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Efficient 68040
Volume Number:9
Issue Number:2
Column Tag:Efficient coding

Related Info: Memory Manager

Efficient 68040 Programming

Optimizing your code to run faster on the 68040

By Mike Scanlin, MacTech Magazine Regular Contributing Author

The current trend towards more and more 68040s is clear to anyone who follows the Macintosh. Some sources say that most, if not all, of the Mac product line will be moved to the 68040 sometime in 1993. With QuickTime and Color QuickDraw already requiring at least a 68020, perhaps the day when system software and applications require a 68040 isn’t that far away. In preparation for that day, here some tips on how to write efficient code for the 68040.


One of the goals of the 040 designers was to increase the performance of the large installed base of 680x0 code that was already out there. They gathered 30MB of object code from several different platforms and profiled it to gather instruction frequency and other statistics. They used this information to influence the design of the cache structure and memory management system as well as which parts of the instruction set they would optimize.

From this trace data it was determined that most of the common instructions could execute in one clock cycle if the Integer Unit were pipelined and if the instructions weren’t larger than three words each. The resulting six stage pipeline optimizes several of the less-complicated addressing modes: Rn, (An), (An)+, -(An), (An, d16), $Address and #Data. These seven modes are called the optimized effective-address modes (OEA). When writing efficient 68040 code you should stick to these addressing modes and not use the others (i.e. don’t use instructions that are 4 words (8 bytes) or longer). Sequences of instructions comprised only of these addressing modes can be pipelined without stalls and will have a lower average instruction time than sequences of instructions containing 8 byte instructions every so often.

Figure 1 shows a comparison of cycle times between the 68020 and 68040 that illustrates some of the improvements made for the 68040 (RL stands for register list).


One thing to notice in the above table is that branches taken are now faster than branches not taken. This is different from all other non-68040 members of the 680x0 family. It’s somewhat annoying because it means that you can’t simultaneously optimize for both the 040 and the 030 (there are other cases of this, too, discussed a little further on). The reason Motorola did this is because their trace data of existing code showed that 75% of all branch instructions were taken.

In addition to switching which was the faster case, they also managed to speed up both cases by adding a dedicated branch adder that always calculates the destination address when it sees a branch instruction. If it turns out that the branch is not taken then the results of the branch adder are ignored.

25MHz cycles

Instruction Addr mode 68020 68040

Move Rn,Rn 2 1

Move <OEA>,Rn 6 1

Move Rn,<OEA> 6 1

Move <OEA>,<OEA> 8 2

Move (An,Rn,d8),Rn 10 3

Move Rn,(An,Rn,d8) 6 3

Move multiple RL,<OEA> 4+2n 2+n

Move multiple <OEA>,RL 8+4n 2+n

Simple arithmetic Rn,Rn 2 1

Simple arithmetic Rn,<OEA> 6 1

Simple arithmetic <OEA>,Rn 8 1

Sifts (1 to 31 bits) - 4 2

Branch taken - 6 2

Branch not taken - 4 3

Branch to subroutine - 6 2

Return from subroutine - 10 5

Figure 1

What all of this means in practical terms is that you should always write your code so that branches are taken rather than not taken. The most commonly executed thread should take all branches. For instance, this code:

 x = 1;
 if (likelyEvent)
 x = 2;

can be improved by switching the condition and forcing the branch after the Tst instruction to be taken (assuming likelyEvent is True more than half of the time):

 x = 2;
 if (!likelyEvent)
 x = 1;

Be careful when doing this, though, that the compiler doesn’t generate an extra instruction for the added “!”. If so, it’s not worth switching the condition. But in examples like the one given, the compiler can usually just change a Beq instruction to a Bne instruction and you’ll be better off.

While we’re on the subject of branches, here’s a trick you can use to do a fast unconditional branch on the 040 if you’re writing in assembly or using a clever C compiler (works on the 020 and 030, too, but takes longer on those): use the Trapn # (trap never immediate) instruction to unconditionally branch ahead by 2 or 4 bytes in 1 cycle. One example where this is useful is if you have a small clause (2 or 4 bytes) in an else statement.

First, define these two macros:

/* Trapn.W */
#define SKIP_TWO_BYTES  DC.W0x51FA
/* Trapn.L */

Now suppose you had this code:

 if (x) {
 y = 1;
 z = 2;
 q = 3;

The normal assembly generated might be:

 Tst    x
 Beq.S  @1
 Moveq  #1,y
 Moveq  #2,z
 Bra.S  @2
@1 Moveq#3,q

A clever compiler (or, more likely, assembly language programmer) could optimize this as:

 Tst    x
 Beq.S  @1
 Moveq  #1,y
 Moveq  #2,z
@1 Moveq#3,q

What’s happening here is that the two bytes generated by the Moveq #3,q instruction become the immediate data for the Trapn.W instruction in the SKIP_TWO_BYTES macro. Trapn.W is normally a 4 byte instruction but the macro only defines the first two bytes. Since it will never trap, the instruction decoder always ignores its operand (the Moveq #3,q instruction) and begins decoding the next instruction at @2 on the next clock. Works the same way for the Trapn.L instruction, except that in that case you embed exactly 4 bytes as the immediate data that will be skipped as part of the Trap instruction.

Note that to take advantage of this trick you’re usually going to want the smaller of the “if” clause and the “else” clause to be the “else” clause (to increase the chances that the “else” clause is 4 bytes or less). It would be nice if this was the most commonly executed of the two clauses, too, to take advantage of the faster branch-taken time. Hopefully compilers that have a “Generate 68020 code” flag will take advantage of this in the future (I don’t know of any at the moment that do).


Optimal saving and restoring of registers on the 040 is different than on other 680x0s. When loading registers from memory using the post-increment addressing mode:


you should use individual Move.L instructions instead. It will always be faster, no matter how many registers are involved (not exactly intuitive, is it?). When storing registers to memory with the pre-decrement addressing mode, as in:


you should use individual Move.L instructions unless your register list is comprised of: (1) exactly one data register and one address register or, (2) two or more address registers combined with any number (0..7) of data registers.


Three-word instructions with 32-bit immediate operands are faster than trying to use Moveq to preload the immediate value into a register first. The opposite is true on earlier 680x0s. For example, this code:

 Cmp.L  #20,(A0)

is faster on an 040 than this pair of instructions:

 Moveq  #20,D0
 Cmp.L  D0,(A0)

When subtracting an immediate value from an address register it is faster to add the negative value instead. This is because there is no complement circuit for the address registers in the 040. This instruction:

 Add    #-4,A0

is faster than either of these two:

 Lea    -4(A0),A0
 Sub    #4,A0

Bsr and Bra are faster than Jsr and Jmp because the hardware can precompute the destination address for Bsr and Bra.


There are some cases where it’s better to use a stack variable instead of a register variable. The reason is that source effective addresses of the form (An, d16) are just as fast as Rn once the data is the data cache. So the first read access to a stack variable will be slow compared to a register but subsequent reads of that variable will be equal in speed. By not assigning registers to your read-only stack variables (which includes function parameters passed on the stack) you save the overhead of saving/restoring the register as well as the time to initialize it.

You should, however, use register variables for variables that are written to. For instance, consider this function:

 Foo(w, x, p)
 int  w, x;
 int  *p;
 int  y, z;
 z = w;
 do {
 y += z + *p * w;
 *p += x / w + y;
 } while (--z);

 return (y);

In this example, w, x, y, z and *p are being read from (things on the right side of the equations) and y, z and *p are being written to. On the 040, you should make register variables out of those things that are being written to and leave the rest as stack variables:

 Foo(w, x, p)
 int  w, x;
 register int  *p;
 register int  y, z;
 z = w;
 do {
 y += z + *p * w;
 *p += x / w + y;
 } while (--z);

 return (y);

This second version is faster than the original version (as you would expect) but it is also faster than a version where w and x are declared as register variables (which you might not expect).


When it came to floating point operations, the 040 designers looked at their trace data and decided to implement in silicon any instruction that made up more than 1% of the 68881/2 code base. The remaining [uncommon] instructions were implemented in software. Those implemented in silicon are:

 FAdd, FCmp, FDiv, FMul, FSub
 FAbs, FSqrt, FNeg, FMove, FTst
 FBcc, FDbcc, FScc, FTrapcc
 FMovem, FSave, FRestore

They also made it so the Integer Unit and the Floating Point Unit operate in parallel, which means you should interleave floating-point and non-floating-point instructions as much as possible.

Here’s a table that summarizes the performance improvements made by having the FPU instructions executed by the 040 rather than by a 68882:

25MHz cycles

Instruction Addr mode 68882 68040

FMove FPn,FPn 21 2

FMove.D <EA>,FPn 40 3

FMove.D FPh,<EA> 44 3

FAdd FPn,FPn 21 3

FSub FPn,FPn 21 3

FMul FPn,FPn 76 5

FDiv FPn,FPn 108 38

FSqrt FPn,FPn 110 103

FAdd.D <EA>,FPn 75 3

FSub.D <EA>,FPn 75 3

FMul.D <EA>,FPn 95 5

FDiv.D <EA>,FPn 127 38

FSqrt.D <EA>,FPn 129 103

Notice that on the 040 an FMul is about 7x faster than an FDiv and on a 68882 it’s only about 1.4x faster. This suggests that you should avoid FDiv on an 040 much more than you would on a 68882. Perhaps your algorithms could be rewritten to take advantage of this when running on an 040.

A trick that works in some cases is to multiply by 1 over a number instead of dividing by a number. Take this code from a previous MacTutor article on random numbers:

quotientEQU FP0
newSeed EQU D1
result  EQU 8
LocalSize EQU  0

 Link   A6,#LocalSize
 Jsr    UpdateSeed
 FDiv.L #M,quotient
 Unlk   A6

By precomputing the floating point value OneOverM (1/M) and restricting ourselves to the optimized effective addressing modes we can rewrite this code to eliminate the Link, Unlk and FDiv:

OneOverMEQU "$3FE000008000000100000002"
quotientEQU FP0
newSeed EQU D1
result  EQU 4

 Jsr    UpdateSeed
 FMul.X #OneOverM,quotient
 Move.L result(A7),A0

This optimized version runs about 38% faster than the original overall (the relatively low improvement is caused by the fact that UpdateSeed is taking up most of the time). This example points out one other interesting thing, too, and that is the Move.L result(A7),A0 (an Integer Unit instruction) is running in parallel with the FMul instruction (an FPU instruction). Since the FMul takes longer, the FMove.X instruction at the end will have to wait for the FMul to finish before it does its move but there’s nothing we can do about that in this case.


The 040 has a 4K instruction cache and a 4K data cache. If you are performing some operation on a large amount of data, try to make your code fit in 4K or less (at least your innermost loop if nothing else) and try to operate on 4K chunks of contiguous data at a time. Don’t randomly read single bytes from a large amount of data if you can help it. This will avoid cache flushing and reloading as much as possible.

Many of the things I mentioned in the Efficient 68030 Programming article (Sept 92) about 16-byte cache lines apply to the 040 as well; it’s just that the 040 has more of them. Also, as mentioned in the 030 article, data alignment is majorly important on the 040 as well. Rather than repeat it all here, check out that previous article instead.


Most people have at least heard about the only new instruction that the 68040 provides but many people aren’t sure when they can use it. The rules are pretty simple: the source and destination addresses must be an even multiple of 16 and you must be moving 16 bytes at a time.

So when is this useful? Well, if you know you’re running in a 68040 environment (use Gestalt) then you know that the Memory Manager only allocates blocks on 16 byte boundaries (because that’s the way Apple implemented it). You can use this information to your advantage if you are copying data from one memory block to another.

Why not just use BlockMove you ask? Three reasons: (1) Trap overhead, (2) Job preflighting to find the optimal move instructions for the given parameters (which we already know are Move16 compatible) and, (3) It flushes the caches for the range of memory you moved every time you call it.

Why does it flush the caches? Because of the case where the Memory Manager has called it to move a relocatable block that contains code (the MM doesn’t know anything about the contents of a block so it has to assume the worst). This one case imposes an unnecessary penalty on your non-code BlockMoves (99% of all moves, I would guess) and it is this author’s opinion that Apple should provide a BlockMoveData trap that doesn’t flush the caches and that would only be called when the programmer who wrote the code knew that what was being moved was not code (and deliberately made a call to BlockMoveData instead of BlockMove). Write your senator, maybe we can do some good here.

One other thing to note about the Move16 instruction is that unlike other Move instructions it doesn’t leave the data it’s moving in the data cache. This is great if you’re moving a large amount of data that you’re not going to manipulate afterwards (like updating a frame buffer for the screen or something) but may not be what you want if you’re about to manipulate the data that you’re moving (where it might be advantageous to have it in the cache after it’s been moved). There is no rule of thumb on this because it depends on how much data you have and how much manipulation you’re going to do on it after it’s moved. You’ll have to run some tests for your particular case.

Well, that’s all the tips and tricks I know for programming the 68040. I’d like to thank the friendly and efficient people at Motorola for source material in producing this article as well as for producing such an awesome processor. I am truly a fan. With any luck at all the 80x86 camp will writher away and die and 680x0’s will RULE THE WORLD! Thanks also to RuleMaster Hansen for his code, clarifications, corrections and rules.


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