TweetFollow Us on Twitter

SimpleAPP
Volume Number:10
Issue Number:4
Column Tag:Demonstration

Building The SimpleAPP Demonstration Application

By Richard Clark

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

Even though a program written for a Power Macintosh can use the same source code as a 68K Macintosh, the build process is different. Power Macintosh development uses a new set of compilers and linkers, and introduces the first fundamentally new Macintosh development system in several years - Metrowerks’ “Code Warrior.”

Not only are the tools different, but “native” Power Macintosh executables use a different format than 68K executables. “Native” application code is stored in the data fork of a file, and requires a ‘cfrg’ resource to notify the system that PowerPC code is present. The ‘cfrg’ resource describes several major things about the fragment or fragments in the current file:

• Code type (only PowerPC is supported at present)

• Whether this is a stand-alone fragment, or an overpatch to another fragment

• Version information for this fragment

• Is this a library or an application? (There’s also a value for “is a drop-in”, but the system only looks for ‘cfrg’ resources in applications and shared libraries. The third value is supplied for applications which include cfrg resources in their extensions and parse these resources directly. The “ModApp” sample included with both the MetroWerks and Apple development environments includes a cfrg parser.)

• Is this on disk, or in memory? (An additional value, “on disk segmented” is reserved for future use.)

• If this is on disk, what is the offset to the start of the container? This allows applications to reserve the first part of the data fork for application-specific information (though Apple is discouraging developers from writing to the data fork of a running application.) Also, what is the length of the container.

These two fields serve another purpose besides allowing an application to store information in the data fork - the data fork may contain multiple containers, and the associated ‘cfrg’ resource may have an entry for each container.

• The name of this fragment. This is especially important for shared libraries as it allows the name of a shared library to be independent from the name of its file. If the user renames a shared library, nothing will break. This also supports packing multiple fragments into the same file as described above.

• If this is an application, the stack size (or 0 for the default.) Also, the “appSubFolderID” field can be used if an application maintains a folder full of shared libraries. The application can include an ‘alis’ folder alias resource in its resource fork, and place the ID number of that resource into the cfrg.

This resource has to be added as part of the build process.

Building with Code Warrior

SimpleApp is easy to build with code warrior, though you have to set the appropriate ‘cfrg’ and ‘SIZE’ resource values in the Preferences Dialog. Code Warrior accepts only a subset of the ‘cfrg’ information at present (whether this is an application or a Shared Library, the fragment’s name, and the default stack size), but these are adequate for our purposes.

Building the SimpleApp code resources is a bit more interesting. You have to specify that you are building a stand-alone module and set the file’s type and creator. (This type and creator indicates to SimpleApp that this is disk-based code.)

The other important setting specifies the code’s main entry point, initialization, and termination routines. In an application, these routines (typically called __start, __initialize, and __terminate) are supplied by the runtime library. Since our code resource has its own special routines, those names must be supplied to the “Linker” part of the Preferences Dialog.

If you’re building disk-based code, that’s all you have to do. If you want to create resource-based code, SimpleApp comes with an auxiliary application (DataToRes) which will take a SimpleApp ‘DPEF’ file (with code in the data fork) and turn it into a ‘RPEF’ file with code in a ‘RPEF’ resource.

Building with MPW

SimpleApp also comes with a MPW makefile. Building the application and the external code is a simple matter of compiling and linking, with one complication. The compiler and linker emit code in the XCOFF (Extended Common Object File Format) used by IBM, but the Power Macintosh prefers PEF. The Macintosh on RISC SDK supplies a “MakePEF” tool to convert XCOFF to PEF. When you run this tool, you must supply not only the file to be converted, but also a set of “library name mapping” rules that remove the “.xcoff” extension from the shared library names:


/* 1 */
SimpleApp ƒƒ SimpleApp.xcoff
 MakePEF SimpleApp.xcoff -o {targ} 
 -l InterfaceLib.xcoff=InterfaceLib

Another option to MakePEF lists the Main, Initialization, and Termination routines. (If the “main” routine was specified to the linker, it doesn’t have to be supplied to MakePEF.)


/* 2 */
'PICT Viewer' ƒƒ PICTViewer.xcoff
 MakePEF {deps} -o {targ} 
 -i OurInitRoutine -t OurTerminationRoutine 
 -l InterfaceLib.xcoff=InterfaceLib

The PowerPC linker performs dead code stripping, so you have to tell the linker to retain the Initialization and Termination routines. You can do this with the “-dead off” option, or by exporting the Initialization and Termination routines:


/* 3 */
PICTViewer.xcoff ƒ PICTViewer.c.o {XCOFFLibs}
 PPCLink {deps} -o {targ} -main OurMainRoutine -sym {SYM} 
 -export OurInitRoutine,OurTerminationRoutine

Finally, just as Code Warrior creates code in the data fork, so does MakePEF. This could create a problem if you wanted to create resource-based code, but MPW users can use a “Rez” script to read a PEF file into a resource:


/* 4 */
// File: Chaos.r
//
// This file includes the resources from a resource file
// (Unlike SimpleApp, an external don't need a 'cfrg' or
// 'SIZE' resource)

read 'RPEF' (128) "Chaos.PEF";







  
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Posterino 3.3.7 - Create posters, collag...
Posterino offers enhanced customization and flexibility including a variety of new, stylish templates featuring grids of identical or odd-sized image boxes. You can customize the size and shape of... Read more
Airmail 3.2.9 - Powerful, minimal email...
Airmail is an mail client with fast performance and intuitive interaction. Support for iCloud, MS Exchange, Gmail, Google Apps, IMAP, POP3, Yahoo!, AOL, Outlook.com, Live.com. Airmail was designed... Read more
Arq 5.8.4 - Online backup to Google Driv...
Arq is super-easy online backup for Mac and Windows computers. Back up to your own cloud account (Amazon Cloud Drive, Google Drive, Dropbox, OneDrive, Google Cloud Storage, any S3-compatible server... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.39 - Connec...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more
Arq 5.8.4 - Online backup to Google Driv...
Arq is super-easy online backup for Mac and Windows computers. Back up to your own cloud account (Amazon Cloud Drive, Google Drive, Dropbox, OneDrive, Google Cloud Storage, any S3-compatible server... Read more
Airmail 3.2.9 - Powerful, minimal email...
Airmail is an mail client with fast performance and intuitive interaction. Support for iCloud, MS Exchange, Gmail, Google Apps, IMAP, POP3, Yahoo!, AOL, Outlook.com, Live.com. Airmail was designed... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.39 - Connec...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more
Posterino 3.3.7 - Create posters, collag...
Posterino offers enhanced customization and flexibility including a variety of new, stylish templates featuring grids of identical or odd-sized image boxes. You can customize the size and shape of... Read more
Airmail 3.2.8 - Powerful, minimal email...
Airmail is an mail client with fast performance and intuitive interaction. Support for iCloud, MS Exchange, Gmail, Google Apps, IMAP, POP3, Yahoo!, AOL, Outlook.com, Live.com. Airmail was designed... Read more
WhatRoute 2.0.21 - Geographically trace...
WhatRoute is designed to find the names of all the routers an IP packet passes through on its way from your Mac to a destination host. It also measures the round-trip time from your Mac to the router... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Pokémon GO might be getting legendaries...
The long-awaited legendary Pokémon may soon be coming to Pokémon GO at long last. Data miners have already discovered that the legendary birds, Articuno, Moltres, and Zapdos are already in the game, it’s just a matter of time. [Read more] | Read more »
The best deals on the App Store this wee...
If you’ve got the Monday blues we have just the thing to cheer you up. The week is shaping up to be a spectacular one for sales. We’ve got a bunch of well-loved indie games at discounted prices this week along with a few that are a little more... | Read more »
Honor 8 Pro, a great choice for gamers
Honor is making strides to bring its brand to the forefront of mobile gaming with its latest phone, the Honor 8 Pro. The Pro sets itself apart from its predecessor, the Honor 8, with a host of premium updates that boost the device’s graphical and... | Read more »
The 4 best outdoor adventure apps
Now that we're well into the pleasant, warmer months, it's time to start making the most of the great outdoors. Spring and summer are ideal times for a bit of trekking or exploration. You don't have to go it alone, though. There are plenty of... | Read more »
Things 3 (Productivity)
Things 3 3.0.1 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Productivity Price: $7.99, Version: 3.0.1 (iTunes) Description: Meet the all-new Things! A complete rethinking of the original, award-winning task manager – with a perfect balance between... | Read more »
Oddball mash-up Arkanoid vs Space Invade...
In a move no one was really expecting, Square Enix has put forth an Arkanoid/Space Invaders mash-up aptly titled Arkanoid vs Space Invaders. The game launched today on both iOS and Android and the reviews are actually quite good. [Read more] | Read more »
Arkanoid vs Space Invaders (Games)
Arkanoid vs Space Invaders 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: LAUNCH SALE: GET THE GAME AT 20% OFF! Two of the most iconic classic games ever made meet in Arkanoid vs Space... | Read more »
The best new games we played this week
Things got off to a bit of a slow start this week, but as we steadily creep towards Friday a bunch of great games have started cropping up. If you're looking for a quality new release to play this weekend, we've got you covered. Here's a handy... | Read more »
No Stick Shooter (Games)
No Stick Shooter 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Happy Robot presents a fresh take on the classic retro-arcade shooters we all know and love. Featuring 30 levels of non-stop... | Read more »
Chroma Squad (Games)
Chroma Squad 1.0.85 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.85 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Five To Six Million 10.5-inch iPad Pro Tablet...
Digitimes’ Siu Han and Joseph Tsai report that upstream supply chain shipments for Apple’s new 10.5-inch iPad Pro have been increasing, with monthly shipment volume expected to hit 600,000 units by... Read more
Georgia Tech Students Win Toyota and Net Impa...
Earlier this year, a team of students at Georgia Tech realized that there was a critical gap in transportation services for people who use wheelchairs, and wondered if the solution could be in the... Read more
13-inch 2.0GHz Space Gray MacBook Pro on sale...
Amazon has the 13″ 2.0GHz Space Gray non-Touch Bar MacBook Pro (MLL42LL/A) on sale for $1299.99 including free shipping. Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’s currently the lowest price available... Read more
Roundup of 15-inch MacBook Pro sale prices, m...
B&H Photo has the new 2016 15″ Apple Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $200 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY & NJ sales tax only: - 15″ 2.7GHz... Read more
15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 2015 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro (MJLQ2LL/A) on sale for $1849 including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only. Their price is $150 off MSRP. Read more
21-inch iMacs on sale for $100 off MSRP, save...
B&H Photo has 21″ iMacs on sale for $100 off MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: - 21″ 3.1GHz iMac 4K: $1399.99 $100 off MSRP - 21″ 2.8GHz iMac: $1199.99 $100 off... Read more
Groupon Survey Finds Families Will Spend One-...
With warmer weather finally arriving in most parts of the country and the school year winding down to a close, Groupon (http://www.groupon.com) asked 1,000 U.S. parents how much time their families... Read more
Panasonic Anounces Toughbook 33 2-in-1 Rugged...
Panasonic has announced the U.S. availability of the Panasonic Toughbook 33, claimed to be the first fully-rugged 2-in-1 detachable laptop that features a 3:2 display. Inspired by the hard-working... Read more
9-inch 32GB iPad Pros available for up to $10...
Amazon resellers are offering new 9″ 32GB iPad Pros for up to $101 off MSRP, starting at $498, including free shipping. Colors may be Space Gray, Silver, Gold, or Rose Gold, depending on the reseller... Read more
Back in stock: Apple refurbished Mac minis st...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Mac minis available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $419 $80 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac... Read more

Jobs Board

Director, *Apple* Program - ERP & Cloud...
…make a real difference. Come, shine with us! Astellas is announcing a Director, Apple Program - ERP & Cloud Platform Architecture Lead opportunity in Northbrook, IL. Read more
*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
**508102BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobile Master **Location Number:** 000511-Athens-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Best Buy Apple Mobile Master do?** At Read more
*Apple* Media Products - Commerce Engineerin...
Apple Media Products - Commerce Engineering Manager Job Number: 57037480 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: Apr. 18, 2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Read more
Geek Squad *Apple* Master Consultation Agen...
**500444BR** **Job Title:** Geek Squad Apple Master Consultation Agent **Location Number:** 000103-City Of Industry-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Geek Read more
Security Engineer, *Apple* Retail - Apple I...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.