TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Symantec C++ 7.0
Volume Number:10
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Tools Of The Trade

A Review Of Symantec C++ 7.0

Symantec’s new release is solid and feature rich

By Jess Holle, Purdue University

About the author

Jess Holle is nearing the completion of his Master's Degree in Mechanical Engineering at Purdue University. He works as a research assistant in the Purdue CADLAB developing CAD/CAM software in C++. His current research efforts center on developing a 3D GD&T (that’s Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (ala ANSI Y14.5) for you curious types) tolerance scheme in a feature-based design environment.

Jess uses Symantec C++ primarily to port software from Silicon Graphics systems to the Macintosh for debugging, portability testing, and demonstration purposes. You can reach Jess at jess@ecn.purdue.edu

In May of 1993, Symantec released Symantec C++ 6.0, a C and C++ development environment based on its popular Think C environment. The new modular environment included two compilers: the case-hardened Think C compiler and a native C++ compiler, which was based upon the Zortech compiler Symantec had purchased. Finally there was a real alternative to MPW for C++ development on the Macintosh.

Unfortunately, the 6.0 C++ compiler was less than solid. The bug-fix release, 6.0.1, failed to bring the compiler in line with user expectations. On-line forums, such as comp.sys.mac.programmer on the Usenet, were filled with complaints and bug reports.

Symantec’s response was to enlist its most vocal detractors as beta testers for Symantec C++ 7.0 (myself included). The result is a solid C++ development environment with some of the best C++ debugging features on any platform.

[This review gives a brief overview of the product, but focuses mainly on the language itself. We will bring you a review of the TCL and Visual Architect in July. This review also only deals with the 68K product; the cross-compiler was not available for review as of this writing - Ed stb]

In addition to 6.0’s integrated debugger, scriptable project manager, support for external editors, integration with Apple’s SourceServer, and on-line help for the standard C and C++ libraries, Symantec C++ 7.0 also provides:

• Improved C and C++ compilers

• Universal headers, facilitating PowerPC compatible source

• Inspector, a heap analyzer tool

• Think Class Library (TCL) 2.0, a fully C++ framework with support for persistent objects, AppleEvents, and scripting

• Visual Architect, a visual interface builder for TCL

• AppleScript 1.1

• A 60-day money back guarantee

Symantec C++ 7.0 requires:

• 8 megabytes of RAM (12 megabytes recommended)

• System 7.0 or later in order to use all features - basic environment and source-level debugging supported under 6.0.7 and later

• A hard drive, 17 MB for a full install or about 7 MB for a fairly minimal install (essential tools, libraries, and headers)

Project Manager

Symantec 7.0’s Project Manager is much the same as in 6.0, with a few small changes. Besides the addition of color, the project window, shown in Figure 1, has remained unchanged. Source files are added to segments in the project window, and the Project Manager keeps track of which files’ object code needs updating. Segments can be named, collapsed, and expanded in the project window for segmentation control and simple source organization. The production of symbolic debugging information is controlled via toggling the bullet in the debug column. Projects can be included within other projects as libraries and hopped into by double clicking on the included project’s name. The integrated editor displays files selected from the project window and contains quick links to on-line reference information, header files, and the class browser.

One nice improvement is the New Project dialog shown in Figure 2. Any project placed in Symantec’s Project Models folder will appear in this dialog and serve as a stationary for new projects, retaining all of its original libraries and settings.

Figure 1 New project window and menus

A new AppleScript, which removes all files from a given segment of a project, has been provided. This alleviates a constant source of complaint for Symantec users: files have to be removed from a project one at a time. For large projects, this became quite tedious. This AppleScript, along with all others placed in Symantec’s AppleScripts folder, can now be executed through the new scripts menu seen at the far right in Figure 1.

Figure 2 Improved New Project dialog

Other improvements include:

• Code segments that are greater than 32K can be automatically resegmented (at file boundaries)

• The Find dialog remembers old search and replace strings

Class Browser

Symantec’s class browser now allows larger and more complex hierarchies to be viewed. Though by no means as full-featured as source browsing products such as Object Master, Symantec’s integrated browser provides an attractive, economical alternative. Each class is represented as a box, with base classes shown on the left and lines linking them to their subclasses on the right. Each box serves as a pop-up menu of methods through which corresponding source code can be obtained. Double-clicking on a box brings up the class’ header file. When using Symantec’s built-in editor, option-double clicking on any method name in the source will bring up the class browser and hilite all classes which define the method, as shown in Figure 3. I have found Symantec’s browser to be enormously helpful when exploring huge bodies of code and tangled class hierarchies.

Figure 3 Class Browser

Compiler Stability

The C++ compiler is drastically improved over the previous version in almost all respects. The parsing, standards compliance, code generation, and error recovery are significantly better than in 6.0.1. In the later stages of beta testing, the compiler passed over 99% of the MetaWare verification suite. Quoting the release notes, “all known code generation bugs have been fixed.” I have successfully compiled tens of thousands of lines of C++ code (including multiple inheritance, operator overloading, and nested classes) with Symantec C++, with only one workaround for the compiler. All other compilers that I’ve had the opportunity to try have required changes to my source code.

Multiple Inheritance

One area where the C++ compiler really shines is multiple inheritance. As Grady Booch states, “Multiple inheritance is like a parachute; you don’t need it very often, but when you do it is essential.”

Few compilers seem to get multiple inheritance right. Most CFront implementations prior to 3.0.2 and Symantec C++ 6.0.1 can produce bad code for cases as simple as the class hierarchy shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4 Multiple Inheritance Class Hierarchy

Table 1 shows the results of a sample program based on this hierarchy. In this test, a virtual function, Get(), is defined in classes A, B, and C. An instance of class CC is created and Get() is called through a pointer of type AA as follows:


/* 1 */
AA  *a = new CC;
a->Get();

The most derived version of Get(), C::Get(), should be called here, print the this pointer and return 5. It is evident from Table 1 that CFront 3.0.1 does not produce correct code here (a slightly different program causes a crash). The cause is also readily apparent: the this pointer has been miscalculated by CFront for C::Get().

Table 1 Sample Program Results

Variable Symantec C++ 7.0 CFront 3.0.1

this in C::C() af239e 1000b050

this in C::Get() af239e 1000b02c (wrong)

C::Get() 5 268480656 (wrong)

MPW C++ correctly generates code for this simple example, but fails on more complicated hierarchies. Symantec C++ 7.0 generates correct code for all multiple inheritance cases that I’ve tested, including projects with five generations of multiple inheritance (counting the hierarchy shown in Figure 4 as two). This has allowed me to #ifdef out dozens of workarounds needed with some other compilers.

Language Features

The C++ language has recently seen the development of several major features: templates, exception handling, and RTTI.

Templates, the oldest of these additions, allow the creation of general parameterized types and functions such as those shown here.


/* 2 */
template<class Type> class array  {
 public:
 Type  *a
 array( int size );
};
template<class T>  Type min( T a, T b);

Once defined templates can then be “instantiated” for a particular type by using them in source code as follows:


/* 3 */
array<float> v(4);
array<myClass>  c(10);
min(1,2);

C++ exception handling allows error handling code to be separated from normal execution code and packaged in a cleaner fashion. Unlike C’s longjmp, C++’s exceptions handling not only unwinds the stack, but also frees memory allocated from the stack, and calls destructors on class objects as needed. Exception handling also increases the utility of C++’s constructors by allowing failures within the constructors to be caught.

RTTI, or run-time-type-information, gives the ability to determine an object’s exact type at run time. Besides the obvious benefits of this, RTTI also allows safe, dynamic type casting between pointer types, including from virtual base classes to their derived classes, returning NULL if the cast is not possible.

Symantec C++ 7.0 adds no major language features to the compiler itself, though templates are now significantly more stable. Symantec still requires templates to be manually instantiated in source files such as the following (in addition to simply using them as shown above).


/* 4 */
// array<float>.cp: template instantiation file
#include "array.cp"
#pragma template array<float>
#pragma template operator<<(ostream&, array<float>&)
#pragma template_access public

The most recent major C++ language features, RTTI (run-time type information) and exception-handling, are not yet implemented in the Symantec C++ compiler. These features are implemented by macros and classes in the Think Class Library, however. This is an interim solution until compiler support for these features is added. When the compiler supports these features, the macros will be rewritten to use new compiler features so that no source changes will be required.

While code based on these TCL implementations is not portable like the standard C++ features (without writing some conversion macros), much of the functionality of these C++ features is present in the current TCL implementations for those who need it. Exception handling and RTTI do not require the entire mass of TCL, but rather just the Bedrock exception library, Exceptions.cp, and Exceptions.h. The following program demonstrates the syntax required to use exception handling and to declare a RTTI-aware class in Symantec C++ 7.0.


/* 5 */
#include <iostream.h>
#include <Exceptions.h>

class Overflow  TCL_EXCEPTION_CLASS
{
 public:
 TCL_DECLARE_CLASS
 Overflow(char A, double B, double C) {a=A; b=B; c=C;}
 char a;
 double b,c;
};

TCL_DEFINE_CLASS_M0(Overflow);

static void f(double x)  {
 throw_(Overflow('+', x, 3.45e107));
}

void main()
{
 // uncomment next line to skip Debugger() call when an exception is 
caught
 TCL_BREAK_ON_CATCH(false);
 try_  {// ARM p. 358, GREY p. 603
 cout << "example 2:" << endl;
 try_  {
 f(1.2);
 }
 catch_all_()  { // catch all exceptions
 // respond (partially) to exception
 cout << "exception partially handled" << endl;
 throw_same_();  // pass the exception to some other handler
 }
 end_try_
 }
 catch_all_()  {
 cout << 
 "rethrown exception caught again in outermost catch_all_()" 
 << endl;
 }
 end_try_
}

Symbolic Debugger

Symantec’s 7.0 debugger, which is identical to that in 6.0 with the exception of bug-fixes, is shown in Figure 5. Breakpoints are set by clicking on diamonds appearing along the edge of the source window. Buttons and keyboard equivalents provide easy source stepping. Data values can be displayed and modified by selecting them in the source window or typing in the Data window. Classes, structures, and arrays are displayed in individual named windows.

Figure 5 Symbolic Debugger

Symantec’s debugger provides a feature that is usually associated with interpreted environments: the ability to evaluate general C and C++ expressions, including method calls, preprocessor defines, and overloaded operators, on the fly. This ability is extremely useful when debugging complex code. Rather than adding lines into the program, recompiling and viewing the results, one can use Symantec’s debugger to evaluate expressions of interest at any time. The debugger also allows breakpoints to be conditional on the results of such expressions.

There are several limitations to this. Since the expressions are compiled and run on the fly, the expression must be something the compiler can understand in the current scope. Due to the dependence on the compiler, the debugger cannot be run apart from the Think Project Manager. Also, file writes and other “side effects” will not operate correctly when operating from such an expression, and the debugger will complain accordingly. The Data window in Figure 5 shows several uses of this general expression evaluation capability.

I have found the Symantec debugger to be extraordinarily helpful and have ported several projects to Symantec C++ from the SGI Iris mainly to take advantage of it. Its ability to evaluate source expressions on the fly is particularly useful.

THINK Inspector

The THINK Inspector is a completely new memory heap inspection tool. It is intended both for tracking down memory leaks and for quickly navigating through heap-based structures, such as linked-lists, which are generally somewhat tedious to traverse when debugging. Figure 6 shows the Inspector displaying objects of several class types.

Figure 6 THINK Inspector

The Inspector runs in conjunction with the debugger, and tracks the creation and deletion of all C++ class objects with virtual destructors. Inspector’s data is updated when the program stops in the debugger, operating via hooks in the new and delete operators (which must be added to user-defined new and delete operators if their objects are to be inspected).

The upper-left pane of each Inspector window is a list of classes, either alphabetical, or hierarchical, as shown here. Classes are selected from this list for inspection. Menu items allow either all classes with active instances or the next such class to be selected from this list.

The lower pane lists all the methods for any selected classes. Selecting a method will display its source in the debugger’s source window. This pane presents a handy alternative to the class browser while debugging. This and the upper left pane bear a great deal of similarity to Apple’s SourceBug, with the exception that the THINK Inspector understands C++ class inheritance.

The upper-right pane is the heart of the Inspector. It shows the current instances of any classes selected from the class list. Data members pointing to other heap-based objects can be expanded in a fashion similar to the Finder’s list views. Figure 6 shows a linked list being inspected. Note that though each object contains only a void pointer, the Inspector knows the actual class type of each object. If further viewing options or changes to data are desired, any portion of this pane can be sent to the debugger’s data window via a menu item for further manipulations. A menu item allows the source line where a selected instance was allocated to be displayed.

Multiple inspector windows can be active at any time, allowing instances of different classes to be tracked simultaneously in different windows. Each window’s panes are resizable and can be viewed in any text size and font. All window positions and preferences are saved between executions.

Memory leak tracking with the THINK Inspector is very easy. Simply set a breakpoint where you’d like to check up on memory usage and inspect the active instances of any classes of interest. By placing a breakpoint immediately before the end of the program and selecting a menu item, any class objects allocated throughout the entire execution that have not yet been deallocated can be quickly viewed.

Overall, the Inspector greatly enhances the debugging capabilities of Symantec C++ 7.0. I have found it very useful for checking for memory leaks and for traversing object pointer chains.

Symantec vs. the Competition

Until recently, Symantec’s only competition was MPW, which is significantly slower and harder to learn. Recently, however, Metrowerks introduced Code Warrior, a development release of a C, C++, and Pascal environment similar in many respects to Symantec’s.

The object size and compilation speed for the two environments are compared in Table 2 for both a small C project and a medium-sized C++ project. The timing shown is for the Metrowerks 68K code generator running on a 68K machine [Their PowerPC version of the 68K code generator was not timed for this comparison - Ed stb]. It appears that Symantec’s C compile times are slightly longer and the code produced is slightly larger than that produced by Metrowerks. Symantec’s C++ is much slower than Metrowerks’ C++, but Symantec C++ generates smaller code. Idid not determine how much of this speed difference is due to my source file arrangement (Symantec searches for files during each build while Metrowerks caches file locations). All results are for near/small code with Macsbug symbols off. The results varied somewhat given different compiler settings, file organization, and choice of code samples, but these results are generally representative.

Table 2 A brief time & size comparison

Symantec Metrowerks

Source Code C++ 7.0 Code Warrior DR/2

Time Size Time Size

C (size-optimized) 171s 124K 129s 116K

C++ (unoptimized) 954s 399K 468s 470K

C++ (size-optimized) 1701s 364K 479s 454K

In the battle for features, both environments have their advantages. Metrowerks boasts faster compile times and lower memory requirements for less than half the price; and both native 68K and PowerPC environments at $200 less than the price of Symantec’s C++/cross-compiler combination. Symantec’s advantages include its class browser, Visual Architect, heap Inspector, debugger source expression evaluation, and smaller object code. A brief feature comparison is given in Table 3.

Conclusions

Symantec C++ 7.0 is a big improvement over 6.0 and a good, full-featured environment. The C++ compiler itself, as well as almost every other component, is much more solid than in the 6.0.1 release, and is one of the most complete C++compilers available. The debugger’s ability to easily evaluate general C and C++ expressions on the fly is still unique on the Macintosh platform. The new THINK Inspector eases the burden of tracking heap-related problems. The inclusion and support of AppleScript, the updated TCL, and Universal Headers make this a well-rounded release. The biggest item missing is an available native PowerPC environment.

When considering purchasing Symantec C++ 7.0, two additional items should be considered:

• A C++ PowerPC cross-compiler is available for Symantec C++ for $100. Symantec views this as an interim solution until their native development system is ready for release. No release date has been announced for Symantec’s native tools.

• A free bug-fix upgrade from 6.0.1 to 7.0 versions of the C, C++, and Rez compilers, the debugger, and the project manager is available. All new components, libraries, and header files are available at an upgrade cost of $149 to Symantec C++ 6.0 users and a list price of $499 for new copies. Those who purchased version 6.0 on January 7, 1994 or later, can upgrade to 7.0 at no charge.

[One last thing: Symantec C++7.0 comes with 2000 pages of new, printed documentation - Ed stb] {Also, by popular demand, Symantec’s tools are available in the Mail Order Store. - Ed nst}

 
AAPL
$97.67
Apple Inc.
+0.64
MSFT
$44.50
Microsoft Corpora
+0.10
GOOG
$589.02
Google Inc.
-4.33

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

TinkerTool 5.3 - Expanded preference set...
TinkerTool is an application that gives you access to additional preference settings Apple has built into Mac OS X. This allows to activate hidden features in the operating system and in some of the... Read more
Audio Hijack Pro 2.11.0 - Record and enh...
Audio Hijack Pro drastically changes the way you use audio on your computer, giving you the freedom to listen to audio when you want and how you want. Record and enhance any audio with Audio Hijack... Read more
Intermission 1.1.1 - Pause and rewind li...
Intermission allows you to pause and rewind live audio from any application on your Mac. Intermission will buffer up to 3 hours of audio, allowing users to skip through any assortment of audio... Read more
Autopano Giga 3.6 - Stitch multiple imag...
Autopano Giga allows you to stitch 2, 20, or 2,000 images. Version 3.0 integrates impressive new features that will definitely make you adopt Autopano Pro or Autopano Giga: Choose between 9... Read more
Airfoil 4.8.7 - Send audio from any app...
Airfoil allows you to send any audio to AirPort Express units, Apple TVs, and even other Macs and PCs, all in sync! It's your audio - everywhere. With Airfoil you can take audio from any... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.8 - Connect...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more
xACT 2.30 - Audio compression toolkit. (...
xACT stands for X Aaudio Compression Toolkit, an application that encodes and decodes FLAC, SHN, Monkey’s Audio, TTA, Wavpack, and Apple Lossless files. It also can encode these formats to MP3, AAC... Read more
Firefox 31.0 - Fast, safe Web browser. (...
Firefox for Mac offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals... Read more
Little Snitch 3.3.3 - Alerts you to outg...
Little Snitch gives you control over your private outgoing data. Track background activityAs soon as your computer connects to the Internet, applications often have permission to send any... Read more
Thunderbird 31.0 - Email client from Moz...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Reddme for iPhone - The Reddit Client (...
Reddme for iPhone - The Reddit Client 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: News Price: $.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Reddme for iPhone is an iOS 7-optimized Reddit client that offers a refreshing new way to experience Reddit... | Read more »
Jacob Jones and the Bigfoot Mystery : Ep...
Jacob Jones and the Bigfoot Mystery : Episode 2 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Jacob Jones is back in Episode 2 of one of Apples 'Best of 2013' games and an App Store... | Read more »
New Trailer For Outcast Odyssey, A New K...
New Trailer For Outcast Odyssey, A New Kind of Card Battler Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 25th, 2014 [ permalink ] Out this Fall is a new kind of card battle game: Outcast Odyssey. | Read more »
Garfield: Survival of the Fattest Coming...
Garfield: Survival of the Fattest Coming to iOS this Fall Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 25th, 2014 [ permalink ] Who loves lasagna? Me. Also everyone’s favorite grumpy fat cat, Garfield. | Read more »
Happy Flock Review
Happy Flock Review By Andrew Fisher on July 25th, 2014 Our Rating: :: HERD IT ALL BEFOREUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Underneath the gloss of Happy Flock’s visuals is a game of very little substance. It’s cute, but... | Read more »
Square Register Updates Adds Offline Pay...
Square Register Updates Adds Offline Payments Posted by Ellis Spice on July 25th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Looking For Group – Hearthstone’s Curse...
For the first time since its release (which has thankfully been a much shorter window for iPad players than their PC counterparts), Blizzard’s wildly successful Hearthstone: Heroes of Warcraft CCG is sporting some brand new content: the single... | Read more »
Poptile Review
Poptile Review By Jennifer Allen on July 25th, 2014 Our Rating: :: SIMPLY FUNUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Simple yet a little bit glorious, Poptile is a satisfying entertaining puzzle game with oodles of the ‘one... | Read more »
Modern Combat 5: Blackout Review
Modern Combat 5: Blackout Review By Brittany Vincent on July 25th, 2014 Our Rating: :: LESS QQ, MORE PEW PEWUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad The fifth entry into the blockbuster Modern Combat series is what mobile... | Read more »
Watch and Share Mobile Gameplay Videos W...
Watch and Share Mobile Gameplay Videos With Kamcord Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 25th, 2014 [ permalink ] iPhone App - Designed for the iPhone, compatible with the iPad | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

iMacs on sale for $150 off MSRP, $250 off for...
Best Buy has iMacs on sale for up to $160 off MSRP for a limited time. Choose free home shipping or free instant local store pickup (if available). Prices are valid for online orders only, in-store... Read more
Mac minis on sale for $100 off MSRP, starting...
Best Buy has Mac minis on sale for $100 off MSRP. Choose free shipping or free instant local store pickup. Prices are for online orders only, in-store prices may vary: 2.5GHz Mac mini: $499.99 2.3GHz... Read more
Global Tablet Market Grows 11% in Q2/14 Notwi...
Worldwide tablet sales grew 11.0 percent year over year in the second quarter of 2014, with shipments reaching 49.3 million units according to preliminary data from the International Data Corporation... Read more
New iPhone 6 Models to Have Staggered Release...
Digitimes’ Cage Chao and Steve Shen report that according to unnamed sources in Apple’s upstream iPhone supply chain, the new 5.5-inch iPhone will be released several months later than the new 4.7-... Read more
New iOS App Helps People Feel Good About thei...
Mobile shoppers looking for big savings at their favorite stores can turn to the Goodshop app, a new iOS app with the latest coupons and deals at more than 5,000 online stores. In addition to being a... Read more
Save on 5th generation refurbished iPod touch...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 5th generation iPod touches available starting at $149. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free. Many, but not all... Read more
What Should Apple’s Next MacBook Priority Be;...
Stabley Times’ Phil Moore says that after expanding its iMac lineup with a new low end model, Apple’s next Mac hardware decision will be how it wants to approach expanding its MacBook lineup as well... Read more
ArtRage For iPhone Painting App Free During C...
ArtRage for iPhone is currently being offered for free (regularly $1.99) during Comic-Con San Diego #SDCC, July 24-27, in celebration of the upcoming ArtRage 4.5 and other 64-bit versions of the... Read more
With The Apple/IBM Alliance, Is The iPad Now...
Almost since the iPad was rolled out in 2010, and especially after Apple made a 128 GB storage configuration available in 2012, there’s been debate over whether the iPad is a serious tool for... Read more
MacBook Airs on sale starting at $799, free s...
B&H Photo has the new 2014 MacBook Airs on sale for up to $100 off MSRP for a limited time. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. They also include free copies of Parallels... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Sr Software Lead Engineer, *Apple* Online S...
Sr Software Lead Engineer, Apple Online Store Publishing Systems Keywords: Company: Apple Job Code: E3PCAK8MgYYkw Location (City or ZIP): Santa Clara Status: Full Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Sr. Project Manager for *Apple* Campus 2 -...
…the design and construction of one building or building components of the New Apple Campus located in Cupertino, CA. They will provide project management oversight for Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.