular freeware USENET newsreader is compatible with MacTCP and OpenTransport, it's source is probably the single most valuable reference a Mac TCP/IP programmer can find. Look especially closely at the ftp.c, nntp.c, smtp.c, and net.c sources. These files are reusable, modular C code for implementing some of the most popular TCP/IP applications. Also check out Peter N Lewis' TCPExample code and his PNL TCP/IP libraries for implementing TCP/IP. This Pascal code is the foundation Peter's tremendously successful TCP/IP shareware products Anarchie and NetPresenz. Peter has developed Streamwatcher, a debugging tool that allows you to examine data in an Open Transport TCP stream. Once you have Streamwatcher, check out Mark Mentovai's Mac on the Net web site for other TCP/IP diagnostic utilities like Bryan Christianson's IP packet routetracer WhatRoute 1.4.3.

Apple's OpenTransport Website
http://www.devworld.apple.com/dev/opentransport/
Inside Macintosh, Open Transport and OT 1.2 Updates
http://gemma.apple.com/techinfo/techdocs/mac/mac.html
Open Transport/TCP Dev Notes & the OT SDK
ftp://seeding.apple.com/ess/public/opentransport/
The OpenTransport Mailing List, Hosted by Stairways Shareware
http://www.stairways.com/mailinglists/opentpt.html
Open Transport Development Pages by Mark Sproul
http://msproul.rutgers.edu/macintosh/OpenTpt_Dev.html
Macintosh TCP/IP Programmer's Guide, by Eric Scouten
http://www.metrowerks.com/tcpip/
John Norstad's Newswatcher Code
ftp://ftp.acns.nwu.edu/pub/newswatcher/
TCPExample & PNL TCP/IP Libraries by Peter N Lewis
ftp://www.stairways.com/stairways/source/
Mac TCP Watcher 2.0 and Streamwatcher 1.0 by Peter N Lewis
http://www.stairways.com/mtcpw/
http://www.stairways.com/streamwatcher/
Mac On The Net Archive (incl. WhatRoute and other TCP/IP Diagnostic Utils)
http://www.moxienet.com/macnet/

These and other links are archived on the MacTech Online web pages at www.mactech.com/online/.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Arq 5.9 - Online backup to Google Drive,...
Arq is super-easy online backup for Mac and Windows computers. Back up to your own cloud account (Amazon Cloud Drive, Google Drive, Dropbox, OneDrive, Google Cloud Storage, any S3-compatible server... Read more
LibreOffice 5.4.0.3 - Free, open-source...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
NeoFinder 7.1.2 - Catalog your external...
NeoFinder (formerly CDFinder) rapidly organizes your data, either on external or internal disks, or any other volumes. It catalogs all your data, so you stay in control of your data archive or disk... Read more
Numi 3.17 - Menu-bar calculator supports...
Numi is a calculator that magically combines calculations with text, and allows you to freely share your computations. Numi combines text editor and calculator Support plain English. For example, '5... Read more
VOX 2.8.28 - Music player that supports...
VOX just sounds better! The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features and support for all audio formats you should ever need.... Read more
Chromium 60.0.3112.78 - Fast and stable...
Chromium is an open-source browser project that aims to build a safer, faster, and more stable way for all Internet users to experience the web. Version 60.0.3112.78: Security Fixes High CVE-2017-... Read more
Safari Technology Preview 11.0 - The new...
Safari Technology Preview contains the most recent additions and improvements to WebKit and the latest advances in Safari web technologies. And once installed, you will receive notifications of... Read more
Geekbench 4.1.1 - Measure processor and...
Geekbench provides a comprehensive set of benchmarks engineered to quickly and accurately measure processor and memory performance. Designed to make benchmarks easy to run and easy to understand,... Read more
iMazing 2.3.3 - Complete iOS device mana...
iMazing (was DiskAid) is the ultimate iOS device manager with capabilities far beyond what iTunes offers. With iMazing and your iOS device (iPhone, iPad, or iPod), you can: Copy music to and from... Read more
TeamViewer 12.0.81279 - Establish remote...
TeamViewer gives you remote control of any computer or Mac over the Internet within seconds, or can be used for online meetings. Find out why more than 200 million users trust TeamViewer! Free for... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Knight Fever Beginner’s Guide - how to h...
Knight Fever is a thrilling new mobile RPG from Webzen, featuring colorful pixelated sprites and some of the most innovative combat we’ve seen in modern RPGs to date. It’s full of swords and sorcery and other fantastical feats. Given the game’s... | Read more »
MU Origin celebrates its first birthday...
A year ago, Seoul-based publisher Webzen added to its MU franchise with an MMO for the mobile platform. MU Origin features elements from its 2003 predecessor, updated to fit in amongst other modern freemium fantasy-action apps. You loot dungeons,... | Read more »
Galaxy of Pen & Paper has landed on...
If you enjoyed Knights of Pen & Paper and its sequel, you're in for a real treat, as Galaxy of Pen & Paper has officially launched on the App Store. Galaxy takes us far from the irreverent fantasy setting of Knights of Pen & Paper to a... | Read more »
Big changes are coming to Fire Emblem He...
Nintendo just revealed what players can expect from Fire Emblem Heroes in the coming weeks, with a good deal of fresh goodies arriving just in time for the game's six-month anniversary. The announcements arrived in a 15-minute FEH Channel stream... | Read more »
Aero Effect (Games)
Aero Effect 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: Race an aerodynamic thingy through a maze of animated, geometric peril and plunge into a mysterious grid of pixels, all while... | Read more »
Linelight (Games)
Linelight 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Linelight is an elegant, minimalist puzzle game set in a universe of lines. Its puzzles will awake your mind as the music flows... | Read more »
Fighting Fantasy Legends (Games)
Fighting Fantasy Legends 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Create your own adventures in a dangerous land of monsters, treasures and traps. From renowned authors Steve Jackson... | Read more »
Knight Fever is a new take on the classi...
Knight Fever lands on the Google Play, and you won’t want to miss it if you’re a devoted RPG fan. Developed by indie creatives Buff Studios, the game looks like a retro RPG with some exciting new twists. | Read more »
Steam Panic (Games)
Steam Panic 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Steampunk puzzle in which you spin the playfield to put yourself back together. Dear Reader,Enclosed is a copy of my bizarre 1935... | Read more »
Time Crash (Games)
Time Crash 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Time is about to Crash! It’s up to you to save the city! Time Crash is a 3D first person runner which lets you play as a powerful... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Retrofit Your MacBook Air 13.3 For Touchscree...
Apple famously refuses to make touchscreen support available in its MacBook family of clamshell notebooks. There is no indication that Apple is going to relent anytime soon, but you can now still... Read more
Apple Stores Are Retail’s Most Profitable Squ...
A Marketnewsupdates.com (MNU) News Commentary release distributed by PRNewswire says that according to research provided by CoStar, sales per square foot at all but a few public retailers have... Read more
Sale! 15-inch 2.8GHz MacBook Pros for $100 of...
B&H Photo has the new 2017 15″ 2.8GHz Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 15″ 2.8GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray: $... Read more
2016 13-inch MacBook Airs available starting...
B&H Photo has clearance 2016 13″ MacBook Airs available for up to $150 off original MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY & NJ sales tax only: – 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air (MMGF2LL... Read more
Clearance iMacs available for up to $400 off...
B&H Photo has clearance 21″ and 27″ Apple iMacs available for up to $400 off original MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: – 27″ 3.3GHz iMac 5K: $1899 $400 off... Read more
27-inch 3.5GHz iMac on sale for $100 off MSRP...
Adorama has the new 27″ 3.5GHz iMac (MNEA2LL/A) on sale for $1899 including free shipping. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Adorama charges sales tax for purchases in NY & NJ only. Read more
Seven Cities, One Phone: OtterBox Sends iPhon...
Plenty of people have trekked around the world, but what about a globe-trotting iPhone? OtterBox is sending an iPhone around the world to capture the adventures of a diverse set of global ambassadors... Read more
L-Card Pro App May Spell End For Paper Busine...
OrangeTreeApps, LLC has announced the release of L-Card Pro 1.1, an update to their business app for iOS and Android devices that introduces eco-friendly, affordable, electronic business cards on the... Read more
Clearance previous generation iMacs, Apple re...
Apple has previous-generation Certified Refurbished 2015 21″ & 27″ iMacs available starting at $849. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free. The following models are... Read more
27-inch 3.4GHz iMac on sale for $1699, save $...
MacMall has the new 2017 27″ 3.4GHz iMac (MNE92LL/A) in stock and on sale for $1699 including free shipping. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple Inc. (U...
Job Summary As an Apple Solutions Consultant, you'll be the link between our future customers and our products. You'll showcase your entrepreneurial spirit as you Read more
Senior Software Engineer, *Apple* Online St...
Job Summary The Apple Online Store is looking for an experienced, self-driven, detail-oriented software engineer who can join our team to help build highly scalable Read more
Frameworks Engineering Manager, *Apple* Wat...
Frameworks Engineering Manager, Apple Watch Job Number: 41632321 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: Jun. 15, 2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Summary Read more
Senior Software Engineer, *Apple* Online St...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more Read more
Frameworks Engineering Manager, *Apple* Wat...
Frameworks Engineering Manager, Apple Watch Job Number: 41632321 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: Jun. 15, 2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Summary Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.