TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Gestaltstorage
Volume Number:9
Issue Number:3
Column Tag:Pascal/Assembly

Related Info: Gestalt Manager

Gestaltstorage

A ‘Global’ storage technique, using _Gestalt

By Alain Danteny, France

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

This article is merely a re-writing and translation of a previous article I submitted to Apple France’s DTS, which was published in the November 91-issue of ‘La Lettre des Développeurs Apple’. It’s based on an idea by Franck Lefebvre (Hi, Frank): How to use Gestalt to store “global” informations, mainly in non-A5 worlds. Frank did it in C, while I propose it in MPW Pascal and Asm

1. Gestalt Was ist das?

System 6.0.4 introduced a new Trap, _Gestalt, that lets you read specific hardware or software configurations and settings: system version, QuickDraw version, etc.

You can use the Gestalt Manager through a single call to:

FUNCTION Gestalt(selector: OSType; VAR response: Longint): OSErr;

Error codes are sometimes returned:

gestaltUnknownErr = -5550;
{ value returned if Gestalt doesn't know the answer }
gestaltUndefSelectorErr = -5551;        
{ undefined selector was passed to Gestalt }
gestaltDupSelectorErr = -5552;          
{ tried to add an entry that already existed }
gestaltLocationErr = -5553;             
{ gestalt function ptr wasn't in sysheap }

They are a lot of predefined read-only selectors available

More interesting, you can define your own private selector through the use of:

FUNCTION NewGestalt(selector: OSType; selectorFunction: ProcPtr): OSErr;

The heart of this routine is the selectorFunction parameter: you have to supply your own mechanism to retrieve your information. This routine is called by the Gestalt Manager using the following interface:

FUNCTION selectorFunction(selector:OSType; VAR response:Longint):OSErr;

You will probably write it using assembly, although this is not necessary.

For the purpose of GestaltStorage, we write the following routine :

;1

 FUNC 
 EXPORT (__SelectorFunc,__EndSelectorFunc):CODE

;FUNCTION __SelectorFunc(selector:OSType;
;VAR response:Longint):OSErr;
__SelectorFunc 
result  EQU $10
selectorEQU $C
responseEQU $8


 BRA.S  Skip
Address DC.L0    
;place holder for our address of storage structure
;could be anything else, provided a 4-byte length
Skip    LINKA6,#0
 CLR.W  result(A6) ;init no error
 MOVEA.Lresponse(A6),A0
 MOVE.L Address(PC),D0
 BNE.S  GFExit
;if Address is $0 (meaning we already used and released 
;this selector) then we return the address of the 
;selectorFunction itself to re-use it properly
 LEA    __SelectorFunc,A1
 MOVE.L A1,D0
;we return #$0100 as error code to let user know that the 
;address of the selectorFunction is returned instead
 MOVE.W #$0100,result(A6) 
GFExit  MOVE.L   D0,(A0)
;otherwise, return ‘global’ address 
 UNLK   A6
 MOVEA.L(A7)+,A0
 ADDQ.W #$8,A7
 JMP    (A0)
__EndSelectorFunc;marker to end of routine
 ENDFUNC


As you know by now, check out the Gestalt Manager chapter of Inside Mac Volume VI, or your interface files.

2. GestaltStorage

The idea behind the GestaltStorage project is to provide simple routines to create, set, get and dispose of ‘private’ Gestalt selectors in your application.

Whenever you need to keep data ‘global’ (for example, between two calls of an XCMD, a MDEF, a WDEF etc.), just create a new selector, fill it, use it and release it when the job is done (actually, when quitting).

There’s one thing you have to remember: Gestalt ‘lives’ in the system heap, therefore everything you create there stays until the next boot.

The ‘public’ routines of GestaltStorage are:

FUNCTION GSFreeStorage(selector:OSType):Boolean;

This function tests whether your private Gestalt selector already exists or not.

FUNCTION GSNew(selector:OSType;storageSize:Size; globalData:Ptr):OSErr;

This function allocate a new ‘global’ storage structure in the System heap of type selector, stuffs the ‘raw’ data pointed by globalData in it, for storageSize bytes long, and returns an error code (either Gestalt or Memory Manager).

There are three possibilities:

• selector doesn’t exist yet: we simply create it.

• selector already exists, but doesn’t point to data any longer: we reuse it and store new data, being aware of the previous storageSize field of the internal structure.

• selector already exists and points to data: we overwrite those data for storageSize bytes long (no dynamic re-allocation!)

FUNCTION GSGet(selector:OSType;bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;

This function collects the data stored in the selector structure and stuffs them in bucketPtr. This pointer must be an already existing and valid pointer, or any structure pointed to with the @ operator (in Pascal).

FUNCTION GSRead(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;

bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;

This is merely the same as GSGet, except that you can get ‘partial’ data, provided you supply an offset from the beginning of your own structure and a length of bytes to read from.

FUNCTION GSSet(selector:OSType;globalData:Ptr):OSErr;

This routine lets you reset or modify your previously stored ‘global’ data (through GSNew). globalData points to the new ‘raw’ data. Only storageSize bytes will be copied

FUNCTION GSWrite(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;
 globalData:Ptr):OSErr;

Merely the same as GSSet, except that you can write ‘partial’ new data, providing an offset and a length to write to.

FUNCTION GSDispose(selector:OSType):OSErr;

When you’re done with the use of your own selector, this routine de-allocates any memory used in the System heap and set the ‘global’ address to $0 (a longint).

(Notice that the selector is still alive, until next boot: there’s no [official] way to unregister a Gestalt selector )

3. Optimizing GestaltStorage?

This mechanism is very simple, yet efficient for any data of constant size.

One could consider re-writting GestaltStorage to handle dynamic allocations, linked structures, etc. or implement such routines:

FUNCTION GSAppend(selector:OSType;moreSize:Size;
 moreGlobalData:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSInsert(selector:OSType;offset:LongInt;
 moreSize:Size;moreGlobalData:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSRemove(selector:OSType;offset:LongInt;
 lessSize:Size):OSErr;

For the OOP folks, there’s probably a good class to code here!

4. Tidbits

While sleuthing the MPW libraries, I discovered that the Gestalt Manager routines are embedded in a 500+-byte ‘glue’, for compatibility purpose: if you really know what your doing, you can use those ‘un-glued’ routines:

;2

;FUNCTION __ReplaceGestalt(selector: OSType;
;gestaltFunction: ProcPtr;
;VAR oldGestaltFunction: ProcPtr): OSErr;
;smaller version without MPW glue : we assume _Gestalt is 
;implemented <Juil 92> remove extra LINK and UNLK 
;instructions refer to A7
__ReplaceGestalt FUNC EXPORT
error   EQU $10
selectorEQU $C
newGF   EQU $8
oldGF   EQU $4
 MOVE.L selector(A7),D0
 MOVEA.LnewGF(A7),A0
 _Gestalt ,Sys
 MOVE.W D0,error(A7)
 MOVEA.LoldGF(A7),A1
 MOVE.L A0,(A1)
 MOVEA.L(A7)+,A0
 ADDA.W #$C,A7
 JMP    (A0)
 ENDFUNC

;===========================================================
;FUNCTION __NewGestalt(selector: OSType;
;gestaltFunction: ProcPtr): OSErr;
;smaller version without MPW glue : we assume _Gestalt is ;implemented 
<Juil 92> remove extra LINK and UNLK ;instructions refer to A7
__NewGestaltFUNC EXPORT
error   EQU $C
selectorEQU $8
funct   EQU $4
 MOVE.L selector(A7),D0
 MOVEA.Lfunct(A7),A0
 _Gestalt ,Immed
 MOVE.W D0,error(A7)
 MOVEA.L(A7)+,A0
 ADDQ.L #$8,A7
 JMP    (A0)
 ENDFUNC

;===========================================================
;FUNCTION __Gestalt(selector: OSType;
;VAR response: LONGINT): OSErr;
;smaller version without MPW glue : we assume _Gestalt is ;implemented 
<Juil 92> remove extra LINK and UNLK 
;instructions refer to A7
__Gestalt FUNC EXPORT
error   EQU $C
selectorEQU $8
responseEQU $4
 MOVE.L selector(A7),D0
 _Gestalt
 MOVEA.Lresponse(A7),A1
 MOVE.L A0,(A1)
 MOVE.W D0,error(A7)
 MOVEA.L(A7)+,A0
 ADDQ.L #$8,A7
 JMP    (A0)
 ENDFUNC

5. Comments

I’ll be glad to hear your comments on AppleLink at DANTENY.

{3}
Listing GestaltStorage.p
UNIT GestaltStorage;

INTERFACE

USES Memtypes,QuickDraw,OSIntf,ToolIntf,GestaltEqu,
 GestaltStorage_glue;

CONST 
 gsFromStart=0;
 gsStorageSize=8;
TYPE  
 (* Key concept: through the use of Gestalt and our *)
 (* private selector we store an address to a pointer *)
 (* in system heap, and thus access it later, even *)
 (* during interrupts tasks   We could have stored the *)
 (* address of the 'raw' pointer to data but we decided *)
 (* to use the following structure for our data: *)
 
 gsStoragePtr=^gsStorageData;
 gsStorageData=RECORD
 {kind of 'private' fields }
 gsSize:Size;    {size of the 'raw' data     }
 {address of the GestaltFunction}
 gsFuncAddr:LongInt; 
 {kind of 'public' field }
 {raw data goes here for gsSize bytes long}
   END;
   
 (* For Pascal uses,we defined that structure to mimic *)
 (* the asm structure of the GestaltFunction. Forget *)
 (* it otherwise *)
 gsFuncPtr=^gsFuncData;
 gsFuncData=RECORD
 {entrypoint of asm routine}
 BRAinstruction:integer;  
 gsStorageAddr:LongInt; {our DC.L storage}
 {func code goes here as defined in the .a code}
 END;
 

FUNCTION GSNew(selector:OSType;storageSize:Size;
 globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSGet(selector:OSType;bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSRead(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;
 bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSSet(selector:OSType;globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSWrite(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;
 globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSDispose(selector:OSType):OSErr;

IMPLEMENTATION


FUNCTION GSNew(selector:OSType;storageSize:Size;
 globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
 theStorage:Ptr;
 theGestaltFunc:Ptr;
 theGestaltFuncAddr:LongInt;
 oldStorageSize:Size;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=gestaltUndefSelectorErr THEN 
 { An undefined selector was passed to Gestalt : it's OK }
 { for us to allocate a brand new storage component. }
 BEGIN
 theGestaltFunc:=GSNewFunction;
 IF theGestaltFunc<>NIL THEN
 BEGIN
 theStorage:=GSNewStorage(storageSize,globalData);
 IF theStorage<>NIL THEN
 BEGIN
 gsFuncPtr(theGestaltFunc)^.gsStorageAddr:=
 ORD(theStorage);
 gsStoragePtr(theStorage)^.gsFuncAddr:=
 ORD(theGestaltFunc);
 theErr:=__NewGestalt(selector,
 ProcPtr(theGestaltFunc));
 END
 ELSE
 BEGIN
 gsStoragePtr(theStorage)^.gsFuncAddr:=0;
 theErr:=memFullErr;
 END;
 END
 ELSE theErr:=memFullErr;
 END
 ELSE IF theErr=$0100 THEN 
 { value returned by the _Gestalt function if storage }
 { address is NIL (header) the selector is still valid, }
 { so we can re-use it in this case, the globalDataAddr }
 { longint holds the address of the gestalt function. }
 BEGIN
 theGestaltFuncAddr:=globalDataAddr; 
 IF theGestaltFuncAddr<>0 THEN 
 {probably paranoid }
 BEGIN
 theGestaltFunc:=Ptr(theGestaltFuncAddr);
 IF gsFuncPtr(theGestaltFunc)^.BRAinstruction=$6004 THEN
 BEGIN
 theStorage:=GSNewStorage(storageSize,globalData);
 IF theStorage<>NIL THEN
 BEGIN
 gsFuncPtr(theGestaltFunc)^.gsStorageAddr:=
 ORD(theStorage);
 gsStoragePtr(theStorage)^.gsFuncAddr:=
 theGestaltFuncAddr;
 theErr:=noErr;
 END
 ELSE theErr:=memFullErr;
 END
 ELSE theErr:=gestaltDupSelectorErr; 
 {really paranoid }
 END
 ELSE theErr:=gestaltDupSelectorErr;
 END
 ELSE IF theErr=noErr THEN 
 {an entry already exist: we OVERWRITE it with same Size}
 BEGIN
 oldStorageSize:=
 gsStoragePtr(Ptr(globalDataAddr))^.gsSize;
 BlockMove(globalData,Ptr(globalDataAddr+
 SizeOf(gsStorageData)),oldStorageSize);
 END
 ELSE theErr:=gestaltDupSelectorErr;
 {an unexpected error occurs: we safetely do nothing}
 GSNew:=theErr;
END;


FUNCTION GSGet(selector:OSType;bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=noErr THEN
 WITH gsStoragePtr(Ptr(globalDataAddr))^ DO
 BlockMove(Ptr(globalDataAddr+
 SizeOf(gsStorageData)),bucketPtr,gsSize);
 GSGet:=theErr;
END;


FUNCTION GSRead(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;
 bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=noErr THEN
 BlockMove(Ptr(globalDataAddr+
 SizeOf(gsStorageData)+offSet),bucketPtr,length);
 GSRead:=theErr;
END;


FUNCTION GSSet(selector:OSType;globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=noErr THEN
 WITH gsStoragePtr(Ptr(globalDataAddr))^ DO
 BlockMove(globalData,Ptr(globalDataAddr+
 SizeOf(gsStorageData)),gsSize);
 GSSet:=theErr;
END;

FUNCTION GSWrite(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;
 globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=noErr THEN
 BlockMove(globalData,Ptr(globalDataAddr+
 SizeOf(gsStorageData)+offSet),length);
 GSWrite:=theErr;
END;


FUNCTION GSDispose(selector:OSType):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
 globalData:Ptr;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=noErr THEN
 BEGIN
 globalData:=Ptr(globalDataAddr);
 IF globalData<>NIL THEN
 BEGIN
 gsFuncPtr(Ptr(gsStoragePtr(globalData)^.
 gsFuncAddr))^.gsStorageAddr:=0;
 DisposPtr(globalData);
 globalData:=NIL;
 END
 ELSE theErr:=nilHandleErr;
 END;
 GSDispose:=theErr;
END;

END.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

OmniOutliner Pro 4.6 - Pro version of th...
OmniOutliner Pro is a flexible program for creating, collecting, and organizing information. Give your creativity a kick start by using an application that's actually designed to help you think. It's... Read more
Alfred 3.1 - Quick launcher for apps and...
Alfred is an award-winning productivity application for OS X. Alfred saves you time when you search for files online or on your Mac. Be more productive with hotkeys, keywords, and file actions at... Read more
OmniOutliner 4.6 - Organize your ideas,...
OmniOutliner is a flexible program for creating, collecting, and organizing information. Give your creativity a kick start by using an application that's actually designed to help you think. It's... Read more
Default Folder X 5.0.6 - Enhances Open a...
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click on... Read more
Adobe Creative Cloud 3.8.0.310 - Access...
Adobe Creative Cloud costs $19.99/month for a single app, or $49.99/month for the entire suite. Introducing Adobe Creative Cloud desktop applications, including Adobe Photoshop CC and Illustrator CC... Read more
MYStuff Pro 2.0.25 - Create inventories...
MYStuff Pro is the most flexible way to create detail-rich inventories for your home or small business. Add items to MYStuff by dragging and dropping existing information, uploading new images, or... Read more
Viber 6.2.0 - Send messages and make cal...
Viber lets you send free messages and make free calls to other Viber users, on any device and network, in any country! Viber syncs your contacts, messages and call history with your mobile device, so... Read more
Data Rescue 4.2.3 - Powerful hard drive...
Use Data Rescue to recover: crashed, corrupted or non-mounting hard drive deleted, damaged, or lost files reformatted or erased hard drive One powerful new feature found in Data Rescue 4 is... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.34 - Connec...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.34 - Connec...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more

Find out the story behind League of Ange...
If you’re looking for a new thrilling MMORPG to play with your friends then you’ll be excited to hear that there is a sequel to one of the most well known titles in the genre – namely League of Angels 2. With a brand new 3D engine offering... | Read more »
Naruto Shippuden: Ultimate Ninja Blazing...
I'm not sure if it's possible to say you are an anime fan but also never have seen one episode of Naruto. If it is, then I resemble that remark, and if not, I offer a hearty apology. [Read more] | Read more »
5 mobile games that let you explore spac...
No Man's Sky hasn't exactly turned out to be everything it was promised. Though its core concept of exploring an unimaginably vast universe of different planets is an intriguing one, the execution has left many PS4 and PC gamers feeling like they... | Read more »
Mummy madness in new action game Tomb He...
Hot on the tail of Bump Hero, ZPlay is giving gamers another reason to get screen bashing with a brand new release. Tomb Heroes is a challenging action game in which you battle enemies in various tombs around the world. You can select from nine... | Read more »
Siralim 2 (RPG / Roguelike) (Games)
Siralim 2 (RPG / Roguelike) 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Siralim 2 is an old-school monster catching RPG. Summon and customize hundreds of creatures to fight for you as... | Read more »
Clean Text (Productivity)
Clean Text 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Productivity Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Gemini - A Journey of Two Stars (Games)
Gemini - A Journey of Two Stars 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: *** SPECIAL LAUNCH SALE: $2.99 (25% off) *** "A mesmerizing and unexpectedly emotional journey." -- Los... | Read more »
How to get four NFL superstars for your...
Even though you're probably well on your way to building a top notch squad for the new season in Madden NFL Mobile, let's say you could beef it up by adding Rob Gronkowski, Antonio Brown, Von Miller, and Todd Gurley to your roster. That's... | Read more »
Cartoon Network Superstar Soccer: Goal!!...
Cartoon Network Superstar Soccer: Goal!!! – Multiplayer Sports Game Starring Your Favorite Characters 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Become a soccer superstar with your... | Read more »
NFL Huddle: What's new in Topps NFL...
Can you smell that? It's the scent of pigskin in the air, which either means that cliches be damned, pigs are flying in your neck of the woods, or the new NFL season is right around the corner. [Read more] | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

RESCUECOM 2016 Semi-Annual Computer Reliabili...
The beginning of a new school year is upon us again, in which students and parents have some very important choices to make, often including the purchase of a computer or tablet. Whether you are... Read more
VRS Design Damda Glide Series iPhone 7 and 7...
What makes the Damda Glide Series for the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus special? Case maker VRS Design says its Damda Glide Series is the first mobile case to incorporate a semi-automatic mechanism for... Read more
Apple refurbished iMacs available for up to $...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 21″ & 27″ iMacs available for up to $350 off MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free. The following models are available: - 21″ 3.... Read more
Clearance 2015 13-inch MacBook Airs available...
B&H Photo has clearance 2015 13″ MacBook Airs available for $350 off original MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 1.6GHz/4GB/128GB MacBook Air (MJVE2LL/A): $829... Read more
Check Apple prices on any device with the iTr...
MacPrices is proud to offer readers a free iOS app (iPhones, iPads, & iPod touch) and Android app (Google Play and Amazon App Store) called iTracx, which allows you to glance at today’s lowest... Read more
Save $120 with Apple refurbished Time Capsule...
Apple has certified refurbished Time Capsules available for $120 off MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each Time Capsule, and shipping is free: - 2TB Time Capsule: $179, $120 off (not... Read more
9-inch 32GB iPad Pros on sale for $70 off MSR...
B&H Photo has 9″ 32GB WiFi Apple iPad Pros on sale for $70 off MSRP, each including free shipping. B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 9″ Space Gray 32GB WiFi iPad Pro: $529 $70 off MSRP - 9... Read more
Mac minis on sale for up to $140 off MSRP
Adorama has Mac minis on sale for up to $100 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $449 $50 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac mini: $649 $50 off MSRP Amazon has the... Read more
Back To School with OtterBox Essentials
Back to school means back to an environment that is tough on tech. OtterBox has the back to school essentials you need to keep tech safe from drops, bumps, scratches and hallway havoc. Check out the... Read more
VRS Design Releases New iPhone 7 Plus Case Li...
With a device as large and costly as the iPhone 7 Plus, it is primal instinct to protect it from potential damage. According to a study by SquareTrade in 2012, iPhone damages cost Americans roughly $... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple (United...
# Apple Solutions Consultant Job Number: 51218354 Fredericksburg, Virginia, United States Posted: Aug. 18, 2016 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** As an Apple Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* /Mac Support Engineer - GFI Digital,...
FI Digital, Inc. is currently seeking candidates for a full time Apple Support Engineer to add to our Maryland Heights, Missouri IT team. Candidates must be dynamic Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple (United...
Apple Solutions ConsultantJob Number: 51218534Pleasant Hill, California, United StatesPosted: Aug. 18, 2016Weekly Hours: 40.00Job SummaryAs an Apple Solutions Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple (United...
# Apple Solutions Consultant Job Number: 51443201 Mishawaka, Indiana, United States Posted: Aug. 25, 2016 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** As an Apple Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.