TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Copy Protection and Serial Numbers

Volume Number: 13 (1997)
Issue Number: 10
Column Tag: develop

Copy Protection and Serial Numbers

by Brian Bechtel, Apple Computer, Inc.

Copy protection is hard, and it is difficult to find a scheme which is not easily broken. The Mac OS was not designed with copy protection in mind, and there is no unique serial number available on Mac OS based computers. There are some techniques which can be used to help differentiate between two Mac OS computers, and these techniques are described in this article.

DTS does not support copy protection because of the significant compatibility liabilities it involves. This article is a summary of some specific techniques which we have used or recommended in the past. DTS does not maintain expertise in copy protection techniques. Serious copy protection is much more complicated than this article describes.

Uniquely Identifying a Mac OS Computer

In general, the only consistent serial number on a Mac OS based computer computer is on the bar code label which is attached to the outside of the case. There is no internal serial number on the logic board of any current Mac OS based computer computer. There is no internal serial number associated with the operating system. The only Macintosh with a real built-in serial number was the Macintosh XL. This machine had a serial number only because the Lisa (upon which it was based) had a serial number as part of the Lisa design.

There are some hardware devices, found on a limited range of Mac OS computers, which contain some unique identifier which could be used as a serial number. Examples are an Ethernet card installed or built-in Ethernet. (This is because Ethernet devices have an unique ID defined for each device.) Some (but not all) hard drives have a serial number which can be read using the SCSI Manager or ATA Manager. Other devices such as Token Ring cards or FireWire may also provide an unique identifier which may be used as a serial number. None of these hardware devices can be found across the entire Macintosh product line.

Semi-Unique Characteristics

There are some "semi-unique" characteristics which you can use to help you determine if you are running software on the same machine which you were running on before. These are listed roughly in the order I'd recommend considering them.

File ID References

You can create and store the file ID reference for the application file. Create a file ID reference using PBCreateFileIDRef() and store it in an appropriate place. (An example of an appropriate place would be the preferences file. An inappropriate place would be the application resource fork, since this would prevent your application from running from locked media or a network server.) Compare the file ID reference to the file ID reference of the running application (the file ID reference will be in the ioFileID field returned by PBGetCatInfo). If it isn't the same, you are running on a different volume. File ID references are unique within a particular volume; they don't get reused. It's unlikely that two machines will give you the same file ID reference for the same file.

 // AddFileID creates a file ID reference for the 
 // file specified by the FSSpec. It returns the
 // created file ID reference so that you can store
 // this reference for future use.
 //
 OSErr AddFileID(FSSpec *file, long *fileID)
 {
 OSErr err;
 HParmBlkPtr h;
 
 h = (HParmBlkPtr)NewPtrClear(sizeof(HParamBlockRec));
 
 h->fidParam.ioCompletion = nil;
 h->fidParam.ioNamePtr = file->name;
 h->fidParam.ioVRefNum = file->vRefNum;
 h->fidParam.ioSrcDirID = file->parID;

 err = PBCreateFileIDRefSync(h);
 *fileID = h->fidParam.ioFileID;
 DisposePtr((void *)h);
 return(err);
 }

 // GetFileID returns the File ID reference for a file
 // where the File ID reference has previously been
 // created (by calling PBCreateFileIDRef)
 //
 OSErr GetFileID(FSSpec *file, long *fileID)
 {
 OSErr err;
 CInfoPBPtr cInfo;
 
 cInfo = (CInfoPBPtr)NewPtrClear(sizeof(CInfoPBRec));
 
 cInfo->hFileInfo.ioCompletion = nil;
 cInfo->hFileInfo.ioNamePtr = file->name;
 cInfo->hFileInfo.ioVRefNum = file->vRefNum;
 cInfo->hFileInfo.ioFDirIndex = 0;
 cInfo->hFileInfo.ioDirID = file->parID;

 err = PBGetCatInfoSync(cInfo);
 *fileID = cInfo->hFileInfo.ioDirID;
 DisposePtr((void *)cInfo);
 return(err);
 }

Ethernet Address

For those Macs which have an Ethernet card installed or built-in Ethernet, you can use the EGetInfo() call with a csCode of ENetGetInfo to get the currently assigned Ethernet address. See Inside Macintosh:Networking, page 11-26 and 11-36 for more information. Apple publishes sample code demonstrating how to obtain the Ethernet address under Open Transport.

The complication for this technique is that the default Ethernet address may be overridden by a resource of type 'eadr' in the System file. This is documented in Inside Macintosh:Networking on page 11-26. Because it is easily possible to override the hardware address, and because Ethernet is not guaranteed to exist on any particular model, this is not a good scheme.

Similar techniques can be used for a Mac OS computer with Token Ring cards or other cards, but a discussion of these cards is outside the scope of this document.

Hard Disk Serial Number

Some hard disks have serial numbers. Many ATA drives have such a serial number, but most SCSI hard disks do not. Apple publishes ATA demo sample code which shows how to get the serial number of an ATA drive. Only some Macintosh models have ATA drives, so this is not a good general purpose scheme.

SCSI Defect List

Some developers use the defect list from a SCSI drive. This won't work for a non-SCSI machine, but might be a good approach for a SCSI based Mac. See the SCSI-2 specification and Inside Macintosh:Devices for details of using the SCSI Manager. Source code demonstrating use of the SCSI Manager in a general case is on the tool chest developer CD. Only some Macintosh models have SCSI drives, so this is not a good general purpose scheme.

Directory ID of the System Folder

Compare the dirID of the System Folder. Use FindFolder() to get the dirID of the System Folder, and compare it to a previously stored parID. This isn't quite as unique as the file ID, since the system folder as preinstalled will tend to have the same directory ID from one machine to another. If the user creates a new System Folder (e.g. by doing a clean install of System Software, which appears to be a frequent activity when upgrading) then you will have different directory IDs. This is not a good scheme.

 // GetVolumeDirID returns the dirID of the System Folder
 //
 OSErr GetVolumeDirID(long *dirID)
 {
 OSErr err;
 short notUsed;

 err=FindFolder(kOnSystemDisk, kSystemFolderType, no,
 notUsed,dirID);
 return(err);
 }

Volume Creation Date

Compare the creation date of the volume. You can get this information from PBHGetVInfo(). This isn't quite as unique as the file ID, since the volume creation date will be set at the factory when system software is placed on the volume and will only be reset when a volume is reinitialized. Because this value tends to remain the same for a given set of machines, this is not a good scheme.

 long GetVolCreationDate(short vRefNum ) 
 { 
 OSErr err = noErr;
 HParamBlockRec pb;
 Str255 vName;

 vName [ 0 ] = '\0';
 pb.volumeParam.ioCompletion = nil;
 pb.volumeParam.ioNamePtr = vName;
 pb.volumeParam.ioVRefNum = vRefNum;
 pb.volumeParam.ioVolIndex = 0;
 err = PBHGetVInfoSync ( &pb );
 
 return ( pb.volumeParam.ioVCrDat);
 }

Network Registration

Rather than identifying an unique Macintosh, you may decide that you want to prevent multiple copies of the same application running on a network. The method some developers use is to register a fictitious device on the network using NBP (Name Binding Protocol) with the name being single serial number of the license. Other attempts to register the same device and serial number give an error that the program acts on to deny the use of the program. Chapter 3 of Inside Macintosh: Networking is a useful reference for NBP.

 /* 
 * Registers a entity with the specified object and type on the
 * specified socket. The pointer to the NamesTableEntry is
 * returned in ntePtr if the function returns noErr.
 * 
 */
 OSErr MyRegisterName(ConstStr32Param entityObject, 
 ConstStr32Param entityType,
 short socket, 
 NamesTableEntry **ntePtr)
 {
 MPPParamBlock mppPB;
 OSErr result;
 Str32 entityZone = "\p*";
 
 /* Allocate non-relocatable memory in the system heap for 
 * the names table entity 
 */
 *ntePtr = (NamesTableEntry *) 
 NewPtrSys((Size)sizeof(NamesTableEntry));

 if ( ntePtr == NULL )
 {
 result = MemError(); /* Return memory error */
 }
 else
 {
 /* Build the names table entity */
 NBPSetNTE((Ptr) *ntePtr, 
 (Ptr) entityObject, 
 (Ptr) entityType, 
 (Ptr) entityZone, 
 socket);
 
 /* ioRefNum and csCode are filled in by 
 * PRegisterName's glue */
 mppPB.NBPinterval = 0x0f; /* Reasonable values for the */
 mppPB.NBPcount = 0x03; /* interval and retry count */
 mppPB.NBPentityPtr = (Ptr) *ntePtr;
 mppPB.NBPverifyFlag = (char) true; /* unique name */
 
 result = PRegisterName(&mppPB, false);

 if ( result != noErr )
 DisposePtr((Ptr) *ntePtr);
 }

 return ( result );
 }

Note: DTS advises against applications searching the entire intranet for a matching entity. Such a search is time consuming. On a large network with many zones, you can spend substantial amounts of time doing this search. This would be not be considered reasonable in startup code. Instead, we advise that you search the local zone. If necessary, implement an asynchronous background search into the other zones.

Thing You Shouldn't Do

We discourage you from trying to use special tracks on formatted floppies, or special floppies. Apple does not document the floppy drive sufficiently for DTS to support such an action. Also, DiskCopy and other disk copying programs work very well at copying floppies, thus defeating such schemes. (DiskCopy was written inside Apple with access to the source of the floppy driver; we do not publish these details externally.) You should not rely on specific bizarre sectors of the hard disk (Apple relies on multiple vendors for its components. You cannot make undocumented assumptions about a particular machine or class of machines.)

Note: At some point in the future, Apple will create machines which do not support 800K GCR-formatted floppies. You should not depend upon specific hardware features such as 800K GCR formatting for copy protection purposes.

Conclusion

Copy protection is difficult to implement, and it is difficult to find a scheme which is not easily broken. The Mac OS was not designed with copy protection in mind, and there is no unique serial number available across the entire set of Mac OS based computers. There are some techniques which can be used to help differentiate between Mac OS computers, and these techniques are described in this article.

There are many more sophisticated schemes for copy protection. If you are serious about copy protection, you should probably be contacting one of the many companies which specialize in such solutions, rather than writing a solution yourself. Both hardware solutions (such as ADB dongles) and software solutions (such as licensing software) are widely available from third parties. DTS does not support copy protection because of the significant compatibility liabilities it involves. DTS does not maintain expertise in copy protection techniques.

Further References

  1. Inside Macintosh:Devices.
  2. ATA Device Software Guide.
  3. Inside Macintosh:Networking, chapter 3, Name Binding Protocol SCSI-2 specification.

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Quinn, Jim Luther, Vinnie Moscaritolo, and Pete Gontier.


Brian Bechtel works in Developer Technical Support at Apple Computer, where he deals with PC Cards, PowerBooks, and device drivers. In his non-work life (yes, there is such a thing) he enjoys time with his family (Mary, Meg and Tacy), is passionate about the San Jose Sharks hockey team, and plays lousy acoustic guitar.

 
AAPL
$105.22
Apple Inc.
+0.39
MSFT
$46.13
Microsoft Corpora
+1.11
GOOG
$539.78
Google Inc.
-4.20

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

OS X Server 4.0 - For OS X 10.10 Yosemit...
Designed for OS X and iOS devices, OS X Server makes it easy to share files, schedule meetings, synchronize contacts, develop software, host your own website, publish wikis, configure Mac, iPhone,... Read more
TotalFinder 1.6.12 - Adds tabs, hotkeys,...
TotalFinder is a universally acclaimed navigational companion for your Mac. Enhance your Mac's Finder with features so smart and convenient, you won't believe you ever lived without them. Tab-based... Read more
BusyCal 2.6.3 - Powerful calendar app wi...
BusyCal is an award-winning desktop calendar that combines personal productivity features for individuals with powerful calendar sharing capabilities for families and workgroups. BusyCal's unique... Read more
calibre 2.7 - Complete e-library managem...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital... Read more
Skitch 2.7.3 - Take screenshots, annotat...
With Skitch, taking, annotating, and sharing screenshots or images is as fun as it is simple.Communicate and collaborate with images using Skitch and its intuitive, engaging drawing and annotating... Read more
Delicious Library 3.3.2 - Import, browse...
Delicious Library allows you to import, browse, and share all your books, movies, music, and video games with Delicious Library. Run your very own library from your home or office using our... Read more
Art Text 2.4.8 - Create high quality hea...
Art Text is an OS X application for creating high quality textual graphics, headings, logos, icons, Web site elements, and buttons. Thanks to multi-layer support, creating complex graphics is no... Read more
Live Interior 3D Pro 2.9.6 - Powerful an...
Live Interior 3D Pro is a powerful yet very intuitive interior designing application. View Video Tutorials It has every feature of Live Interior 3D Standard, plus some exclusive ones: Create multi... Read more
The Hit List 1.1.7 - Advanced reminder a...
The Hit List manages the daily chaos of your modern life. It's easy to learn - it's as easy as making lists. And it's powerful enough to let you plan, then forget, then act when the time is right.... Read more
jAlbum Pro 12.2.4 - Organize your digita...
jAlbum Pro has all the features you love in jAlbum, but comes with a commercial license. With jAlbum, you can create gorgeous custom photo galleries for the Web without writing a line of code!... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Rami Ismail Opens Up distribute​() for D...
Rami Ismail Opens Up distribute​() for Developers Posted by Jessica Fisher on October 24th, 2014 [ permalink ] Rami Ismail, Chief Executive of Business and Development at indie game studio | Read more »
Great Hitman GO Goes on Sale and Gets Ne...
Great Hitman GO Goes on Sale and Gets New Update – Say That Three Times Fast Posted by Jessica Fisher on October 24th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Rival Stars Basketball Review
Rival Stars Basketball Review By Jennifer Allen on October 24th, 2014 Our Rating: :: RESTRICTIVE BUT FUNUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Rival Stars Basketball is a fun mixture of basketball and card collecting but its... | Read more »
Rubicon Development Makes Over a Dozen o...
Rubicon Development Makes Over a Dozen of Their Games Free For This Weekend Only Posted by Jessica Fisher on October 24th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
I Am Dolphin Review
I Am Dolphin Review By Jennifer Allen on October 24th, 2014 Our Rating: :: NEARLY FIN-TASTICUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Swim around and eat nearly everything that moves in I Am Dolphin, a fun Ecco-ish kind of game... | Read more »
nPlayer looks to be the ultimate choice...
Developed by Newin Inc, nPlayer may seem like your standard video player – but is aiming to be the best in its field by providing high quality video play performance and support for a huge number of video formats and codecs. User reviews include... | Read more »
Fighting Fantasy: Caverns of the Snow Wi...
Fighting Fantasy: Caverns of the Snow Witch Review By Jennifer Allen on October 24th, 2014 Our Rating: :: CLASSY STORYTELLINGUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Fighting Fantasy: Caverns of the Snow Witch is a sterling... | Read more »
A Few Days Left (Games)
A Few Days Left 1.01 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.01 (iTunes) Description: Screenshots are in compliance to App Store's 4+ age rating! Please see App Preview for real game play! **Important: Make... | Read more »
Toca Boo (Education)
Toca Boo 1.0.2 Device: iOS Universal Category: Education Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.2 (iTunes) Description: BOO! Did I scare you!? My name is Bonnie and my family loves to spook! Do you want to scare them back? Follow me and I'll... | Read more »
Intuon (Games)
Intuon 1.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.1 (iTunes) Description: Join the battle with your intuition in a new hardcore game Intuon! How well do you trust your intuition? Can you find a needle in a... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Weekend sale: 13-inch 128GB MacBook Air for $...
Best Buy has the 2014 13-inch 1.4GHz 128GB MacBook Air on sale for $849.99, or $150 off MSRP, on their online store. Choose free home shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Price valid... Read more
Nimbus Note Cross=Platform Notes Utility
Nimbus Note will make sure you never forget or lose your valuable data again. Create and edit notes, save web pages, screenshots and any other type of data – and share it all with your friends and... Read more
NewerTech’s Snuglet Makes MagSafe 2 Power Con...
NewerTech has introduced the Snuglet, a precision-manufactured ring designed to sit inside your MagSafe 2 connector port, providing a more snug fit to prevent your power cable from unintentional... Read more
Apple Planning To Sacrifice Gross Margins To...
Digitimes Research’s Jim Hsiao says its analysts believe Apple is planning to sacrifice its gross margins to save its tablet business, which has recently fallen into decline. They project that Apple’... Read more
Who’s On Now? – First Instant-Connect Search...
It’s nighttime and your car has broken down on the side of the highway. You need a tow truck right away, so you open an app on your iPhone, search for the closest tow truck and send an instant... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $949,...
Best Buy has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro available for $949.99 on their online store. Choose free shipping or free instant local store pickup (if available). Their price is $150 off MSRP. Price is... Read more
Save up to $125 on Retina MacBook Pros
B&H Photo has the new 2014 13″ and 15″ Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to $125 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. They’ll also include free copies of Parallels... Read more
Apple refurbished Time Capsules available sta...
The Apple Store has certified refurbished Time Capsules available for up to $60 off MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each Time Capsule, and shipping is free: - 2TB Time Capsule: $255... Read more
Textilus New Word, Notes and PDF Processor fo...
Textilus is new word-crunching, notes, and PDF processor designed exclusively for the iPad. I haven’t had time to thoroughly check it out yet, but it looks great and early reviews are positive.... Read more
WD My Passport Pro Bus-Powered Thunderbolt RA...
WD’s My Passport Pro RAID solution is powered by an integrated Thunderbolt cable for true portability and speeds as high as 233 MB/s. HighlightsOverviewSpecifications Transfer, Back Up And Edit In... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple Inc. (U...
…important role that the ASC serves is that of providing an excellent Apple Customer Experience. Responsibilities include: * Promoting Apple products and solutions Read more
Senior Event Manager, *Apple* Retail Market...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global event strategy. Delivering an overarching brand story; in-store, Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Project Manager / Business Analyst, WW *Appl...
…a senior project manager / business analyst to work within our Worldwide Apple Fulfillment Operations and the Business Process Re-engineering team. This role will work Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.