TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Mar 94 Challenge
Volume Number:10
Issue Number:3
Column Tag:Programmers’ Challenge

Related Info: Color Quickdraw

Programmers’ Challenge

By Mike Scanlin, MacTech Magazine Regular Contributing Author

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

The rules

Here’s how it works: Each month there will be a different programming challenge presented here. First, you must write some code that solves the challenge. Second, you must optimize your code (a lot). Then, submit your solution to MacTech Magazine (formerly MacTutor). A winner will be chosen based on code correctness, speed, size and elegance (in that order of importance) as well as the postmark of the answer. In the event of multiple equally desirable solutions, one winner will be chosen at random (with honorable mention, but no prize, given to the runners up). The prize for the best solution each month is $50 and a limited edition “The Winner! MacTech Magazine Programming Challenge” T-shirt (not to be found in stores).

In order to make fair comparisons between solutions, all solutions must be in ANSI compatible C (i.e., don’t use Think’s Object extensions). Only pure C code can be used. Any entries with any assembly in them will be disqualified (except for those challenges specifically stated to be in assembly). However, you may call any routine in the Macintosh toolbox you want (i.e., it doesn’t matter if you use NewPtr instead of malloc). All entries will be tested with the FPU and 68020 flags turned off in THINK C. When timing routines, the latest version of THINK C will be used (with ANSI Settings plus “Honor ‘register’ first” and “Use Global Optimizer” turned on) so beware if you optimize for a different C compiler. All code should be limited to 60 characters wide. This will aid us in dealing with e-mail gateways and page layout.

The solution and winners for this month’s Programmers’ Challenge will be published in the issue two months later. All submissions must be received by the 10th day of the month printed on the front of this issue.

All solutions should be marked “Attn: Programmers’ Challenge Solution” and sent to Xplain Corporation (the publishers of MacTech Magazine) via “snail mail” or preferably, e-mail - AppleLink: MT.PROGCHAL, Internet: progchallenge@xplain.com, CompuServe: 71552,174 and America Online: MT PRGCHAL. If you send via snail mail, please include a disk with the solution and all related files (including contact information). See page 2 for information on “How to Contact Xplain Corporation.”

MacTech Magazine reserves the right to publish any solution entered in the Programming Challenge of the Month and all entries are the property of MacTech Magazine upon submission. The submission falls under all the same conventions of an article submission.

BITMAP TO TEXT

Have you ever seen one of those text files where if you print it out, tack it on a wall and step back it looks like a graphic? I’ve seen dragons, islands, Star Trek images, etc. done this way. This month’s challenge is to write the routine that converts a bitmap into a text equivalent.

The prototype of the function you write is:


/* 1 */
short BitMapToText(bitMapPtr, fontName,
  fontSize, outputFile)
BitMap  *bitMapPtr;
Str255  fontName;
unsigned short fontSize;
FILE    *outputFile;

BitMapPtr points to the input bits. The max size is 1000 pixels square. fontname is the name of the monospaced font to use (Monaco, Courier, for example) and fontSize is the size of that font that should be used (6pt to 24pt). outputFile is a standard C output stream that you should write your text output to, each line separated by a 0x0D byte. The return value of the function is an error code: zero if nothing went wrong or non-zero if an error occurred. Do not close outputFile when you are finished.

Your basic strategy will be to split the bitMap into character size pieces and then find the best character match for each piece. You should only use the printable ASCII characters (charCodes from 32 to 127, inclusive). The closeness-of-match algorithm is not given. It’s up to you to pick something that works reasonably well and doesn’t take 50 years to compute. This contest will be judged primarily on speed but routines that produce unrecognizable output will be disqualified (no matter how fast they are). Recognizability will be judged on the screen, at 72dpi.

Note that in order to have recognizable output the size of the smallest detail in the input image needs to be roughly equal to or larger than a single character of the given font and font size. This will be true for the test images I use (so don’t stress too much over the problem of how to represent a very small image using only 24pt glyphs).

TWO MONTHS AGO WINNER

Of the eight entries I received for the Connect The Dots challenge, six worked correctly. Bill Karsh (Chicago, IL) joins the ranks of Challenge superstars for coming in first place for the second time. Bill previously won the Who Plays Who challenge and is now tied in a 4-way tie for the most number of Challenge wins. Bill’s line drawing routine is about 3x faster than Color QuickDraw for long lines and about 30x faster for very short lines (for the special cases given in the challenge: no clipping, pen size (1, 1), patCopy, no bitMaps). If you have intensive line-drawing routines in your code you ought to consider casing out those cases that Bill’s code handles and using it instead of many calls to Line or LineTo.

Here are the code sizes and average times (for medium to long line-length tests) of each entry. Numbers in parens after a person’s name indicate how many times that person has finished in the top 5 places of all previous Programmer Challenges, not including this one:

Name Time Code

Bill Karsh (2) 1114 1314

Kevin Cutts (2) 1370 1802

Bob Boonstra (5) 1434 750

Allen Stenger (2) 1623 1664

John Heaney 1711 710

Stefan Pantke 2500 876

Color Quickdraw 3219 ?

There were three cases that had to be dealt with: 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit deep pixMaps. Once the appropriate pixel value to stuff has been figured out, all three cases are the same (as far as determining which pixels are part of the line). Bill solved this redundant code problem by having the guts of each case #included in three different places. This makes it easy to update the line generating code for all three cases at the same time. And as did nearly everyone else, Bill handles the common cases of horizontal and vertical lines separately (which is a big win for those cases).

For the 8-bit case he uses his own RGB2Index routine instead of the ROM’s Color2Index, which would be fine if his routine worked all the time, but it doesn’t. It only works if the RGB value you’re trying to convert is an exact match with one of the index values. However, the main point of this challenge was about drawing lines fast, not inverse color table lookups.

Kevin Cutts (Schaumburg, IL) and Bob Boonstra (Westford, MA) deserve a mention here because in some of the very short line cases their code was faster than Bill’s. But I think the average line drawn by QuickDraw is longer than a few pixels and Bill’s code is faster for those cases so he wins.

I’d also like to apologize to Alan Hughes (Ames, IA) for the mixup last month that caused his on-time and correct entry to the Present Packing Challenge to get to me after I had sent in the column. His 94.2 average puts him in 3rd place and knocks Dave Darrah out of the top 5.

As readers of this column know, I have been stressing 680x0 optimizations in this column for over a year (and C code that generates better 680x0 code in Think C). Now that the PowerPC is coming out I am faced with a choice: Which platform should I run the challenge on, 680x0 or 601? Obviously, if there is a switch to 601 it would not happen for at least a couple of months after they are made generally available. But are readers interested in 601 tricks or should we stick to the installed base of 680x0s for many more months? And if and when we switch to the 601, what PPC compiler should I use to test challenge entries? Send me e-mail at the progchal addresses in the front of the magazine and let me know what you think. Thanks.

Here’s Bill’s winning solution:

ConnectTheDots

Response to Jan 94 MacTech Programmer's Challenge.

Object: Go around QD to draw color lines as fast as possible.

Specs:

• nDots >= 2,

• handle only cases {(pixelSize,cmpSize,cmpCount) = (8,8,1), (16,5,3), (32,8,3)},

• arbitrary alpha-bits,

• don't bother clipping,

• penSize = 1,1,

• patCopy mode.

Notes on method: Specify segment by two endpoints {(x,y)=(a,b),(A,B)}. Form of line is {(x,y): (y-b)/(x-a) = m}, where slope m = (B-b)/(A-a). Then, y = m*(x-a)+b.

Two successive values of y are: y2 = m*(x2-a)+b; y1 = m*(x1-a)+b, and the diff is, y2-y1 = m, since x2-x1 will always = 1 (pixel).

Therefore, as we move from x to x, we add or sub m to the previous value of y.

Speed: The cases that arise for combinations of {dy,dx} fall generally into 8 octants that cover the plane. Diagonally opposite octants are treated together, so there are 4 main cases to worry about. We first weed out 3 special cases: exactly horizontal, vertical, and diagonal segs. These are the simplest, most common, and fastest.

In a given octant, one of |dx|, |dy| is strictly larger than the other. Our loop over pixels will always be over the larger magnitude for higher resolution drawing. The slope is formed then by smallNum/largeNum which must have quotient == 0, and remainder == smallNum. Adding the slope is a matter of accumulating remainders. If this sum exceeds largeNum, we move to next pixel.


/* 2 */
#pragma options( honor_register, !assign_registers )
#pragma options( !check_ptrs )

#include"ConnectTheDots.h"

#define HiFiveMask 0xF800
#define Abs( a ) (a > 0 ? a : -a)

/* RGB2Index
 *
 * Expects rgb color is an exact member of table, to avoid time spent 
close
 * matching. Index is just position in table.
 */
static Byte RGB2Index( ColorSpec *cSpec, RGBColor *rgb )
{
 register ColorSpec*cs = cSpec;
 register short  entries = ((short*)cs)[-1]+1;
 register short  red = rgb->red,
 green = rgb->green,
 blue = rgb->blue;
 do {
 if( red   == cs->rgb.red  &&
 blue  == cs->rgb.blue &&
 green == cs->rgb.green )
 return cs-cSpec;
 ++cs;
 } while( --entries );
}
/* Lines8
 *
 * Depth == 8 case.
 *
 * To maximize register usage, chose to put rowBytes in address reg. 
 
 * Also, some vars like v_Cnt are dual purpose.
 */
static void Lines8(
 PixMapPtrpm,
 Point  dot[],
 unsigned short  nDots,
 register Byte   pixel )
{
 register Ptr  at;
 #include "ConnectTheDots.com"
}

/* Lines16
 */
static void Lines16(
 PixMapPtrpm,
 Point  dot[],
 unsigned short  nDots,
 register short  pixel )
{
 register short  *at;
 #include "ConnectTheDots.com"
}

/* Lines32
 *
 * align ensures 4-byte stack alignment for better speed.
 */
static void Lines32(
 PixMapPtrpm,
 Point  dot[],
 unsigned short  nDots,
 short  align,
 register long   pixel )
{
 register long   *at;
 #include "ConnectTheDots.com"
}

/* ConnectTheDots */
void ConnectTheDots(
 unsigned short  nDots,
 Point  dot[],
 PixMapHandle    pmH,
 RGBColor color )
{
 register PixMapPtrpm = *pmH;
 register unsigned short  pix16;
 register Ptr    p32;
 long   pix32;
 
 if( pm->pixelSize == 8 ) {
 
 Lines8( pm, dot, nDots,
 RGB2Index(&(**pm->pmTable).ctTable, &color) );
 }
 if( pm->pixelSize == 16 ) {

 pix16  = (color.red   & HiFiveMask) >> 1;
 pix16 |= (color.green & HiFiveMask) >> 6;
 pix16 |= (color.blue  & HiFiveMask) >> 11;
 
 Lines16( pm, dot, nDots, pix16 );
 }
 if( pm->pixelSize == 32 ) {
 
 p32 = ((Byte*)&pix32) + 1;
 *p32++ = *(Byte*)&color.red;
 *p32++ = *(Byte*)&color.green;
 *p32++ = *(Byte*)&color.blue;
 
 Lines32( pm, dot, nDots, 0, pix32 );
 }
}

This is the part of the line drawing algorithm common to all three depths, and it’s in its own separate file called ConnectTheDots.com. This is an unusual, but very useful way to use #include directive. Treat this file like a .h file, though it contains code instead of interface info. That means, like a .h file, you do not directly compile or link this file. If using Think C, don't put it in your project. It automatically becomes part of the .c file at compile time.

/* 3 */
/* ConnectTheDots.com
*/

// start
 register Ptr    rowBytes;
 register short  *pnt;
 register short  dh, dv, h_Sum, v_Cnt;
 Ptr    savedRowBytes;
 short  *savedPnt;
 short  pad;
 
 --nDots;
 
 pnt = (short*)dot;
 savedRowBytes = (Ptr)(pm->rowBytes & 0x7fff);

 do {

 // find this seg's dimensions {dv,dh} and endpoints in bounds coordinate
 // system.  ends are (v,h) and (v+dv,h+dh).
 // point to pixels, and restore rowBytes, which are altered in loop.

 dv       = *pnt++;
 dh       = *pnt++;
 v_Cnt    = *pnt;
 h_Sum    = pnt[1];
 dv      -= v_Cnt;
 dh      -= h_Sum;
 v_Cnt   -= pm->bounds.top;
 h_Sum   -= pm->bounds.left;
 at       = pm->baseAddr;
 rowBytes = savedRowBytes;
 
 if( !dh ) {
 // do vertical line
 if( dv < 0 ) {
 v_Cnt += dv;
 dv = -dv;
 }

 at = (Ptr)at + (long)v_Cnt*(short)rowBytes;
 at += h_Sum;
 
 v_Cnt = dv + 1;
 
doVert:
 do {
 *at = pixel;
 at = (Ptr)at + (long)rowBytes;
 } while( --v_Cnt );
 }
 else if( !dv ) {
 
 // do horizontal line
 
 if( dh < 0 ) {
 h_Sum += dh;
 dh = -dh;
 }
 
 at = (Ptr)at + (long)v_Cnt*(short)rowBytes;
 at += h_Sum;
 
 ++dh;
 
 do {
 *at++ = pixel;
 } while( --dh );
 }
 else if( Abs( dv ) >= Abs( dh ) ) {
 
 // more vertical or diagonal
 
 if( dv < 0 ) {
 v_Cnt += dv;
 h_Sum += dh;
 dv = -dv;
 dh = -dh;
 }
 
 at = (Ptr)at + (long)v_Cnt*(short)rowBytes;
 at += h_Sum;
 
 v_Cnt = dv + 1;
 
 if( dh == dv ) {
 rowBytes += sizeof(pixel);
 goto doVert;
 }
 else if( -dh == dv ) {
 rowBytes -= sizeof(pixel);
 goto doVert;
 }
 else {

 h_Sum = 0;
 
 savedPnt = pnt;
 pnt = (short*)sizeof(pixel);
 
 if( dh < 0 ) {
 dh = -dh;
 pnt = (short*)-sizeof(pixel);
 }

 do {
 *at = pixel;
 at = (Ptr)at + (long)rowBytes;
 
 h_Sum += dh;
 
 if( h_Sum >= dv ) {
 h_Sum -= dv;
 at = (Ptr)at + (long)pnt;
 }
 } while( --v_Cnt );
 
 pnt = savedPnt;
 }
 }
 else {
 
 // more horizontal
 
 if( dh < 0 ) {
 v_Cnt += dv;
 h_Sum += dh;
 dv = -dv;
 dh = -dh;
 }
 
 at = (Ptr)at + (long)v_Cnt*(short)rowBytes;
 at += h_Sum;
 
 v_Cnt = dh + 1;
 h_Sum = 0;

 if( dv < 0 ) {
 dv = -dv;
 rowBytes = (Ptr)(-(short)rowBytes);
 }
 
 do {
 *at++ = pixel;
 
 h_Sum += dv;
 
 if( h_Sum >= dh ) {
 h_Sum -= dh;
 at = (Ptr)at + (long)rowBytes;
 }
 } while( --v_Cnt );
 }
 } while( --nDots );
 
// end







  
 
AAPL
$118.68
Apple Inc.
+1.08
MSFT
$47.91
Microsoft Corpora
+0.44
GOOG
$538.63
Google Inc.
-2.45

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

RapidWeaver 6.0.3 - Create template-base...
RapidWeaver is a next-generation Web design application to help you easily create professional-looking Web sites in minutes. No knowledge of complex code is required, RapidWeaver will take care of... Read more
iPhoto Library Manager 4.1.10 - Manage m...
iPhoto Library Manager lets you organize your photos into multiple iPhoto libraries. Separate your high school and college photos from your latest summer vacation pictures. Or keep some photo... Read more
iExplorer 3.5.1.9 - View and transfer al...
iExplorer is an iPhone browser for Mac lets you view the files on your iOS device. By using a drag and drop interface, you can quickly copy files and folders between your Mac and your iPhone or... Read more
MacUpdate Desktop 6.0.3 - Discover and i...
MacUpdate Desktop 6 brings seamless 1-click installs and version updates to your Mac. With a free MacUpdate account and MacUpdate Desktop 6, Mac users can now install almost any Mac app on macupdate.... Read more
SteerMouse 4.2.2 - Powerful third-party...
SteerMouse is an advanced driver for USB and Bluetooth mice. It also supports Apple Mighty Mouse very well. SteerMouse can assign various functions to buttons that Apple's software does not allow,... Read more
iMazing 1.1 - Complete iOS device manage...
iMazing (was DiskAid) is the ultimate iOS device manager with capabilities far beyond what iTunes offers. With iMazing and your iOS device (iPhone, iPad, or iPod), you can: Copy music to and from... Read more
PopChar X 7.0 - Floating window shows av...
PopChar X helps you get the most out of your font collection. With its crystal-clear interface, PopChar X provides a frustration-free way to access any font's special characters. Expanded... Read more
Carbon Copy Cloner 4.0.3 - Easy-to-use b...
Carbon Copy Cloner backups are better than ordinary backups. Suppose the unthinkable happens while you're under deadline to finish a project: your Mac is unresponsive and all you hear is an ominous,... Read more
ForeverSave 2.1.3 - Universal auto-save...
ForeverSave auto-saves all documents you're working on while simultaneously doing backup versioning in the background. Lost data can be quickly restored at any time. Losing data, caused by... Read more
Voila 3.8.1 - Capture, annotate, organiz...
Voila is a screen-capture, recording, and annotation tool that is a full-featured replacement for Mac's screen-capture and screen-recording capabilities. It has a large and robust set of editing,... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

You Can Play the Final Chapter of Lone W...
You Can Play the Final Chapter of Lone Wolf: Dawn Over V’taag Right Now Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 26th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Tales from the Borderland​s Will be Comi...
Tales from the Borderland​s Will be Coming to iOS by the End of the Year Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 26th, 2014 [ permalink ] Telltale Games has announced | Read more »
Sunburn! Review
Sunburn! Review By Campbell Bird on November 26th, 2014 Our Rating: :: DON'T DIE ALONEUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Platform through the depths of space to make sure your entire crew dies together in this satisfying... | Read more »
Black Friday has Started Early – Lots an...
It’s almost turkey time! Which means lots and lots of food but also lots and lots of sales. Some sales have even started a few days early, which is why we’ve put together a list of iOS games that are currently discounted (sometimes by a lot).... | Read more »
Loose Leaf Review
Loose Leaf Review By Jennifer Allen on November 26th, 2014 Our Rating: :: SIMPLE SKETCHINGiPad Only App - Designed for the iPad Sketch out ideas with simple drawing tools, courtesy of Loose Leaf.   | Read more »
Screeny (Utilities)
Screeny 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Utilities Price: $.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Screeny is an utility app that helps you save space consumed by screenshots. It screens your camera roll and helps you to filter and... | Read more »
Tilt to Live Bundle Set to Arrive This T...
Tilt to Live Bundle Set to Arrive This Thanksgiving Posted by Ellis Spice on November 25th, 2014 [ permalink ] One Man Left has unveiled an upcoming Tilt to Live bundle, allowing players to get the series for a di | Read more »
BattleLore: Command (Entertainment)
BattleLore: Command 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Entertainment Price: $9.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ***NOTE: Compatible with iPad 2/iPad mini, iPod touch 5 and up and iPhone 4S and up – WILL NOT RUN ON EARLIER... | Read more »
Weather Or Not Review
Weather Or Not Review By Jennifer Allen on November 25th, 2014 Our Rating: :: STYLISH WEATHER REPORTINGiPhone App - Designed for the iPhone, compatible with the iPad Check the weather quickly and conveniently with Weather or Not... | Read more »
The All-New Football Manager Handheld 20...
The All-New Football Manager Handheld 2015 is Available Now Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 25th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Early Black Friday MacBook Air sale prices, $...
 MacMall has posted early Black Friday MacBook Air sale prices. Save $101 on all models for a limited time: - 11″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook Air: $798 - 11″ 1.4GHz/256GB MacBook Air: $998 - 13″ 1.4GHz/... Read more
Why iPhone 6 Tablet/Laptop Cannibalization Is...
247wallst.com blogger Douglas A. McIntyre noted last week that according to research posted on the Applovin blog site the iPhone 6 is outselling the iPhone 6 Plus by a wide margin . Hardly a surprise... Read more
Worldwide Tablet Growth Expected to Slow to 7...
The global tablet market is expected to record massive deceleration in 2014 with year-over-year growth slowing to 7.2%, down from 52.5% in 2013, according to a new forecast from International Data... Read more
Touchscreen Glove Company Announces New Produ...
Surrey, United Kingdom based TouchAbility specializes in design and manufacture of a wide variety of products compatible with touchscreen devices including smartphones, tablets and computers. Their... Read more
OtterBox Alpha Glass Screen Protectors for iP...
To complement the bigger, sharper displays on the latest Apple devices, OtterBox has introduced Alpha Glass screen protectors to the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus. The fortified glass screen protectors... Read more
Early Black Friday Mac Pro sale, 6-Core 3.5GH...
 B&H Photo has the 6-Core 3.5GHz Mac Pro on sale today for $3499 including free shipping plus NY sales tax. Their price is $500 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model from... Read more
Early Black Friday sale price: 15-inch 2.2GHz...
 B&H Photo has the 2014 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale today for $1699.99. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. Their price is $300 off MSRP, equalling Best Buy’s price... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro (refurbished) avai...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pros available for $170 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.5GHz... Read more
Early Black Friday iPad mini 3 sale: $75 off...
 Best Buy has iPad mini 3s on sale for $75 off MSRP on their online store for a limited time. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale prices available for online orders... Read more
Early Black Friday MacBook Pro sale: 15-inch...
 Best Buy has posted early Black Friday prices on 15″ Retina MacBook Pros, with models on sale for $300 off MSRP on their online store for a limited time. Choose free local store pickup (if available... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Senior Event Manager, *Apple* Retail Market...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global event strategy. Delivering an overarching brand story; in-store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.