TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Oct 94 Challenge
Volume Number:10
Issue Number:10
Column Tag:Programmer’s Challenge

Programmer’s Challenge

By Mike Scanlin, Mountain View, CA

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

The rules

Here’s how it works: Each month we present a different programming challenge here. First, you write some code that solves the challenge. Second, optimize your code (a lot). Then, submit your solution to MacTech Magazine (formerly MacTutor). We choose a winner based on code correctness, speed, size and elegance (in that order of importance) as well as the postmark of the answer. In the event of multiple equally desirable solutions, one winner will be chosen at random (with honorable mention, but no prize, given to the runners up). The prize for the best solution each month is $50 and a limited edition “The Winner! MacTech Magazine Programming Challenge” T-shirt (not available in stores).

In order to make fair comparisons between solutions, all solutions must be in ANSI compatible C (i.e., don’t use Think’s Object extensions). Use only pure C code. We will disqualify any entries with any assembly in them (except for those challenges specifically stated to be in assembly). You may call any routine in the Macintosh toolbox you want (e.g., it doesn’t matter if you use NewPtr instead of malloc). We test entries with the FPU and 68020 flags turned off in THINK C. We time routines with the latest version of THINK C (with “ANSI Settings”, “Honor ‘register’ first”, and “Use Global Optimizer” turned on), so beware if you optimize for a different C compiler. Limit your code to 60 characters wide. This helps us deal with e-mail gateways and simplifies page layout.

We publish the solution and winners for this month’s Programmers’ Challenge in the issue two months later. All submissions must be received by the 10th day of the month printed on the front of this issue.

Mark solutions “Attn: Programmers’ Challenge Solution” and send them via e-mail - Internet progchallenge@xplain.com, AppleLink MT.PROGCHAL, CompuServe 71552,174 and America Online MT PRGCHAL. Include the solution, all related files, and your contact information. If you send via snail mail, please send a disk with those items on it; see “How to Contact Xplain Corporation” on page 2.

MacTech Magazine reserves the right to publish any solution entered in the Programming Challenge of the Month. Authors grant MacTech Magazine the non-exclusive right to publish entries without limitation upon submission of each entry. Authors retain copyrights for the code.

How Long Will It Take?

All of the programmer challenges during the last couple of years have focused on optimizing algorithms and implementations. This month we have something a little different. We’re going to tackle one of the hardest problems every software engineer has to deal with. No, I’m not talking about some weird memory model compatibility problem on DOS machines; I’m talking about scheduling. Specifically, estimating how long a particular software project will take. We all know it’s hard for us subjective humans to do this task accurately but maybe one of you clever readers can come up with an algorithmic way to estimate a project. And, you can even decide what your parameters will be.

Here are some example parameters you might want to use to describe the software task at hand:

version = the number of major versions of this product that have already shipped (if you were working on System 8 then this number would be 7, for a new project it would be zero)

features = estimated number of major features that need to be implemented (for a text-based project the following are examples of major features: spell checking, printing, styles, find/replace, footnotes)

engSkilled = the number of very competent engineers working on the project (more than 5 years experience on the relevant platform using the relevant tools)

engNewGuys = the number of unskilled or relatively junior engineers working on the project (less than 2 years experience)

marketing = the number of full-time marketing folks working on the project

uiPeople = the number of people who have at least some decision making authority about the user interface of the project

qaPeople = the number of trained in-house testers assigned to the project

betaTesters = the number of out-of-house user testers using the product at least a month before code freeze

meetings = average number of meetings per engineer per week during the course of the project

love = a number from 1 to 5 describing how well the team members like each other (5 means everyone gets along great, respects and trusts each other; 1 means there are problems affecting work between several members).

linesC = estimated number of lines of code (of C)

objectKB = estimated executable size, in KB

mpw (boolean) = true if using MPW for compiling the base project

thinkC (boolean) = true if using Think C for compiling the base project

appFramework (boolean) = true if using someone else’s application framework or class library (like TCL or MacApp)

systemCost = average number of dollars per engineer spent on engineering development hardware (do the engineers have ample CPU, RAM, disk space, etc.?)

personalMoney (boolean) = true if the engineer’s are financing this project at least partially with their own money

bonusMoney (boolean) = true if there is a meaningful bonus for the team if the project is done on time

food (boolean) = company provides adequate in-house food or, there is at least one restaurant that delivers food 24 hours a day

dew (boolean) = true if free Mountain Dew is available in-house

toys = average number of toys per engineer

netnews (boolean) = true if netnews is available

email (boolean) = true if e-mail is available

The prototype of the function you write starts like this:


/* 1 */
unsigned short SoftwareTimeEstimate(...);

and it’s up to you to fill in the list of parameters (including their types, probable ranges and maybe an example of each). You can choose from the list above or make up your own. The return value is the estimated total time (in calendar days) that the software project will take to make the golden master disk (but it does not include time for printing the manual, disk-duplicating, shipping, etc.).

In order to limit the scope of the project a little bit, let’s assume the project is a typical general-purpose Macintosh application. It could center around graphics, text, spreadsheet, database, communications, etc (nothing too vertical or specialized, though). You can give as much or as little weight to any of the parameters as you like. Your parameters should not be too specific because they need to work for a fairly broad selection of software projects ranging from version 1.0 of a new word processor to version 8.0 of an existing spreadsheet.

Unlike normal challenges, this challenge will not be judged on speed or code size. Instead each entry will be graded by a panel of at least three judges who will give a numerical score to each entry in each of three categories: (1) realistic (i.e. someone might actually be able to use it and get a somewhat usable number out of it), (2) documented assumptions, opinions and coefficients (explain at least a little bit how each variable, ratio and coefficient affects the final answer you produce; use lots of #defines so if someone disagrees with you they can redefine your coefficients and recompile to their taste) and (3) humor (let’s not take this thing too seriously; the winning solution should be fun to read and maybe have a silly parameter or two). The judges’ subjective scores will be totalled and the highest overall point total will win.

If you want to earn extra credit points for your entry then you can also submit your list of Top 5 Excuses Why This Project Is Late that you might give to management (who may or may not be technically impaired) once your deadline has passed. They can be meaningful excuses (“we need more equipment/people”), they can be actual excuses you’ve used in the past (“my disk crashed; we have no backup”) and/or they can be things you’d like to use but probably won’t for fear of reprisals (“If you’d stop asking me every 5 minutes when it will be done then it will be done a hell of a lot sooner!”). For each excuse the judges like we’ll add a few points to your overall score.

One last request: Please don’t go completely wack-o in terms of the length of your entry. The winning solution should fit on 2 to 6 standard MacTech code-listing type pages. This may limit the accuracy of your entry a bit (depending on how detailed you want to be) but you’ll just have to live with that and concentrate on the most important parameters first. As always, e-mail me if you have any questions.

Two Months Ago Winner

Congratulations to Dave Darrah (Lansdale, PA) for his winning entry in the DumpBytes challenge. Despite a bug in Think C (which he was able to identify and work around) Dave was able to dump bytes faster than anyone else and, he was able to do it with relatively little code and lookup table data (4th smallest entry overall). Nice job!

Here are the times and code+data sizes for each entry. The code+data size represents the code size plus the size of the static data (i.e. lookup tables). Numbers in parens after a person’s name indicate how many times that person has finished in the top 5 places of all previous Programmer Challenges, not including this one:

Name time code+data

Dave Darrah 64 1036

Ernst Munter (2) 75 3540

Bob Boonstra (11) 77 1514

N. Liber, I. Phillips (1) 83 6208

Ted DiSilvestre 86 1206

Allen Stenger (7) 87 2152

Kevin Cutts (3) 87 2286

Larry Landry (3) 103 1504

Steve Israelson (1) 128 714

Tom Elwertowski (1) 148 658

Mark Chavira 240 1514

Paul Stankiewicz 3270 422

The bug that Dave uncovered in Think C (and which I was able to reproduce) has to do with a static table of 512 chars. The very last entry (511th, zero-based) was not getting initialized to the value the auto-initializer declared it as. Dave was able to work around this bug by manually setting the last entry to the proper value early on in his code.

While reproducing this bug I noticed that if I increased the size of the table to more than 512 chars then nothing after the 510th entry (zero-based) was initialized. I then thought of breaking the long quoted string into several smaller strings and that did indeed fix the problem. So, it appears there is a limitation in Think C of 511 bytes for the length of a quoted string. If you need more you should split it up into pieces like this:


/* 2 */
static char myTable[] = \
“0123456789”\
“0123456789”\
...
“0123456789”;

(wouldn’t it be nice if the compiler informed you of its limits if and when you went beyond them...)

BlockMoveData

I saw something encouraging on AppleLink recently that readers of this column are sure to appreciate. Looks like Apple has finally accepted the idea that making BlockMove clear the instruction cache *every time it’s called* was not efficient (it’s only necessary when moving executable code). They have finally put an official interface on something I’ve been asking them to do for a long time: BlockMoveData. It’s just like BlockMove but it doesn’t do any cache flushing when it’s done. Craig Prouse of Apple says, “It’s only implemented in the $077D ROMs as found in the Quadra 840AV and Centris 660AV.” (I suspect it’s also implemented on any newer ROMs, too...)

To use it all you have to do is set a bit in the trap word. Normally BlockMove is 0xA02E but, if you use 0xA22E instead then you’ll get the new BlockMoveData for those ROMs where it’s implemented (and you’ll get regular old BlockMove on ROMs where it’s not). So, unless you’re moving executable code you should be using BlockMoveData for all your moves. Thanks Apple! And thanks Craig for posting this!

Here’s Dave’s winning solution:

Dump Bytes

Dave Darrah, Lansdale, PA


/* 3 */
#include <string.h>

typedef unsigned short *  usp;

// For unknown reasons, Think generates more efficient code for the critical 

// *(usp)outputText = aTablePtr[byte] instructions when 
// register coloring is off. Go figure.

#pragma options (honor_register, !assign_registers, !gopt_coloring)

// Address registers are used for:
//    the "inputBytes" pointer, passed parameter.
//    the "outputText" pointer, passed parameter.
//    the "outputTextA" pointer, which points to where the ASCII representation 
goes.

// Data registers are used for:
//    "space", a holder of a space.
//    "byte", a temp area that holds a value we want to "burst" to ascii.
//    "eCntr, gCntr", counters used for two loops.
//    Pointer to "aTable": "aTablePtr". Think assigns the last data reg 
to it.

unsigned short   DumpBytes(inputBytes, 
        outputText,
        numInputBytes, 
        maxOutputBytes,
        width,
        grouping)
   
  registerPtr    inputBytes;
  registerPtr    outputText;
   unsigned short  numInputBytes;
   unsigned short  maxOutputBytes;
   unsigned short  width;
   unsigned short  grouping;
{

  register Byte  space=' ';
  register  Byte     byte;
  register  unsigned short  eCntr,gCntr;

  register  Ptr  outputTextA;
  
   unsigned short  dispValue=0;   
/* This is the hex value of what’s printed at the beginning of each line. 
 */

 unsigned short    groupsPerLine,lineLength,extras,
          numberOfLines,asciiOffset,lastLineLength;
        
 Boolean           truncated=FALSE;
   Ptr               saveOutputText=outputText;

/* 256 entry (512 byte) ascii table. This table will be indexed by the 
byte value, to return the two-char entry that is the character representation 
of that byte. See note later about how Think generates this table. */

  staticcharaTable[] = "\
000102030405060708090A0B0C0D0E0F\
101112131415161718191A1B1C1D1E1F\
202122232425262728292A2B2C2D2E2F\
303132333435363738393A3B3C3D3E3F\
404142434445464748494A4B4C4D4E4F\
505152535455565758595A5B5C5D5E5F\
606162636465666768696A6B6C6D6E6F\
707172737475767778797A7B7C7D7E7F\
808182838485868788898A8B8C8D8E8F\
909192939495969798999A9B9C9D9E9F\
A0A1A2A3A4A5A6A7A8A9AAABACADAEAF\
B0B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8B9BABBBCBDBEBF\
C0C1C2C3C4C5C6C7C8C9CACBCCCDCECF\
D0D1D2D3D4D5D6D7D8D9DADBDCDDDEDF\
E0E1E2E3E4E5E6E7E8E9EAEBECEDEEEF\
F0F1F2F3F4F5F6F7F8F9FAFBFCFDFEFF";

  register usp aTablePtr=(usp)&aTable; 
 // Think gives aTablePtr a data register, and it actually helps!

Initialize and preflight

/* That's it for local variables, first, let's initialize a few variables 
and preflight the output length.
  
 Because of some flukie I haven't been able to scope out (a possible 
Think bug?), the last value (the right "F" in "FF") of aTable is hex 
0. Why? Don't know. Oh well, let's just roll with the punch. */
   
 aTable[511] = 'F';
 
// Calculate number of groups per line.
   
 groupsPerLine = width/grouping;
 
// Calculate output line length.

 lineLength = width*3 + groupsPerLine + 7;      
  // 2 for hex representation, 1 for ascii;
  // 1 for each space that follows a group;
  // 4 for disp, a colon, space and return.

// Calculate offset from outputText where ascii goes.
   
 asciiOffset = lineLength - width - 1;
   
// Calculate the number of full lines of output.

 numberOfLines = numInputBytes/width;

// Calculate the number of bytes left over after all complete lines are 
done.
   
 extras = numInputBytes % width;

// Calculate the number of bytes this line takes.
   
 lastLineLength = asciiOffset + extras;

// Reduce numberOfLines if output would run past maxOutputBytes. 
// Just dump the number of full lines that fit in maxOutputBytes.
 
 if ( (lineLength * (unsigned long)numberOfLines) +
 lastLineLength  > maxOutputBytes)  {
 numberOfLines = maxOutputBytes/lineLength;
 extras = 0;
 truncated = TRUE;
 }
 

/* Initialization and preflighting done.  It's time to process the input. 
*/

 numberOfLines++;
 while (--numberOfLines)  { // Do each full line.

 outputTextA = outputText+asciiOffset;
 
   // Displacement value goes first.   
 byte = dispValue>>8;     // left byte of disp
 
 *(usp)outputText = aTablePtr[byte];
 outputText += 2;

 byte = dispValue;   // right byte of disp
 
 *(usp)outputText = aTablePtr[byte];
 outputText += 2;

 *(usp)outputText = ': ';
 outputText += 2;
 
 dispValue += width;
 
   // Now do "groupsPerLine" sets of hex expansions.
 eCntr = groupsPerLine;
 do {     // each of the "groupsPerLine" groups.
 
 gCntr = grouping;
 do {   // each of the "grouping" bytes.
 
 byte = *inputBytes++;
 *(usp)outputText = aTablePtr[byte];
   outputText += 2;

   // Do the ascii.
 if (byte < space || byte > 0x7E)
 *outputTextA++ = '.';
 else
 *outputTextA++ = byte;
 
 } while (--gCntr);  // End "grouping bytes" loop

 *outputText++ = space;   // Space after each group
 
 } while (--eCntr);// End "groups per line" loop
 
 *outputTextA++ = '\r';
 
   // Point to beginning of next line.
 outputText = outputTextA;
 
 } // End of "lines" loop.


//  Now to worry, if necessary, about dribble left over. 
// A lot of code duplication, but what the hey!

 if ( extras )  {
   // Space output line.
 memset(outputText,space,lineLength);

 outputTextA = outputText+asciiOffset;
 
   // Displacement value goes first.   
 byte = dispValue>>8;   // left byte of disp
 
 *(usp)outputText = aTablePtr[byte];
 outputText += 2;

 byte = dispValue;   // right byte of disp
 
 *(usp)outputText = aTablePtr[byte];
 outputText += 2;

 *outputText = ':';  // space is already there.
 outputText += 2;
 
   // Now do "groupsPerLine" sets of hex expansions.
 eCntr = groupsPerLine;
 do {   //  each of the "groupsPerLine" groups.
 
 gCntr = grouping;
 do {   // each of the "grouping" bytes.
 
 byte = *inputBytes++;
 *(usp)outputText = aTablePtr[byte];
   outputText += 2;

   // Do the ascii.
 if (byte < space || byte > 0x7E)
 *outputTextA++ = '.';
 else
 *outputTextA++ = byte;
 
 if (!--extras)
 goto AllDone;   // Nasty termination when we've done 'em all.
 
 } while (--gCntr);// End "bytes in group" loop

   // skip past space after each group.
 *outputText++;
 
 } while (--eCntr);// End of groups per line loop.
 
 }  // end if

   AllDone:

 if (truncated)
 return 0;
 else
 return(outputTextA - saveOutputText);
}







  
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Apple Digital Camera RAW Compatibility 6...
Apple Digital Camera RAW Compatibility update adds RAW image compatibility to Aperture 3 and iPhoto '11. For more information on supported RAW formats, see this page. Version 6.03: This update adds... Read more
OmniGraffle Pro 6.1.4 - Create diagrams,...
OmniGraffle Pro helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use... Read more
OmniGraffle 6.1.4 - Create diagrams, flo...
OmniGraffle helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use Graffle to... Read more
MegaSeg 5.9.5 - Professional MP3 DJ appl...
MegaSeg is a complete solution for pro audio/video DJ mixing, radio automation, and music scheduling with rock-solid performance and an easy-to-use design. Mix with visual waveforms and Magic... Read more
MarsEdit 3.6.8 - Quick and convenient bl...
MarsEdit is a blog editor for OS X that makes editing your blog like writing email, with spell-checking, drafts, multiple windows, and even AppleScript support. It works with with most blog services... Read more
BBEdit 11.0.3 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more
Microsoft Office Preview 15.8 - Popular...
Welcome to the new and modern Microsoft Office for Mac. You will receive regular updates automatically until the official release in the second half of 2015. With the redesigned Ribbon and your... Read more
Yosemite Cache Cleaner 9.0.5 - Clear cac...
Yosemite Cache Cleaner is an award-winning general purpose tool for OS X. YCC makes system maintenance simple with an easy point-and-click interface to many OS X functions. Novice and expert users... Read more
ExpanDrive 4.3.2 - Access cloud storage...
ExpanDrive builds cloud storage in every application, acts just like a USB drive plugged into your Mac. With ExpanDrive, you can securely access any remote file server directly from the Finder or... Read more
RapidWeaver 6.0.8 - Create template-base...
RapidWeaver is a next-generation Web design application to help you easily create professional-looking Web sites in minutes. No knowledge of complex code is required, RapidWeaver will take care of... Read more

Take a First Look at NaturalMotion’s Daw...
NaturalMotion has released a preview of their upcoming title, Dawn of Titans. Dawn of Titans immerses you in a world of fantasy as you build your kingdom, raise an army, and capture territories. The focus on this epic action strategy game was the... | Read more »
GDC 2015 – Warfriends is Something Famil...
GDC 2015 – Warfriends is Something Familiar That’s Also a Little Different Posted by Rob Rich on March 6th, 2015 [ permalink ] About Fun‘s upcoming Warfriends is quite the interesting hybrid. | Read more »
Bored? MyLeisure FreeTime Maximizer Will...
Bored? MyLeisure FreeTime Maximizer Will Take Care of That! Posted by Jessica Fisher on March 5th, 2015 [ permalink ] iPhone App - Designed for the iPhone, compatible with the iPad | Read more »
New Publisher Allstar Games Heads West w...
Allstar Games has announced its first mobile title designed for western audiences, Allstar Heroes. The game will be a massive online battle arena (MOBA) that offers dozens of heroes for you to collect and pit against your opponents. As each hero has... | Read more »
RAD Boarding Review
RAD Boarding Review By Jennifer Allen on March 5th, 2015 Our Rating: :: NEARLY RADUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad RAD Boarding isn’t quite one of the greats, but it has potential.   | Read more »
Presenting the International Mobile Gami...
11th Annual International Mobile Gaming Awards ceremony, hosted by actress Allison Haislip, gathered mobile game developers and publishers from around the world. They chose 13 winners out of the 93 nominations. British studio USTWO won the the Grand... | Read more »
AG Drive Review
AG Drive Review By Tre Lawrence on March 5th, 2015 Our Rating: :: FUTURISTIC STREET RACING.Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Futuristic racing… interstellar style.   | Read more »
GDC 2015 – Nightmare Guardians is an Int...
GDC 2015 – Nightmare Guardians is an Interesting Hybrid of MOBA and Lane Defense Posted by Rob Rich on March 5th, 2015 [ permalink ] I have to say that lane defense (i.e. | Read more »
Overkill 3 Review
Overkill 3 Review By Tre Lawrence on March 5th, 2015 Our Rating: :: WHO'S NEXT?Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Cover system gameplay in the third-person.   Developer: Craneballs Price: Free Version Reviewed: 1.1.6... | Read more »
Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment A...
Warner Bros. has some exciting games coming down the pipe! | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

16GB iPad mini 3 on sale for $349, save $50
 Walmart has the 16GB iPad mini 3 WiFi on sale on their online store for $349.99 including free shipping or free local store pickup. Their price is $50 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available... Read more
Save up to 15% with Apple refurbished Time Ca...
The Apple Store has certified refurbished Time Capsules available for up to $60 off MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each Time Capsule, and shipping is free: - 2TB Time Capsule: $255... Read more
Save up to $105 on AppleCare Protection Plans
B&H Photo has 3-Year AppleCare Warranties on sale for up to $105 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - Mac Laptops 15″ and Above: $244 $105 off MSRP - Mac Laptops 13″ and... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished 15-inch Retina Mac...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 15″ Retina MacBook Pros, available for up to $400 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model,... Read more
Roundup of MacBook Air sale prices, models up...
B&H Photo has MacBook Airs on sale for up to $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 11″ 128GB MacBook Air: $799 100 off MSRP - 11″ 256GB MacBook Air: $999 $100... Read more
New Firstrade Mobile App Enables On-The-Go Tr...
Firstrade Securities Inc. has announced its new mobile app, which gives investors immediate access to the company’s trading platform on all mobile devices. The app was developed in-house and was... Read more
Sonnet Introduces USB 3.0 + eSATA Thunderbolt...
Sonnet has announced the launch of its new USB 3.0 + eSATA Thunderbolt Adapter for easy connectivity to USB 3.0 devices and eSATA storage, and USB 3.0 + Gigabit Ethernet Thunderbolt Adapter for easy... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished 27-inch 5K iMacs f...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMacs for $2119 including free shipping. Their price is $380 off the cost of new models, and it’s the lowest price available... Read more
Free Clean Reader Mobile App Hides Swear Word...
The new Clean Reader app, now available in the Apple App Store and Google Play, delivers the opportunity of reading any book without being exposed to profanity. By selecting how clean they want their... Read more
Kinsa Launches “Groups” App to Monitor Illnes...
Kinsa, makers of the first FDA approved app-enabled smartphone thermometer thst won the 2013 Cleveland Clinic Medical Innovation Grand Prize and recently appeared in Apple’s “Parenthood” TV... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
Position Opening at *Apple* - Apple (United...
…Summary** As a Specialist, you help create the energy and excitement around Apple products, providing the right solutions and getting products into customers' hands. You Read more
Position Opening at *Apple* - Apple (United...
**Job Summary** The Apple Store is a retail environment like no other - uniquely focused on delivering amazing customer experiences. As an Expert, you introduce people Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.