TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Gestaltstorage
Volume Number:9
Issue Number:3
Column Tag:Pascal/Assembly

Related Info: Gestalt Manager

Gestaltstorage

A ‘Global’ storage technique, using _Gestalt

By Alain Danteny, France

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

This article is merely a re-writing and translation of a previous article I submitted to Apple France’s DTS, which was published in the November 91-issue of ‘La Lettre des Développeurs Apple’. It’s based on an idea by Franck Lefebvre (Hi, Frank): How to use Gestalt to store “global” informations, mainly in non-A5 worlds. Frank did it in C, while I propose it in MPW Pascal and Asm

1. Gestalt Was ist das?

System 6.0.4 introduced a new Trap, _Gestalt, that lets you read specific hardware or software configurations and settings: system version, QuickDraw version, etc.

You can use the Gestalt Manager through a single call to:

FUNCTION Gestalt(selector: OSType; VAR response: Longint): OSErr;

Error codes are sometimes returned:

gestaltUnknownErr = -5550;
{ value returned if Gestalt doesn't know the answer }
gestaltUndefSelectorErr = -5551;        
{ undefined selector was passed to Gestalt }
gestaltDupSelectorErr = -5552;          
{ tried to add an entry that already existed }
gestaltLocationErr = -5553;             
{ gestalt function ptr wasn't in sysheap }

They are a lot of predefined read-only selectors available

More interesting, you can define your own private selector through the use of:

FUNCTION NewGestalt(selector: OSType; selectorFunction: ProcPtr): OSErr;

The heart of this routine is the selectorFunction parameter: you have to supply your own mechanism to retrieve your information. This routine is called by the Gestalt Manager using the following interface:

FUNCTION selectorFunction(selector:OSType; VAR response:Longint):OSErr;

You will probably write it using assembly, although this is not necessary.

For the purpose of GestaltStorage, we write the following routine :

;1

 FUNC 
 EXPORT (__SelectorFunc,__EndSelectorFunc):CODE

;FUNCTION __SelectorFunc(selector:OSType;
;VAR response:Longint):OSErr;
__SelectorFunc 
result  EQU $10
selectorEQU $C
responseEQU $8


 BRA.S  Skip
Address DC.L0    
;place holder for our address of storage structure
;could be anything else, provided a 4-byte length
Skip    LINKA6,#0
 CLR.W  result(A6) ;init no error
 MOVEA.Lresponse(A6),A0
 MOVE.L Address(PC),D0
 BNE.S  GFExit
;if Address is $0 (meaning we already used and released 
;this selector) then we return the address of the 
;selectorFunction itself to re-use it properly
 LEA    __SelectorFunc,A1
 MOVE.L A1,D0
;we return #$0100 as error code to let user know that the 
;address of the selectorFunction is returned instead
 MOVE.W #$0100,result(A6) 
GFExit  MOVE.L   D0,(A0)
;otherwise, return ‘global’ address 
 UNLK   A6
 MOVEA.L(A7)+,A0
 ADDQ.W #$8,A7
 JMP    (A0)
__EndSelectorFunc;marker to end of routine
 ENDFUNC


As you know by now, check out the Gestalt Manager chapter of Inside Mac Volume VI, or your interface files.

2. GestaltStorage

The idea behind the GestaltStorage project is to provide simple routines to create, set, get and dispose of ‘private’ Gestalt selectors in your application.

Whenever you need to keep data ‘global’ (for example, between two calls of an XCMD, a MDEF, a WDEF etc.), just create a new selector, fill it, use it and release it when the job is done (actually, when quitting).

There’s one thing you have to remember: Gestalt ‘lives’ in the system heap, therefore everything you create there stays until the next boot.

The ‘public’ routines of GestaltStorage are:

FUNCTION GSFreeStorage(selector:OSType):Boolean;

This function tests whether your private Gestalt selector already exists or not.

FUNCTION GSNew(selector:OSType;storageSize:Size; globalData:Ptr):OSErr;

This function allocate a new ‘global’ storage structure in the System heap of type selector, stuffs the ‘raw’ data pointed by globalData in it, for storageSize bytes long, and returns an error code (either Gestalt or Memory Manager).

There are three possibilities:

• selector doesn’t exist yet: we simply create it.

• selector already exists, but doesn’t point to data any longer: we reuse it and store new data, being aware of the previous storageSize field of the internal structure.

• selector already exists and points to data: we overwrite those data for storageSize bytes long (no dynamic re-allocation!)

FUNCTION GSGet(selector:OSType;bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;

This function collects the data stored in the selector structure and stuffs them in bucketPtr. This pointer must be an already existing and valid pointer, or any structure pointed to with the @ operator (in Pascal).

FUNCTION GSRead(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;

bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;

This is merely the same as GSGet, except that you can get ‘partial’ data, provided you supply an offset from the beginning of your own structure and a length of bytes to read from.

FUNCTION GSSet(selector:OSType;globalData:Ptr):OSErr;

This routine lets you reset or modify your previously stored ‘global’ data (through GSNew). globalData points to the new ‘raw’ data. Only storageSize bytes will be copied

FUNCTION GSWrite(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;
 globalData:Ptr):OSErr;

Merely the same as GSSet, except that you can write ‘partial’ new data, providing an offset and a length to write to.

FUNCTION GSDispose(selector:OSType):OSErr;

When you’re done with the use of your own selector, this routine de-allocates any memory used in the System heap and set the ‘global’ address to $0 (a longint).

(Notice that the selector is still alive, until next boot: there’s no [official] way to unregister a Gestalt selector )

3. Optimizing GestaltStorage?

This mechanism is very simple, yet efficient for any data of constant size.

One could consider re-writting GestaltStorage to handle dynamic allocations, linked structures, etc. or implement such routines:

FUNCTION GSAppend(selector:OSType;moreSize:Size;
 moreGlobalData:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSInsert(selector:OSType;offset:LongInt;
 moreSize:Size;moreGlobalData:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSRemove(selector:OSType;offset:LongInt;
 lessSize:Size):OSErr;

For the OOP folks, there’s probably a good class to code here!

4. Tidbits

While sleuthing the MPW libraries, I discovered that the Gestalt Manager routines are embedded in a 500+-byte ‘glue’, for compatibility purpose: if you really know what your doing, you can use those ‘un-glued’ routines:

;2

;FUNCTION __ReplaceGestalt(selector: OSType;
;gestaltFunction: ProcPtr;
;VAR oldGestaltFunction: ProcPtr): OSErr;
;smaller version without MPW glue : we assume _Gestalt is 
;implemented <Juil 92> remove extra LINK and UNLK 
;instructions refer to A7
__ReplaceGestalt FUNC EXPORT
error   EQU $10
selectorEQU $C
newGF   EQU $8
oldGF   EQU $4
 MOVE.L selector(A7),D0
 MOVEA.LnewGF(A7),A0
 _Gestalt ,Sys
 MOVE.W D0,error(A7)
 MOVEA.LoldGF(A7),A1
 MOVE.L A0,(A1)
 MOVEA.L(A7)+,A0
 ADDA.W #$C,A7
 JMP    (A0)
 ENDFUNC

;===========================================================
;FUNCTION __NewGestalt(selector: OSType;
;gestaltFunction: ProcPtr): OSErr;
;smaller version without MPW glue : we assume _Gestalt is ;implemented 
<Juil 92> remove extra LINK and UNLK ;instructions refer to A7
__NewGestaltFUNC EXPORT
error   EQU $C
selectorEQU $8
funct   EQU $4
 MOVE.L selector(A7),D0
 MOVEA.Lfunct(A7),A0
 _Gestalt ,Immed
 MOVE.W D0,error(A7)
 MOVEA.L(A7)+,A0
 ADDQ.L #$8,A7
 JMP    (A0)
 ENDFUNC

;===========================================================
;FUNCTION __Gestalt(selector: OSType;
;VAR response: LONGINT): OSErr;
;smaller version without MPW glue : we assume _Gestalt is ;implemented 
<Juil 92> remove extra LINK and UNLK 
;instructions refer to A7
__Gestalt FUNC EXPORT
error   EQU $C
selectorEQU $8
responseEQU $4
 MOVE.L selector(A7),D0
 _Gestalt
 MOVEA.Lresponse(A7),A1
 MOVE.L A0,(A1)
 MOVE.W D0,error(A7)
 MOVEA.L(A7)+,A0
 ADDQ.L #$8,A7
 JMP    (A0)
 ENDFUNC

5. Comments

I’ll be glad to hear your comments on AppleLink at DANTENY.

{3}
Listing GestaltStorage.p
UNIT GestaltStorage;

INTERFACE

USES Memtypes,QuickDraw,OSIntf,ToolIntf,GestaltEqu,
 GestaltStorage_glue;

CONST 
 gsFromStart=0;
 gsStorageSize=8;
TYPE  
 (* Key concept: through the use of Gestalt and our *)
 (* private selector we store an address to a pointer *)
 (* in system heap, and thus access it later, even *)
 (* during interrupts tasks   We could have stored the *)
 (* address of the 'raw' pointer to data but we decided *)
 (* to use the following structure for our data: *)
 
 gsStoragePtr=^gsStorageData;
 gsStorageData=RECORD
 {kind of 'private' fields }
 gsSize:Size;    {size of the 'raw' data     }
 {address of the GestaltFunction}
 gsFuncAddr:LongInt; 
 {kind of 'public' field }
 {raw data goes here for gsSize bytes long}
   END;
   
 (* For Pascal uses,we defined that structure to mimic *)
 (* the asm structure of the GestaltFunction. Forget *)
 (* it otherwise *)
 gsFuncPtr=^gsFuncData;
 gsFuncData=RECORD
 {entrypoint of asm routine}
 BRAinstruction:integer;  
 gsStorageAddr:LongInt; {our DC.L storage}
 {func code goes here as defined in the .a code}
 END;
 

FUNCTION GSNew(selector:OSType;storageSize:Size;
 globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSGet(selector:OSType;bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSRead(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;
 bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSSet(selector:OSType;globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSWrite(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;
 globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
FUNCTION GSDispose(selector:OSType):OSErr;

IMPLEMENTATION


FUNCTION GSNew(selector:OSType;storageSize:Size;
 globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
 theStorage:Ptr;
 theGestaltFunc:Ptr;
 theGestaltFuncAddr:LongInt;
 oldStorageSize:Size;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=gestaltUndefSelectorErr THEN 
 { An undefined selector was passed to Gestalt : it's OK }
 { for us to allocate a brand new storage component. }
 BEGIN
 theGestaltFunc:=GSNewFunction;
 IF theGestaltFunc<>NIL THEN
 BEGIN
 theStorage:=GSNewStorage(storageSize,globalData);
 IF theStorage<>NIL THEN
 BEGIN
 gsFuncPtr(theGestaltFunc)^.gsStorageAddr:=
 ORD(theStorage);
 gsStoragePtr(theStorage)^.gsFuncAddr:=
 ORD(theGestaltFunc);
 theErr:=__NewGestalt(selector,
 ProcPtr(theGestaltFunc));
 END
 ELSE
 BEGIN
 gsStoragePtr(theStorage)^.gsFuncAddr:=0;
 theErr:=memFullErr;
 END;
 END
 ELSE theErr:=memFullErr;
 END
 ELSE IF theErr=$0100 THEN 
 { value returned by the _Gestalt function if storage }
 { address is NIL (header) the selector is still valid, }
 { so we can re-use it in this case, the globalDataAddr }
 { longint holds the address of the gestalt function. }
 BEGIN
 theGestaltFuncAddr:=globalDataAddr; 
 IF theGestaltFuncAddr<>0 THEN 
 {probably paranoid }
 BEGIN
 theGestaltFunc:=Ptr(theGestaltFuncAddr);
 IF gsFuncPtr(theGestaltFunc)^.BRAinstruction=$6004 THEN
 BEGIN
 theStorage:=GSNewStorage(storageSize,globalData);
 IF theStorage<>NIL THEN
 BEGIN
 gsFuncPtr(theGestaltFunc)^.gsStorageAddr:=
 ORD(theStorage);
 gsStoragePtr(theStorage)^.gsFuncAddr:=
 theGestaltFuncAddr;
 theErr:=noErr;
 END
 ELSE theErr:=memFullErr;
 END
 ELSE theErr:=gestaltDupSelectorErr; 
 {really paranoid }
 END
 ELSE theErr:=gestaltDupSelectorErr;
 END
 ELSE IF theErr=noErr THEN 
 {an entry already exist: we OVERWRITE it with same Size}
 BEGIN
 oldStorageSize:=
 gsStoragePtr(Ptr(globalDataAddr))^.gsSize;
 BlockMove(globalData,Ptr(globalDataAddr+
 SizeOf(gsStorageData)),oldStorageSize);
 END
 ELSE theErr:=gestaltDupSelectorErr;
 {an unexpected error occurs: we safetely do nothing}
 GSNew:=theErr;
END;


FUNCTION GSGet(selector:OSType;bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=noErr THEN
 WITH gsStoragePtr(Ptr(globalDataAddr))^ DO
 BlockMove(Ptr(globalDataAddr+
 SizeOf(gsStorageData)),bucketPtr,gsSize);
 GSGet:=theErr;
END;


FUNCTION GSRead(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;
 bucketPtr:Ptr):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=noErr THEN
 BlockMove(Ptr(globalDataAddr+
 SizeOf(gsStorageData)+offSet),bucketPtr,length);
 GSRead:=theErr;
END;


FUNCTION GSSet(selector:OSType;globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=noErr THEN
 WITH gsStoragePtr(Ptr(globalDataAddr))^ DO
 BlockMove(globalData,Ptr(globalDataAddr+
 SizeOf(gsStorageData)),gsSize);
 GSSet:=theErr;
END;

FUNCTION GSWrite(selector:OSType;offset,length:LongInt;
 globalData:Ptr):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=noErr THEN
 BlockMove(globalData,Ptr(globalDataAddr+
 SizeOf(gsStorageData)+offSet),length);
 GSWrite:=theErr;
END;


FUNCTION GSDispose(selector:OSType):OSErr;
VAR
 theErr:OSErr;
 globalDataAddr:LongInt;
 globalData:Ptr;
BEGIN
 theErr:=__Gestalt(selector,globalDataAddr);
 IF theErr=noErr THEN
 BEGIN
 globalData:=Ptr(globalDataAddr);
 IF globalData<>NIL THEN
 BEGIN
 gsFuncPtr(Ptr(gsStoragePtr(globalData)^.
 gsFuncAddr))^.gsStorageAddr:=0;
 DisposPtr(globalData);
 globalData:=NIL;
 END
 ELSE theErr:=nilHandleErr;
 END;
 GSDispose:=theErr;
END;

END.

 
AAPL
$98.38
Apple Inc.
-0.64
MSFT
$43.89
Microsoft Corpora
-0.09
GOOG
$585.61
Google Inc.
-4.99

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Drive Genius 3.2.4 - Powerful system uti...
Drive Genius is an OS X utility designed to provide unsurpassed storage management. Featuring an easy-to-use interface, Drive Genius is packed with powerful tools such as a drive optimizer, a... Read more
Vitamin-R 2.15 - Personal productivity t...
Vitamin-R creates the optimal conditions for your brain to work at its best by structuring your work into short bursts of distraction-free, highly focused activity alternating with opportunities for... Read more
Toast Titanium 12.0 - The ultimate media...
Toast Titanium goes way beyond the very basic burning in the Mac OS and iLife software, and sets the standard for burning CDs, DVDs, and now Blu-ray discs on the Mac. Create superior sounding audio... Read more
OS X Yosemite Wallpaper 1.0 - Desktop im...
OS X Yosemite Wallpaper is the gorgeous new background image for Apple's upcoming OS X 10.10 Yosemite. This wallpaper is available for all screen resolutions with a source file that measures 5,418... Read more
Acorn 4.4 - Bitmap image editor. (Demo)
Acorn is a new image editor built with one goal in mind - simplicity. Fast, easy, and fluid, Acorn provides the options you'll need without any overhead. Acorn feels right, and won't drain your bank... Read more
Bartender 1.2.20 - Organize your menu ba...
Bartender lets you organize your menu bar apps. Features: Lets you tidy your menu bar apps how you want. See your menu bar apps when you want. Hide the apps you need to run, but do not need to... Read more
TotalFinder 1.6.2 - Adds tabs, hotkeys,...
TotalFinder is a universally acclaimed navigational companion for your Mac. Enhance your Mac's Finder with features so smart and convenient, you won't believe you ever lived without them. Tab-based... Read more
Vienna 3.0.0 RC 2 :be5265e: - RSS and At...
Vienna is a freeware and Open-Source RSS/Atom newsreader with article storage and management via a SQLite database, written in Objective-C and Cocoa, for the OS X operating system. It provides... Read more
VLC Media Player 2.1.5 - Popular multime...
VLC Media Player is a highly portable multimedia player for various audio and video formats (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, DivX, MP3, OGG, ...) as well as DVDs, VCDs, and various streaming protocols. It... Read more
Default Folder X 4.6.7 - Enhances Open a...
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Note Review
Note Review By Jennifer Allen on July 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: TOO SIMPLEiPhone App - Designed for the iPhone, compatible with the iPad Note is a note taking app that’s a little too short on features to be worth its asking price... | Read more »
Chainsaw Warrior Goes on Sale & Ther...
Chainsaw Warrior Goes on Sale & There’s a Chance to Win a Copy of the Original Board Game Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 29th, 2014 [ permalink | Read more »
It Came From Canada: Tiny Tower Vegas
If you go to a casino, you might make a lot of money. If you run a casino, you’re guaranteed to make a lot of money. The choice seems pretty obvious. So while waiting for your shady real estate deals to move forward, get prepared with Tiny Tower... | Read more »
Z Hunter Review
Z Hunter Review By Lee Hamlet on July 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: RIGHT ON TARGETUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad While it might not necessarily break new ground, Z Hunter has enough tricks up its sleeve to ensure that... | Read more »
Huge Update Comes To Duet, Adding 48 New...
Huge Update Comes To Duet, Adding 48 New Stages Posted by Jennifer Allen on July 29th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Sharknado: The Video Game Available Now....
Sharknado: The Video Game Available Now. Seriously. Posted by Rob Rich on July 29th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Frog Orbs 2 Review
Frog Orbs 2 Review By Nadia Oxford on July 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: THIS MAGIC IS A TAD MONOTONOUS Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Frog Orbs 2 is repetitive, but younger players should enjoy it nonetheless.   | Read more »
Puzzix Review
Puzzix Review By Jennifer Allen on July 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: NICE IDEAUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad A little like Tetris, Puzzix is all about piecing together blocks and watching them vanish. It could do with... | Read more »
Cannonball eMail is Now Live – Works Wit...
Cannonball eMail is Now Live – Works With Gmail, Yahoo, Outlook, Hotmail, and AOL Posted by Jessica Fisher on July 29th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
To The End Review
To The End Review By Lee Hamlet on July 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: A VICIOUS CYCLEUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad To The End will test players’ patience, timing, and dedication as they try to navigate all 13 levels in... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

WaterField Unveils 15″ Outback Solo & 13″...
Hard on the heels of Apple’s refreshed MacBook Pro Retina laptops announcement, WaterField Designs has unveiled a 15-inch version of the waxed-canvas and leather Outback Solo and a 13-inch version of... Read more
New Roxio Toast 12 Delivers Digital Media Pow...
Roxio Toast 12 is a hub for sharing digital media to virtually any platform or device. has introduced two new additions to its Roxio Toast product family – Roxio Toast 12 Titanium and Roxio Toast 12... Read more
The lowest prices on leftover Retina MacBook...
Best Buy has dropped prices on leftover 13″ and 15″ Retina MacBook Pros by up to $300 off original MSRP on their online store for a limited time. Choose free local store pickup (if available) or free... Read more
Apple Updates MacBook Pro with Retina Display...
Apple today updated its MacBook Pro with Retina display with faster processors and double the amount of memory in both entry-level configurations. MacBook Pro with Retina display features a Retina... Read more
Up to $250 price drop on leftover 15-inch Mac...
B&H Photo has dropped prices on 2013 15″ Retina MacBook Pros by as much as $250 off original MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.3GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $2349... Read more
Updated MacBook Pro Price Trackers
We’ve updated our MacBook Pro Price Trackers with the latest information on prices, bundles, and availability on the new 2014 models from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers as well as... Read more
Apple updates MacBook Pros with slightly fast...
Apple updated 13″ and 15″ Retina MacBook Pros today with slightly faster Haswell processors. 13″ models now ship with 8GB of RAM standard, while 15″ MacBook Pros ship with 16GB across the board. Most... Read more
Apple drops price on 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro b...
The Apple Store has dropped their price for the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro by $100 to $1099 including free shipping. Read more
Apple drops prices on refurbished 2013 MacBoo...
The Apple Store has dropped prices on Apple Certified Refurbished 13″ and 15″ 2013 MacBook Pros, with model now available starting at $929. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free... Read more
iOS 8 and OS X 10.10 To Support DuckDuckGo As...
Writing for Quartz, Dan Frommer reports that Apple’s forthcoming iOS 8 and OS X 10.10 operating systems version updates will allow users to select DuckDuckGo as their default search engine. He notes... Read more

Jobs Board

Sr Software Lead Engineer, *Apple* Online S...
Sr Software Lead Engineer, Apple Online Store Publishing Systems Keywords: Company: Apple Job Code: E3PCAK8MgYYkw Location (City or ZIP): Santa Clara Status: Full Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Sr. Product Leader, *Apple* Store Apps - Ap...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.