TweetFollow Us on Twitter

SimpleAPP
Volume Number:10
Issue Number:4
Column Tag:Demonstration

Building The SimpleAPP Demonstration Application

By Richard Clark

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

Even though a program written for a Power Macintosh can use the same source code as a 68K Macintosh, the build process is different. Power Macintosh development uses a new set of compilers and linkers, and introduces the first fundamentally new Macintosh development system in several years - Metrowerks’ “Code Warrior.”

Not only are the tools different, but “native” Power Macintosh executables use a different format than 68K executables. “Native” application code is stored in the data fork of a file, and requires a ‘cfrg’ resource to notify the system that PowerPC code is present. The ‘cfrg’ resource describes several major things about the fragment or fragments in the current file:

• Code type (only PowerPC is supported at present)

• Whether this is a stand-alone fragment, or an overpatch to another fragment

• Version information for this fragment

• Is this a library or an application? (There’s also a value for “is a drop-in”, but the system only looks for ‘cfrg’ resources in applications and shared libraries. The third value is supplied for applications which include cfrg resources in their extensions and parse these resources directly. The “ModApp” sample included with both the MetroWerks and Apple development environments includes a cfrg parser.)

• Is this on disk, or in memory? (An additional value, “on disk segmented” is reserved for future use.)

• If this is on disk, what is the offset to the start of the container? This allows applications to reserve the first part of the data fork for application-specific information (though Apple is discouraging developers from writing to the data fork of a running application.) Also, what is the length of the container.

These two fields serve another purpose besides allowing an application to store information in the data fork - the data fork may contain multiple containers, and the associated ‘cfrg’ resource may have an entry for each container.

• The name of this fragment. This is especially important for shared libraries as it allows the name of a shared library to be independent from the name of its file. If the user renames a shared library, nothing will break. This also supports packing multiple fragments into the same file as described above.

• If this is an application, the stack size (or 0 for the default.) Also, the “appSubFolderID” field can be used if an application maintains a folder full of shared libraries. The application can include an ‘alis’ folder alias resource in its resource fork, and place the ID number of that resource into the cfrg.

This resource has to be added as part of the build process.

Building with Code Warrior

SimpleApp is easy to build with code warrior, though you have to set the appropriate ‘cfrg’ and ‘SIZE’ resource values in the Preferences Dialog. Code Warrior accepts only a subset of the ‘cfrg’ information at present (whether this is an application or a Shared Library, the fragment’s name, and the default stack size), but these are adequate for our purposes.

Building the SimpleApp code resources is a bit more interesting. You have to specify that you are building a stand-alone module and set the file’s type and creator. (This type and creator indicates to SimpleApp that this is disk-based code.)

The other important setting specifies the code’s main entry point, initialization, and termination routines. In an application, these routines (typically called __start, __initialize, and __terminate) are supplied by the runtime library. Since our code resource has its own special routines, those names must be supplied to the “Linker” part of the Preferences Dialog.

If you’re building disk-based code, that’s all you have to do. If you want to create resource-based code, SimpleApp comes with an auxiliary application (DataToRes) which will take a SimpleApp ‘DPEF’ file (with code in the data fork) and turn it into a ‘RPEF’ file with code in a ‘RPEF’ resource.

Building with MPW

SimpleApp also comes with a MPW makefile. Building the application and the external code is a simple matter of compiling and linking, with one complication. The compiler and linker emit code in the XCOFF (Extended Common Object File Format) used by IBM, but the Power Macintosh prefers PEF. The Macintosh on RISC SDK supplies a “MakePEF” tool to convert XCOFF to PEF. When you run this tool, you must supply not only the file to be converted, but also a set of “library name mapping” rules that remove the “.xcoff” extension from the shared library names:


/* 1 */
SimpleApp ƒƒ SimpleApp.xcoff
 MakePEF SimpleApp.xcoff -o {targ} 
 -l InterfaceLib.xcoff=InterfaceLib

Another option to MakePEF lists the Main, Initialization, and Termination routines. (If the “main” routine was specified to the linker, it doesn’t have to be supplied to MakePEF.)


/* 2 */
'PICT Viewer' ƒƒ PICTViewer.xcoff
 MakePEF {deps} -o {targ} 
 -i OurInitRoutine -t OurTerminationRoutine 
 -l InterfaceLib.xcoff=InterfaceLib

The PowerPC linker performs dead code stripping, so you have to tell the linker to retain the Initialization and Termination routines. You can do this with the “-dead off” option, or by exporting the Initialization and Termination routines:


/* 3 */
PICTViewer.xcoff ƒ PICTViewer.c.o {XCOFFLibs}
 PPCLink {deps} -o {targ} -main OurMainRoutine -sym {SYM} 
 -export OurInitRoutine,OurTerminationRoutine

Finally, just as Code Warrior creates code in the data fork, so does MakePEF. This could create a problem if you wanted to create resource-based code, but MPW users can use a “Rez” script to read a PEF file into a resource:


/* 4 */
// File: Chaos.r
//
// This file includes the resources from a resource file
// (Unlike SimpleApp, an external don't need a 'cfrg' or
// 'SIZE' resource)

read 'RPEF' (128) "Chaos.PEF";







  
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Vienna 3.0.6 :5eaf312: - RSS and Atom ne...
Vienna is a freeware and Open-Source RSS/Atom newsreader with article storage and management via a SQLite database, written in Objective-C and Cocoa, for the OS X operating system. It provides... Read more
Kodi 15.1.rc1 - Powerful media center to...
Kodi (was XBMC) is an award-winning free and open-source (GPL) software media player and entertainment hub that can be installed on Linux, OS X, Windows, iOS, and Android, featuring a 10-foot user... Read more
Bookends 12.5.8 - Reference management a...
Bookends is a full-featured bibliography/reference and information-management system for students and professionals. Access the power of Bookends directly from Mellel, Nisus Writer Pro, or MS Word (... Read more
Chromium 44.0.2403.125 - Fast and stable...
Chromium is an open-source browser project that aims to build a safer, faster, and more stable way for all Internet users to experience the web. Version 44.0.2403.125: This release contains a number... Read more
iMazing 1.2.2 - Complete iOS device mana...
iMazing (was DiskAid) is the ultimate iOS device manager with capabilities far beyond what iTunes offers. With iMazing and your iOS device (iPhone, iPad, or iPod), you can: Copy music to and from... Read more
Audio Hijack 3.2.0 - Record and enhance...
Audio Hijack (was Audio Hijack Pro) drastically changes the way you use audio on your computer, giving you the freedom to listen to audio when you want and how you want. Record and enhance any audio... Read more
FontExplorer X Pro 5.0.1 - Font manageme...
FontExplorer X Pro is optimized for professional use; it's the solution that gives you the power you need to manage all your fonts. Now you can more easily manage, activate and organize your... Read more
Calcbot 1.0.2 - Intelligent calculator a...
Calcbot is an intelligent calculator and unit converter for the rest of us. Featuring an easy-to-read history tape, expression view, intuitive conversion, and much more! Features History Tape -... Read more
MTR 5.0.0.1 - The Mac's oldest and...
MTR (was MacTheRipper)--the Mac's oldest and smartest DVD-backup app--is now updated to version 5.001 MTR -- the complete toolbox, not a one-trick, point-and-click extractor. MTR is intended for... Read more
LibreOffice 4.4.5.2 - Free, open-source...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more

Card King: Dragon Wars - Tips, Tricks an...
[Read more] | Read more »
Pac-Man Championship Edition DX has brou...
Bandai Namco has released Pac-Man Championship Edition DX on iOS and Android, which features the classic arcade gameplay that we've all grown to love. Pac-Man Championship Edition DX can be enjoyed in much shorter bursts than the arcade versions... | Read more »
Cosmonautica (Games)
Cosmonautica 1.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $6.99, Version: 1.1 (iTunes) Description: Cast off! Are you ready for some hilarious adventures in outer space? | Read more »
Rescue humanity from a Demon horde in An...
Angel Stone is Fincon's follow up to the massively successful Hello Hero and is out now on iOS and Android. You play as a member of The Resistance, a group of mighty human warriors who have risen up in defiance of the Demon horde threatening to... | Read more »
Gallery Doctor (Photography)
Gallery Doctor 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Photography Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Free up valuable iCloud and iPhone storage with Gallery Doctor, the only iPhone cleaner that automatically identifies the... | Read more »
You Against Me (Games)
You Against Me 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: A simple game… You. Me. Claim, steal, lock, score, win! | Read more »
Yep, it's True - Angry Birds 2 is O...
The not exactly rumors were true and the birds are back. Angry Birds 2 has come to the App Store and the world will... well I suppose it'll still be the same, but now we have more bird-flinging options! [Read more] | Read more »
You Could Design Your Own Card for Chain...
If you've ever wanted to create your own item, weapon, trap, or even monster for Chainsaw Warrior: Lords of the Night, this is your chance. Auroch Digital is currently holding a contest so that fans can fight to the death (not really) to see which... | Read more »
Bitcoin Billionaire is Going Back in Tim...
If you thought you managed to buy everything there is to buy in Bitcoin Billionaire and make all the money, well you though wrong. Those of you who made it far enough might remember investing in time travel - and it looks like that investment is... | Read more »
Domino Drop (Games)
Domino Drop 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Domino Drop is a delightful new puzzle game with dominos and gravity!Learn how to play it in a minute, master it day by day.Your... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

11-inch MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off MSR...
Best Buy has 11-inch MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off MSRP. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale prices for online orders only, in-store prices may vary: - 11″ 1.6GHz... Read more
iPad Air 2 on sale for up to $100 off MSRP
Best Buy has iPad Air 2s on sale for up to $100 off MSRP on their online store for a limited time. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale prices available for online... Read more
Sale! 13-inch MacBook Pros on sale for $100 o...
B&H Photo has 13″ MacBook Pros on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.5GHz/500GB MacBook Pro: $999.99 save $100 - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina... Read more
Sale! Save $100 on 13-inch MacBook Airs this...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $899.99 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model.... Read more
Worldwide Tablet Market Decline Continues, Ap...
The worldwide tablet market declined -7.0% year-over-year in the second quarter of 2015 (2Q15) with shipments totaling 44.7 million units according to preliminary data from the International Data... Read more
TP-LINK TL-PA8030P KIT Powerline Featuring Ho...
Consumer and business networking products provider TP-LINK is now shipping its TL-PA8030P KIT AV1200 3-Port Gigabit Passthrough Powerline Starter Kit that expands your home’s network over its... Read more
Apple refurbished iPad Air 2s available for u...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished iPad Air 2s available for up to $140 off the price of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 128GB... Read more
Updated Apple iPad Price Trackers
We’ve updated our iPad Air Price Tracker and our iPad mini Price Tracker with the latest information on prices and availability from Apple and other resellers. Read more
Apple refurbished 2014 13-inch 128GB MacBook...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 13″ MacBook Airs available starting at $759. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free: - 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB... Read more
Apple’s Education discount saves up to $300 o...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad at The Apple Store for Education and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free,... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Infrastructure Engineer - *Apple* /Mac - Hil...
Infrastructure Engineer - Apple /Mac Job Code: 1608 # of openings: 1 Description Our fortune 500 client is looking to hire an experienced Infrastructure Engineer to join Read more
Executive Administrative Assistant, *Apple*...
…supporting presentation development for senior leadership. * User experience with Apple hardware and software is preferred. Additional Requirements The following list Read more
*Apple* Bus Company is now hirin - Apple Bus...
Apple Bus Company is now hiring school bus drivers in the Pettis County area. Class B CDL preferred. Free training provided. No nights or weekends required. Flexible Read more
*Apple* Certified Mac Technician - Updated 6...
…and friendly, hands-on technical support to customers troubleshooting and repairing Apple /Mac products with courtesy, speed and skill. Use your problem-solving skills Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.