TweetFollow Us on Twitter

May 95 Dialog Box
Volume Number:11
Issue Number:5
Column Tag:Dialog Box

Dialog Box

By Scott T Boyd, Editor

Concerned By The Rising Tide

I have developed several large programs for use in my engineering classes during the past six years. Although I am not a professional programmer, I believe my programs to be of commercial quality and at least one has been fairly widely distributed among universities. My programs have all been developed in Pascal with separate versions to operate within the Macintosh, DOS and Windows environments. I use Borland’s Pascal on the PC and Think Pascal on the Macintosh. I use objects extensively for both operating system needs and for my own applications.

I have been watching with some concern as the popularity of Pascal has declined in favor of C/C++. I decided to learn C/C++ so that I could see for myself why it is gaining in popularity. The basic concepts and constructs of Pascal and C++ are quite similar and, after getting used to the syntax, it was not difficult to translate code from Pascal to C/C++.

Having now translated several small programs and one large application, I thought that you might be interested in a summary of my assessment of the two languages.

One feature provided by Pascal that I sorely miss in C/C++ is nested procedures. In Pascal, a function or procedure can be placed within another function or procedure so that it visible only to the external routine. Variables declared within the nested routine are local to that routine and not accessible to the external routine whereas variables declared in the external routine are accessible to the nested routine. I find this nesting capability to be very helpful and I often nest my routines four or five levels deep. I find the nesting parallels my thinking and aid programming. As with objects, nested routines tends to encapsulate code and data and make the overall function of a routine more clear. Nested routines are not allowed in C++. I was forced to de-nest all of my routines in translating from Pascal to C++ resulting in a large number of routines all at the same level. The difference in variable scoping complicated this process.

A serious disadvantage of C++ that I encountered is that the time required to compile and link was much greater than in Pascal. Because I program in a manner in which I make a change and then test it, I found the speed difference to be irritating. The difference exists on both the Macintosh and the PC even though the Pascal and C++ compilers were from the same vendors. I understand that pre-compiled headers can be used to speed the compile/link process and I experimented with them, but I never approached the compile and link speed of Pascal. Why is it that Pascal does not require pre-compiled headers? I truly don’t understand why this difference exists. Does it reflect poor compiler design or an innate problem with C++?

I also noted that small programs compiled as code resources were much larger when compiled in C++ than in Pascal. This size difference is probably due to C++ including some libraries but I was unsuccessful in finding a way to reduce the size. In any case, I did not observe significant execution speed differences between programs compiled in Pascal and C++.

In summary, I have not found any capabilities in C++ that I need and do not already have in Pascal. I find the Pascal environment preferable, and I found the auto-formatting and integrated debugging provided by Think Pascal on the Macintosh to be much more friendly than the C/C++ environment. I’m curious to know if I am missing something or whether others have had similar experiences.

- S.A. Klein, University of Wisconsin Madison
klein@engr.wisc.edu

OpenDoc Draws Some Fire

I read the OpenDoc and SOM articles in the January MacTech. I have some comments, mostly skeptical ones.

It seems to me, OpenDoc was born as a succession of ideas:

• Bundle MacApp into the MacOS ROM and System 7.5, and

• change this class library into robust objects for everyone.

• Emphasize document mobility among apps using these objects.

• Call it “Documents On-top-of Classes”, or DOC.

Now, the Apple budget guys come into the picture.

• No more free lunch, so it doesn’t go into the ROMs.

• No more funding either, so spin it off to a 3rd party: CIL.ORG.

• IBM wants a kickback for PowerPC, so push SOM.

The Apple Evangelists have a field day!

• Model all users as “document fiddlers”: readers, writers, editors.

• Model all data processing as “document processing”.

• Model all software vendors (eg, Microsoft) as “editor vendors”.

• Hook up with other popular hype floating around:

- Cobra Objects Really Biting Applications (CORBA)

- Subtle Object Mangler (SOM)

• Rename the project OpenDoc, reflecting the open question of “Who pays for all of this?”

Now we are faced with some questions. What is Apple’s strategic perspective on this; e.g., will they push OpenDoc as a replacement for MacApp?

Will OpenDoc be an optional, extra-cost item (like System 7 Pro), or a developer giveaway on the ETO disk? Or perhaps just a standard for other developers since Apple doesn’t manufacture any “editors” except TeachText and ResEdit?

What is Microsoft’s perspective on all this, given that they are probably the biggest producer of “commercial editors” (formerly known as “business software”)? The MacTech article says the OLE is just a subset of OLE - how is this enforced, and does Microsoft agree?

Before Apple pushes the hype of OpenDoc, shouldn’t it first come up with some systematic scheme about parts? What are standard “parts” anyway? If each developer whips up their own set of “parts”, how does this lead to interoperability?

Is Apple committed to supporting this technology in the future, or just committed to advertising and evangelizing the idea?

As an analogy, compare “handlers and parts” with the “Communications Toolbox and Tools”. Apple did OK with the first one, but skimped on the second, and the result is a less useful system. Certainly modem communication has not become easier as a result of the CommToolbox. What prevents this from happening with OpenDoc?

More brickbats - Compare the OpenDoc plan with the MIT X-Windows project, which also started out as a simple idea (a windowing system for Unix) but ended up so complex it rivals Vax/VMS. Problems include being the lowest common denominator to all types of hardware, too many toolkits but no standard of functionality within them, and implementation by student/researchers with little vested interest in simplicity. The result is a system which works well, but don’t try to program it directly without lots of available staff time. What will keep OpenDoc from becoming so complicated when it’s finished?

Compare the OpenDoc plan with Ada, the programming language of the future just ten years ago. Ada has all sorts of “necessary” features for dealing with interrupts, multi-tasking, events, and real-time structures. Too bad most operating systems can’t or don’t or won’t provide all the necessary support for these things, otherwise we’d be using it today. The OpenDoc plan appears to require standardized features across operating systems (eg: network clipboards) which just aren’t present today, at least, not in an “open” sense. Ask yourself again, what is Apple’s role in all of this, and what guarantees us that Apple won’t change its commitment like it did with Bedrock.

Compare the OpenDoc plan with OSI (Open Systems Interconnect), the new reference standard network protocol, which has made itself obsolete in just a few years. Why should we believe that OpenDoc will be any more of a universal standard than OSI ?

Compare the OpenDoc plan with Apple’s OpenTransport. Unlike OpenDoc, the OpenTransport plan has specific goals, a specific plan of implementation and timeframe, and a specific support commitment from Apple. The marketing side of OpenTransport exactly matches its technical specifications. On the other hand, the OpenDoc literature talks about “Apple’s approach towards reducing the complexity of computing today”, and “providing users with a new level of computer power, flexibility, and ease of use”. Sounds like they’re talking about the Mac itself, until you read the fine print about compound documents.

The OpenDoc blurb talks about user interfaces and standard user operations, yet from what I can see, these implicit issues lack any sort of formal model or standard definition. Just what does standard text editing mean anyway, and why should I switch away from MS-Word to some new editor?

So far, OpenDoc is a philosophy rather than a product. Example: consider a C++ program as a document. There are a variety of handlers available: editors: MPW, vi, emacs, Think Project, BBEdit; Lint’ers; parenthesis matchers; compilers for the code. Yet the “document” - source code for some program - is already “sharable” with the first set, and usually incompatible with the last set. That is, a large body of code typically cannot be sent to just any other compiler, certainly not cross-platform, without manual intervention, setting compilation flags, adjust the code a bit, etc. What value does OpenDoc add to this scenario?

I suppose I have the wrong idea - I’m not supposed to think of “source code” as a document. Instead, the main focus of my work should be writing letters with text processors, and this entitles me to subscribe to the OpenDoc hype. Unfortunately this isn’t true, and therefore I’m concerned that OpenDoc will just lead to a more complicated development environment with little added benefit.

Well, these are my observations. - John Buehrer, jdb@ecofin.ch

Apple’s Jens Alfke responds:

John Buehrer seems to have gotten a very mistaken impression of what OpenDoc is and what it aims to do; this is understandable, since it’s hard to describe a complex system in a short article.

The three major assumptions he makes are that OpenDoc is supposed to be a universal solution for all types of software; that it is a framework (like MacApp or PowerPlant); and that it is vaporware without an implementation. None of these is true.

• OpenDoc does not claim to “model all data processing as ‘document processing’” and we do not expect every type of software to become a part editor. However, most of what users do with their computers is document processing - text, spreadsheets, drawings, page layouts, et cetera - so focusing OpenDoc on documents doesn’t seem like much of a restriction. But there is certainly still room for traditional apps and other types of software in the world.

• OpenDoc is not a framework in the traditional sense. The developer does not assemble classes provided by OpenDoc to produce a piece of software; rather, OpenDoc assembles the developer’s editors at runtime to produce a document. In other words, OpenDoc lives in the spaces between editors, not within them. It’s more like that Macintosh Toolbox in that regard.

Frameworks can certainly take advantage of OpenDoc (and MacApp 3.5 and the OpenDoc Parts Framework will do so, as may PowerPlant) but the tasks they perform are orthogonal. OpenDoc itself does the minimum it can do to guarantee smooth operation of multiple components in a document; everything beyond that is a job for the developer or for a framework.

(The history of OpenDoc really had nothing to do with the MacApp project; instead, it grew out of an investigation of how to extend technologies like Apple Events, the Edition Manager and Bento into a true compound document architecture.)

• Mr. Buehrer also seems concerned whether OpenDoc really exists and whether Apple is truly committed to it. OpenDoc has an large engineering effort, of which I’m a part, and a public delivery schedule. We’ve done a lot more than just “advertising and evangelizing the idea”; we’ve been working on the implementation since 1992. The software on the CD should attest to this. Moreover, Apple executives from Spindler on down are committed to OpenDoc; they rightly see it as an absolute necessity if Apple is to maintain its technological leadership and its control of its platform. From my position in the engineering trenches I see every indication that OpenDoc is one of the most high-priority projects at Apple.

He then asks what will keep OpenDoc from becoming unusably complex. Some complexity is inevitable, but what developers who’ve used it tell us is that the architecture makes sense and that it’s much cleaner than OLE. Take a look for yourself; the APIs on the CD are pretty close to final (in the next release they truly will be frozen.)

He sums it up by saying that “So far, OpenDoc is a philosophy rather than a product.” One might get this impression by reading just the (admittedly rather marketing-oriented) article in the magazine. But if you go beyond that and examine the more technical documentation provided on the CD or on the Internet (by FTP from cilabs.org) we hope you’ll see that OpenDoc is solid, implemented, and well on its way to completion. - Jens Alfke, OpenDoc Engineering Team

An Interesting Design Philosophy

Here’s a Word 6 “glitch” I thought you might find interesting. Go into Word and try to type control-Q or control-T (in Chicago font, the command key symbol and the apple symbol, respectively). Of course, nothing happens. Someone at Microsoft decided that the control keys shouldn’t be typeable! So I got onto the MSWord forum and asked for help. These folks are great. To their credit, every question I’ve posed them has been answered promptly and accurately, if not necessarily to my satisfaction. However, below is their response to my query. As Dave Barry would say, “I’m not making this up!”

- Dave Mark

from the MSWord forum:

Word 6 now inserts special characters with the Symbol dialog. To access the dialog, choose Symbol from the Insert menu and click on the Symbols tab. The drawback to using the Symbol pallet is that special characters below the value of 32 (check Appendix A to determine what value is associated with a character) in the Macintosh character set are not available. Unfortunately, for characters 0 through 31, you’ll need to go through a couple extra steps to insert them with a keystroke.

To get around this problem, insert the Command character and the Apple characters in Word 6.0 using fields, and then for convenience, make the character into a glossary entry, and assign your own keystroke to them.

To use the symbol field, Choose Field from the Insert menu, click on “Equations and Formulas” under Categories, then click on “Symbol” under Field Names. Place the cursor in the text box next to the word “SYMBOL”, type in the value for the character and a space (see Appendix A: you’ll see the Command character has a value of 17), then click on the Options button and add the \f switch. Then click in the text box after the \f switch and type in the name of the font you want, in your case, “Chicago” without quotes. Click OK. Then click OK again. You should see the Command character at this point. If you do not see it, place the cursor on the field (It might look like {SYMBOL 17 \f Chicago \*MERGEFORMAT}) and then press SHIFT F9. This keystroke changes the view of the field to the Command character.

To make the process more convenient for future use, select the symbol, choose AutoText from the Edit menu, type a name in the Name box; for example, “command”, and click the Add button. Then, to assign the keystroke, choose Customize from the Tools menu, on the Categories side select AutoText (it’s near the bottom of the list), select the AutoText entry on the right side, place the cursor in the “Press New Shortcut Key” box, press the keystroke CONTROL Q and click the Assign button. The next time you need to use the character, just press CONTROL Q.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Backblaze 4.2.0.966 - Online backup serv...
Backblaze is an online backup service designed from the ground-up for the Mac. With unlimited storage available for $5 per month, as well as a free 15-day trial, peace of mind is within reach with... Read more
Tunnelblick 3.6.7beta02 - GUI for OpenVP...
Tunnelblick is a free, open source graphic user interface for OpenVPN on OS X. It provides easy control of OpenVPN client and/or server connections. It comes as a ready-to-use application with all... Read more
calibre 2.65.1 - Complete e-book library...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
jAlbum Pro 13.4 - Organize your digital...
jAlbum Pro has all the features you love in jAlbum, but comes with a commercial license. You can create gorgeous custom photo galleries for the Web without writing a line of code! Beginner-friendly... Read more
jAlbum 13.4 - Create custom photo galler...
With jAlbum, you can create gorgeous custom photo galleries for the Web without writing a line of code! Beginner-friendly, with pro results - Simply drag and drop photos into groups, choose a design... Read more
Parallels Desktop 12.0.0 - Run Windows a...
Parallels allows you to run Windows and Mac applications side by side. Choose your view to make Windows invisible while still using its applications, or keep the familiar Windows background and... Read more
Firefox 48.0.2 - Fast, safe Web browser.
Firefox offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals and casual... Read more
Apple iOS 9.3.5 - The latest version of...
iOS is the world’s most advanced mobile operating system, and it’s the foundation of iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. It comes with a collection of apps and features that let you do the everyday things... Read more
Spotify 1.0.36.124. - Stream music, crea...
Spotify is a streaming music service that gives you on-demand access to millions of songs. Whether you like driving rock, silky R&B, or grandiose classical music, Spotify's massive catalogue puts... Read more
Apple iOS 9.3.5 - The latest version of...
iOS is the world’s most advanced mobile operating system, and it’s the foundation of iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. It comes with a collection of apps and features that let you do the everyday things... Read more

How to get four NFL superstars for your...
Even though you're probably well on your way to building a top notch squad for the new season in Madden NFL Mobile, let's say you could beef it up by adding Rob Gronkowski, Antonio Brown, Von Miller, and Todd Gurley to your roster. That's... | Read more »
Cartoon Network Superstar Soccer: Goal!!...
Cartoon Network Superstar Soccer: Goal!!! – Multiplayer Sports Game Starring Your Favorite Characters 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Become a soccer superstar with your... | Read more »
NFL Huddle: What's new in Topps NFL...
Can you smell that? It's the scent of pigskin in the air, which either means that cliches be damned, pigs are flying in your neck of the woods, or the new NFL season is right around the corner. [Read more] | Read more »
FarmVille: Tropic Escape tips, tricks, a...
Maybe farming is passé in mobile games now. Ah, but farming -- and doing a lot of a other things too -- in an island paradise might be a little different. At least you can work on your tan and sip some pina coladas while tending to your crops. [... | Read more »
Become the King of Avalon in FunPlus’ la...
King Arthur is dead. Considering the legend dates back to the 5th century, it would be surprising if he wasn’t. But in the context of real-time MMO game King of Avalon: Dragon Warfare, Arthur’s death plunges the kingdom into chaos. Evil sorceress... | Read more »
Nightgate (Games)
Nightgate 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: *** Launch Sale: 25% OFF for a limited time! *** In the year 2398, after a great war, a network of intelligent computers known as... | Read more »
3 best fantasy football apps to get you...
Last season didn't go the way you wanted it to in fantasy football. You were super happy following your drafts or auctions, convinced you had outsmarted everyone. You were all set to hustle on the waiver wire, work out some sweet trades, and make... | Read more »
Pokemon GO update: Take me to your leade...
The Team Leaders in Pokemon GO have had it pretty easy up until now. They show up when players reach level 5, make their cases for joining their respective teams, and that's pretty much it. Light work, as Floyd Mayweather might say. [Read more] | Read more »
Ruismaker FM (Music)
Ruismaker FM 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Music Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Following up on the success of Ruismaker, here's her crazy twin-sister, designed for people who want to design their own... | Read more »
Space Marshals 2 (Games)
Space Marshals 2 1.0.15 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $5.99, Version: 1.0.15 (iTunes) Description: The sci-fi wild west adventure in outer space continues with Space Marshals 2. This tactical top-down shooter puts you in... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Global Tablet Shipments Projected to Increase...
Digitimes’ Jim Hsiao reports that global tablet shipments will increase by 16.3 percent sequentially to reach nearly 47 million units in 2016′s third quarter, but that volume will still be down over... Read more
Apple’s 2016 Back to School promotion: Free B...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad using Apple’s Education Store and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free, and... Read more
Apple refurbished iPad Air 2s available start...
Apple has Certified Refurbished iPad Air 2 available starting at $339. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 128GB Wi-Fi iPad Air 2: $499 - 64GB Wi-Fi iPad... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro available for $961...
Overstock has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro available for $961.63 including free shipping. Their price is $138 off MSRP. Read more
Clearance 12-inch Retina MacBooks, Apple refu...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 12″ Retina MacBooks available starting at $929. Apple will include a standard one-year warranty with each MacBook, and shipping is free. The following... Read more
BookBook Releases SurfacePad, BookBook &...
BookBook has released three new covers just for iPad Pro: SurfacePad, BookBook and BookBook Rutledge Edition. BookBook for iPad Pro is a gorgeous leather case reminiscent of a vintage sketchbook.... Read more
Clean Text 1.0 for iOS Reduces Text Cleanup a...
Apimac today announced availability of Clean Text for iOS, a tool for webmasters, graphic designers, developers and magazine editors to reduce text cleanup and editing time, and also for any iPhone... Read more
27-inch iMacs on sale for up to $220 off MSRP
B&H Photo has 27″ Apple iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 27″ 3.3GHz iMac 5K: $2099 $200 off MSRP - 27″ 3.2GHz/1TB Fusion iMac 5K: $1899 $100... Read more
Apple refurbished 13-inch MacBook Airs availa...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2016 and 2015 13″ MacBook Airs now available starting at $849. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free: - 2016 13″ 1.6GHz/8GB/... Read more
Apple refurbished iPad mini 2s available for...
Apple is offering Certified Refurbished iPad mini 2s for up to $80 off the cost of new minis. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 16GB iPad mini 2 WiFi: $... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Seasonal Sales Associate - *Apple* Blossom...
Seasonal Sales Associate - Apple Blossom Mall Location:Winchester, VA, United States- Apple Blossom Mall 1850 Apple Blossom Dr Job ID:1001993 Date:August 22, Read more
*Apple* Engineer - Softthink Solutions, Inc....
Job Description:- Proven experience in administering IOS and OSX Apple devices in enterprises - Experience in administering Apple devices in Windows environments Read more
*Apple* Professional Learning Specialist - A...
# Apple Professional Learning Specialist Job Number: 51234243 Portland, Maine, Maine, United States Posted: Aug. 18, 2016 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** The Read more
*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
What does a Best Buy Apple Mobile Master do? At Best Buy, our mission is to leverage the unique talents and passions of our employees to inspire, delight, and enrich Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.