TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Voxels
Volume Number:9
Issue Number:3
Column Tag:C Workshop

What are Voxels?

A hobbyist level overview of voxels, voxel space and Phong shading

By Geoffrey Clements, Chelmsford, Massachusetts

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

About the author

Geoffrey Clements can be reached on internet at clementsg@gw1.hanscom.af.mil.

Introduction

The medical industry is studying ways of viewing medical imagery on the computer. Doctors are using computer graphics to plan operations before going into the operating room. In fact, entire operations are dry run on the computer, before the doctor lifts a knife.

To create the data for a medical image, a radiologist will take a series of computer aided tomography (CAT) scan images at different depths. The images are lined up in order of depth to form a three dimensional representation of the object being scanned. Each data point in this three dimensional cube is called a voxel. The cube of voxels are called a voxel space. Think of a voxel as a measure of the density of matter at that point. You can also think of a voxel as a “volume pixel”.

In this article we’ll draw a sphere that appears three dimensional using the techniques used to draw medical imagery. I chose a sphere to make the problem simpler to understand. But first we’ll check out how a medical image is generated.

A viewing window defines the orientation of the voxel space, and what part of the voxel space is in view. This viewing window corresponds to the computer screen. The image is created by following a ray from the viewing window through the voxels and summing the contributions of the voxels the ray passes through. The ray is perpendicular to the viewing window. Figure 1 shows two voxels spaces. The first has the viewing window on the front face. The second has the viewing window on the top left front corner. The arrow is the ray followed through the voxel space.

Figure 1 Voxel Space and Viewing Windows

The contribution of each voxel is calculated from a transparency and a color. The transparency, sometimes called opacity, is calculated from the intensities associated with each voxel. Usually the intensity is just scaled to yield an opacity. In our example, inside the sphere is opaque, and outside the sphere is transparent. Figure 2 shows the voxel space we will be using and the sphere opacity.

Figure 2 Voxel Space

To characterize the viewing environment we’ll define several vectors. First a normalized vector pointing toward the viewing window. Next we define normal vectors at each voxel. Finally we need a normal vector pointing toward each light source.

The color of a particular pixel is calculated using the intensities of the voxels and these vectors defining the viewing environment. We’ll be using the Phong shading model to calculate the color.

Phong Shading

The Phong shading model is used in order to give objects in an image their three dimensional quality. We’ll go through the Phong shading equation by describing each piece. I use the words “shade” and “color” interchangeably. They mean the same thing. We start with:

Shade is the color of the voxel we are calculating. Ip is the intensity of a light source. ka is the ambient light reflection coefficient. The ambient light reflection coefficient, as you might expect, just sets an overall light level for the image. A gray disk is drawn if we use this equation to calculate the color.

Next, we add some depth cueing, which will start to give the image a 3D look.

kd1 and kd2 are depth cueing coefficients. We set kd2 = 1 in the example program. k is the distance from the viewing plane along the ray. This adds a small 3D effect. A gray disk is drawn that gets slightly lighter as we move from the edge of the sphere into the center.

Now we add the effect of diffuse and specular reflected light. (This step is a big jump, but these effects are what makes Phong shading so good.)

Figure 3 shows the difference between diffuse and specularly reflected light. Diffuse reflection is light reflected in all directions. This is caused by the roughness of the reflecting surface. Specular reflection, on the other hand, is light that is reflected in only one direction. Specular reflection is caused by the smoothness of the reflecting surface.

Figure 3 Reflected light

Here is the Phong shading equation with the effect of diffuse and specularly reflected light added.

d is the diffuse reflection coefficient, and s is the specular reflection coefficient. N is a normal vector to the voxel whose shade we are calculating, V is a vector pointing toward the viewer, L is a vector pointing at the light source and H is the normalized sum of V and L. N•L is the dot product of N and L.

We’ve come to the point where we can set our viewing window and define the vector space. Figure 4 shows the vector space. There are two L vectors shown in Figure 4. We’ll use two light sources to make the image a little more interesting. To add another light source we only need to add the effect of diffuse and specular reflection to the shade calculated above.

Figure 4 Vector space

The axes are slightly unusual, but the x and y axes correspond to the Macintosh coordinate system. N, H, L1, L2, and V are drawn to show their relative directions. This space corresponds to a viewer looking into the front face, (through the viewing window). The two light sources are pointing down from the top-left front corner of the cube, and into the right side. These vectors must be set before we start.

We can pre-calculate most of the shade equation before going into the loop that calculates the pixel color. This speeds up drawing the image.

Here are the definitions for V, L1, L2, H, and N.

r is the radius of the sphere, i, j, k are a point on the surface of the sphere. In our example, the center of the sphere is at (cv, cv, cv).

We can generate equations for N•L and N•H.

At this point you may be asking yourself, “How do you sum the contributions from the voxels?” Here’s how the example program does it. The indexes i and j step through the pixels on the viewing window. The index k corresponds to the ray going back into the voxels. As k varies, we check to see if point (i, j, k) is inside or outside the sphere. If it is outside the sphere, return a color of zero. If k gets to the back of the voxel space without hitting the sphere, draw a black pixel at (i, j) on the screen. If we hit the sphere, calculate a color for the sphere surface and draw that color at (i, j) on the screen, then go on to the next pixel. There is no need to process any farther inside the sphere, because there is no way the light can get there. Normally the effects of all voxels the ray passes through are used to calculate a color, but I have chosen to make the problem (and program) simpler to understand.

The Example Program

The code was developed under Think C. The MacTraps library is the only library that needs to be included. Turn on the Native floating-point format and Generate 68881 instruction switches in the Compiler settings screen if you have a floating point coprocessor. If not, just turn on the Native floating-point format switch. The program takes about a minute to generate a 128x128 pixel image on a Mac IIci with 68881 instructions on, and three minutes with it off.

The example program uses a standard Macintosh event loop shell and main routine. All of the interesting processing is done by DoColor() called by the Init() routine. Init() starts by initializing the the Macintosh managers and setting up the menus. If Color Quickdraw is not available, the program quietly exits. If Color Quickdraw is available, a window is opened and sized to our voxel data. The size of the volume and sphere are set with the defines:

/* size of the voxel data */
#define volSize  64
/* half the size of voxel data */
#define halfVolSize32
/* the radius of the sphere */
#define sphere_r 30
/* sphere_r*sphere_r */
#define volumeMag900.0
/* sqrt(3.0)*sphere_r */
#define sqrt3r   51.9615
/* sphere_r*sqrt(6+2*sqrt(3)) */
#define rsqrt6   92.2913

Notice that some of the constants for the N•L and N•H equation are defined. This speeds up processing. Because this program is calculation intensive, start with a small volume and increase it later when you have the effect you like.

A grayscale palette is loaded and attached to the window using SetPalette(). The palette is a 128 shade grayscale 'pltt' resource created in ResEdit. An offscreen drawing port is used because we only want to calculate the pixel colors once. The offscreen port is set up using the GWorld calls defined in Volume VI of “Inside Macintosh”.

This brings us to the drawing section. The indexes i and j cycle through all the pixels of the viewing window. The k index is the ray moving back through the voxels. All of the work of deciding the color of a pixel is done in the DoColor() routine. Once a non-zero color is returned we move on to the next pixel in the viewing plane. Inside DoColor() the CalcVolumeData() routine calculates whether or not i, j, k is inside the sphere or not. If it is, we calculate a shade. If not, return a RGBColor of zero.

Once the drawing to the offscreen port is done, we set the current port to the onscreen window and exit Init(). At this point the screen is still blank. When WaitNextEvent() receives an update event we use CopyBits() to copy the offscreen bit map onto the screen.

Stuff To Try

Use a small volume to start off. Start with 64x64x64 voxel set. The following are a couple of other sets of defines to try to get various sized spheres. Remember the bigger the voxel space the more time you have to get coffee while the program runs.

/* 1 */

#define volSize  128
#define halfVolSize64
#define sphere_r 60
#define volumeMag3600.0
#define sqrt3r   103.9230
#define rsqrt6   184.5827
and 

#define volSize  256
#define halfVolSize128
#define sphere_r 120
#define volumeMag14400.0
#define sqrt3r   207.8461
#define rsqrt6   369.1654
The defines:

/* these constants define the Phong shading */
/* ambient reflection coefficient */
#define ambientReflCoef 0.1
/* depth cueing coefficient */
#define depthCueCoef 1.0
/* diffuse reflection coefficient */
#define diffReflCoef 2.0
/* specular reflection coefficient */
#define specReflCoef 3.0
/* first light source intensity */
#define light  0.6
/* second light source intensity */
#define light2   1.2
/* coefficient to approx highlight */
#define highlightCoef11

set the constants for the Phong shading. You can play around with these to change the shading effects in the displayed image. But be careful. The value of shade should fall between 0.0 and 1.0. If shade is greater than one, the color will roll over from white to black, and the image will appear with black blotches in the middle of an area that should be white.

A major performance improvement can be made by replacing the floating-point math with suitable integer arithmetic. Some improvement could be made by calling SetCPixel() from a pointer rather than leaving it to the trap dispatcher. Or, the code for the functions could be inserted into Init() to eliminate the overhead of the function calls.

Drawing in 3D is not hard; it just takes some math know-how and a good computer.

References

Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed., by J. D. Foley, A. Van Dam, S. K. Feiner, and J. F. Hughes (Addison-Wessley, 1990)

Marc Levoy, “Display of Surfaces from Volume Data,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, May 1988 pp. 29-37

Code Listing
#include <Palettes.h>
#include <SANE.h>
#include <QDOffscreen.h>

/* size of the voxel data */
#define volSize  128
/* half the size of voxel data */
#define halfVolSize64
/* the radius of the sphere */
#define sphere_r 60
/* sphere_r*sphere_r */
#define volumeMag3600.0
/* sqrt(3.0)*sphere_r */
#define sqrt3r   103.9230
/* sphere_r*sqrt(6+2*sqrt(3)) */
#define rsqrt6   184.5827

/* resource numbers for the window, palette and menus */
#define windowRscr 128
#define paletteRscr 128

#define appleID 128
#define appleM 1
#define appleAbout 1

#define fileID 129
#define fileM 2
#define fileQuit 1

#define editID 130
#define editM 3
#define editUndo 1
#define editCut 3
#define editCopy 4
#define editPaste 5
#define editClear 6

#define sleepTicks 30

#define aboutDialog 128

/* these constants define the Phong shading */
/* ambient reflection coefficient */
#define ambientReflCoef 0.1
/* depth cueing coefficient */
#define depthCueCoef 1.0
/* diffuse reflection coefficient */
#define diffReflCoef 5.0
/* specular reflection coefficient */
#define specReflCoef 5.0
/* first light source intensity */
#define light  1.0
/* coefficient to approx highlight */
#define highlightCoef30

char aChar;
WindowPtr currentWindow;
MenuHandle myMenus[editM+1];
Rect dragRect, growRect;
long newSize;
Boolean doneFlag;
EventRecord event;
WindowPtr whichWindow;
RGBColor pixColor;
short i, j, k;
PaletteHandle palH;
DialogPtr dPtr;
short doneDlg;
OSErr err;
SysEnvRec envRec;

Rect copyRect;
GWorldPtr wallyWorld;
GDHandle savedDevice;
CGrafPtr savedPort;
 
double PowerOfN (double x, short r) {
 double ans;
 
 ans = 1.0;
 while (r- > 0) ans *= x;
 return ans;
}

double fx, fy, fz;

short CalcVolumeData (short i, short j, short k) {
 long x, y, z;
 
 fx = -(double)(i - halfVolSize);
 fy = -(double)(j - halfVolSize);
 fz = -(double)(k - halfVolSize);
 if ((fx * fx + fy * fy + fz * fz) <= volumeMag) 
 return 1;
 else return 0;
}

void DoColor (short i, short j, short k,
 RGBColor *RGBVal) {
 double n_dot_h, n_dot_l;
 double n_dot_h2, n_dot_l2, shade;
 unsigned short color;
 
 if (CalcVolumeData (i, j, k)) {
 n_dot_l = (fx + fy + fz)/sqrt3r;
 n_dot_h = (fx + fy + 2.7321*fz)/rsqrt6;
 shade = light*ambientReflCoef+
 (light/((double)(k)+depthCueCoef)
 *(diffReflCoef*n_dot_l+specReflCoef
 *PowerOfN (n_dot_h, highlightCoef)));

 /* second light source */
 n_dot_l2 = -fx/sphere_r;
 n_dot_h2 = (-fx + fz)/(1.4142*sphere_r);
 shade +=  light/((double)(k)+depthCueCoef)
 *(diffReflCoef*n_dot_l2+specReflCoef
 *PowerOfN (n_dot_h2, highlightCoef));

 color = (unsigned short)(shade * 65534.0);
 

RGBVal->red = color;
 RGBVal->green = color;
 RGBVal->blue = color;
 }
 else {
 RGBVal->red = 0;
 RGBVal->green = 0;
 RGBVal->blue = 0;
 }
}

void OpenWindow (void) {
 currentWindow =  (WindowPtr)GetNewCWindow(
 windowRscr, NULL, (Ptr)-1);
 SetPort(currentWindow);
 SizeWindow(currentWindow, volSize + 25,
 volSize + 25, 1);
 SetWTitle(currentWindow, &”\pVol3D”);
 ShowWindow(currentWindow);
}

void Init (void) {
 short i, j, k;

 InitGraf(&thePort);
 InitFonts ();
 FlushEvents (everyEvent, 0);
 InitWindows ();
 InitMenus ();
 TEInit ();
 InitDialogs (NULL);

 myMenus[appleM] = GetMenu(appleID);
 AddResMenu(myMenus[appleM], ‘DRVR’);

 myMenus[fileM] = GetMenu(fileID);
 myMenus[editM] = GetMenu(editID);

 for (i=appleM;i<=editM;i++)
 InsertMenu(myMenus[i], 0);

 DrawMenuBar ();

 SetRect(&dragRect, 30, 20,
 screenBits.bounds.right - 10,
 screenBits.bounds.bottom - 30);
 SetRect(&growRect, 50, 50,
 screenBits.bounds.right - 20,
 screenBits.bounds.bottom - 50);

 doneFlag = 0;
 err = SysEnvirons(1, &envRec);
 if (!envRec.hasColorQD) doneFlag = 1;
 else {
 OpenWindow ();
 palH = GetNewPalette (paletteRscr);
 if (palH == NULL) {
 doneFlag = 1;
 }
 else {
 SetPalette (currentWindow, palH, 1);
 }
 
 /* set up the offscreen drawing port */
 GetGWorld (&savedPort, &savedDevice);
 SetRect (&copyRect, 0, 0, volSize-1,
 volSize-1);
 LocalToGlobal (&copyRect.top);
 LocalToGlobal (&copyRect.bottom);
 err = NewGWorld (&wallyWorld, 0, &copyRect,
 NULL, NULL, 0);
 GlobalToLocal (&copyRect.top);
 GlobalToLocal (&copyRect.bottom);

 if (err != noErr)
 doneFlag = 1;
 else {
 SetGWorld (wallyWorld, NULL);
 if (LockPixels (wallyWorld->portPixMap)) {
 /* draw off screen here */
 for(i=0;i<volSize;i++) 
 for (j=0;j<volSize;j++) {
 k = 0;
 do {
 DoColor(i, j, k, &pixColor);
 k++;
 } while ((pixColor.red == 0)
 & (k < volSize));
 SetCPixel (i, j, &pixColor);
 }
 UnlockPixels (wallyWorld->portPixMap);
 }
 else doneFlag = 1;
 
/* the drawing is done set the current port back to the display window 
*/
 }
 SetGWorld (savedPort, savedDevice);
 }
}

void DoAboutBox (void) {

 dPtr = GetNewDialog (aboutDialog, NULL,
 (Ptr)-1);
 do
 ModalDialog(NULL, &doneDlg);
 while (!doneDlg);
 DisposDialog(dPtr);
}

void CleanUp (void) {
 
 HideWindow (currentWindow);
 DisposeGWorld (wallyWorld);
 DisposePalette (palH);
 DisposeWindow (currentWindow);
 doneFlag = 1;
}

void DoCommand (long menuResult) {
 short menuID, menuItem;
 Str255 daName;
 short daErr;

 menuItem = LoWord (menuResult);
 menuID = HiWord (menuResult);

 switch (menuID) {
 case appleID: 
 if (menuItem == appleAbout) DoAboutBox ();
 else {
 GetItem(myMenus[appleM], menuItem, daName);
 daErr = OpenDeskAcc(daName);
 if (currentWindow)
 SetPort (currentWindow);
 }
 break;
 case fileID: 
 switch (menuItem) { 
 case fileQuit: 
 CleanUp ();
 break;
 }
 break;
 }
 HiliteMenu(0);
}

void DoEvent (void) {

 switch (event.what) {
 case mouseDown: 
 switch (FindWindow(event.where, 
 &whichWindow)) {
 case inMenuBar: 
 DoCommand(MenuSelect(event.where));
 break;
 case inSysWindow: 
 SystemClick(&event, whichWindow);
 break;
 case inDrag: 
 DragWindow(whichWindow, event.where,
 &dragRect);
 break;
 case inGrow: 
 newSize = GrowWindow(whichWindow,
 event.where, &growRect);
 SizeWindow(whichWindow, LoWord(newSize),
 HiWord(newSize), 1);
 InvalRect(&currentWindow->portRect);
 break;
 case inGoAway: 
 if (TrackGoAway(whichWindow,
 event.where)) CleanUp ();
 break;
 } /* case findwindow (...) */
 break;
 case keyDown:
 case autoKey: 
 aChar = (char)(BitAnd (event.message,
 charCodeMask));
 if (BitAnd (event.modifiers, cmdKey))
 DoCommand(MenuKey(aChar));
 break;
 case activateEvt: 
 if (BitAnd(event.modifiers, activeFlag))
 DisableItem(myMenus[editM], 0);
 else EnableItem(myMenus[editM], 0);
 break;

 case updateEvt: 
 BeginUpdate(currentWindow);
 EraseRect(&currentWindow->portRect);
 DrawGrowIcon(currentWindow);
 InsetRect (&currentWindow->portRect, 8, 8);
 OffsetRect (&currentWindow->portRect,
 -8, -8);

 if (LockPixels (wallyWorld->portPixMap)) {
 CopyBits(&wallyWorld->portPixMap,
 &currentWindow->portBits, &copyRect,
 &currentWindow->portRect, srcCopy, NULL);
 UnlockPixels (wallyWorld->portPixMap);
 }
 
 OffsetRect (&currentWindow->portRect, 8, 8);
 InsetRect (&currentWindow->portRect, -8, -8);
 EndUpdate(currentWindow);
 break;
 }
}

void main (void) {
 currentWindow = NULL;
 Init ();
 InitCursor ();

 do {
 if (WaitNextEvent (everyEvent, &event,
 sleepTicks, NULL)) DoEvent ();
 } while (!doneFlag);
}

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Logic Pro X 10.1.1 - Music creation and...
Apple Logic Pro X is the most advanced version of Logic ever. Sophisticated new tools for professional songwriting, editing, and mixing are built around a modern interface that's designed to get... Read more
VLC Media Player 2.2.0 - Popular multime...
VLC Media Player is a highly portable multimedia player for various audio and video formats (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, DivX, MP3, OGG, ...) as well as DVDs, VCDs, and various streaming protocols. It... Read more
Sound Studio 4.7.8 - Robust audio record...
Sound Studio lets you easily record and professionally edit audio on your Mac. Easily rip vinyls and digitize cassette tapes, or record lectures and voice memos. Prepare for live shows with live... Read more
LibreOffice 4.4.1.2 - Free, open-source...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
Freeway Pro 7.0.3 - Drag-and-drop Web de...
Freeway Pro lets you build websites with speed and precision... without writing a line of code! With its user-oriented drag-and-drop interface, Freeway Pro helps you piece together the website of... Read more
Cloud 3.3.0 - File sharing from your men...
Cloud is simple file sharing for the Mac. Drag a file from your Mac to the CloudApp icon in the menubar and we take care of the rest. A link to the file will automatically be copied to your clipboard... Read more
Cyberduck 4.6.5 - FTP and SFTP browser....
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more
Firefox 36.0 - Fast, safe Web browser. (...
Firefox for Mac offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals and... Read more
Thunderbird 31.5.0 - Email client from M...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more
VOX 2.4 - Music player that supports man...
VoxIt just sounds better! The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features & support for all audio formats you should ever need... Read more

Get The Whole Story – Lone Wolf Complete...
Get The Whole Story – Lone Wolf Complete is Now Available and On Sale Posted by Jessica Fisher on February 27th, 2015 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Who Wore it Best? The Counting Dead vs....
Like it or not, the “clicker” genre, popularized by cute distractions like Candy Box and Cookie Clicker, seems like it’s here to stay. So Who Wore it Best? takes a look at two recent examples: The Counting Dead and AdVenture Capitalist. | Read more »
Card Crawl, the Mini Deck Building Game,...
Card Crawl, the Mini Deck Building Game, is Coming Soon Posted by Jessica Fisher on February 27th, 2015 [ permalink ] Tinytouchtales and Mexer have announced their new game, | Read more »
Witness an all new puzzle mechanic in Bl...
Well, BlastBall MAX is not one of those games and is bucking trends such as timers, elements of randomness, and tacked-on mechanics in favor of pure puzzle gameplay. When you first boot up the game you’ll see a grid made up of squares that are each... | Read more »
This Princess Has a Dragon and She isn’t...
This Princess Has a Dragon and She isn’t Afraid to Useit. | Read more »
Mecha Showdown Review
Mecha Showdown Review By Lee Hamlet on February 27th, 2015 Our Rating: :: IN A SPINUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Mecha Showdown replaces traditional buttons with a slot machine mechanic in this robot fighting game,... | Read more »
Reliance Games and Dreamworks Unveil Rea...
Reliance Games and Dreamworks Unveil Real Steel Champions Posted by Ellis Spice on February 27th, 2015 [ permalink ] Reliance Games and Dreamworks have announced that a third game in | Read more »
Sum Idea Review
Sum Idea Review By Jennifer Allen on February 27th, 2015 Our Rating: :: TAXING NUMBERSUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Sum Idea is a fairly charming but taxing puzzle game.   | Read more »
A New Badland Update Brings Daydream Lev...
A New Badland Update Brings Daydream Levels to Co-Op Posted by Ellis Spice on February 27th, 2015 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Slashing Demons Review
Slashing Demons Review By Lee Hamlet on February 27th, 2015 Our Rating: :: IT'S A LONG WAY TO THE TOPUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Slashing Demons lacks the depth or scope to take it beyond the point of being just... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple CEO Tim Cook to Deliver 2015 George Was...
Apple CEO Tim Cook will deliver the George Washington University’s Commencement address to GWU grads on May 17, at which time he will also be awarded an honorary doctorate of public service from the... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished Mac minis for up t...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 Mac minis, with models available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz... Read more
Save up to $50 on iPad Air 2s, NY tax only, f...
 B&H Photo has iPad Air 2s on sale for $50 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $469.99 $30 off - 64GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $549 $50 off - 128GB iPad Air 2... Read more
16GB iPad Air 2 on sale for $447, save $52
Walmart has the 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi on sale for $446.99 on their online store for a limited time. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for online orders only,... Read more
iMacs on sale for up to $205 off MSRP
B&H Photo has 21″ and 27″ iMacs on sale for up to $205 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 21″ 1.4GHz iMac: $1029 $70 off - 21″ 2.7GHz iMac: $1199 $100 off - 21″ 2.9GHz... Read more
Apple Takes 89 Percent Share of Global Smartp...
According to the latest research from Strategy Analytics, global smartphone operating profit reached US$21 billion in Q4 2014. The Android operating system captured a record-low 11 percent global... Read more
New Travel Health App “My Travel Health” iOS...
Rochester, Minnesota based Travel Health and Wellness LLC has announced that its new iOS app help safeguard the user’s health when traveling abroad — “My Travel Health” is now available on the Apple... Read more
Sale! MacBook Airs for up to $115 off MSRP
B&H Photo has MacBook Airs on sale for up to $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 11″ 128GB MacBook Air: $799 100 off MSRP - 11″ 256GB MacBook Air: $999 $100... Read more
15-inch 2.0GHz Retina MacBook Pro (refurbishe...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished previous-generation 15″ 2.0GHz Retina MacBook Pros available for $1489 including free shipping plus Apple’s standard one-year warranty. Their price is... Read more
Wither The iPad mini? End Of The Road Imminen...
AppleDailyReport’s Dennis Sellers predicts that the iPad mini is going to be left to wither on the vine, as it were, and then just allowed to fade away — a casualty of the IPhone 6 Plus and other... Read more

Jobs Board

Sr. Technical Services Consultant, *Apple*...
**Job Summary** Apple Professional Services (APS) has an opening for a senior technical position that contributes to Apple 's efforts for strategic and transactional Read more
Event Director, *Apple* Retail Marketing -...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global engagement strategy and team. Delivering an overarching brand Read more
*Apple* Pay - Site Reliability Engineer - Ap...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.