TweetFollow Us on Twitter

TextBoxer
Volume Number:8
Issue Number:3
Column Tag:Getting Started

Related Info: Quickdraw TextEdit Window Manager

TextBoxer

A vehicle for experimenting with QuickDraw's text and shape-drawing routines

By Dave Mark, MacTutor Regular Contributing Author

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

About the author

Dave Mark is an accomplished Macintosh author and an Apple Partner. He is the author of The Macintosh Programming Primer Series which includes: Macintosh C Programming Primer, Volumes 1 and 2; Macintosh Pascal Programming Primer, Volume 1, and his latest book, Learn C on the Macintosh. These books are available through the MacTutor Mail Order Store located in the back of the magazine. Dave is also the “professor” on the Learn Programming Forum on CompuServe. To get there, type GO MACDEV, then check out section 11.

In last months column, we covered the basics of programming using windows and QuickDraw. The Macintosh Toolbox was introduced, and a function was presented that properly initializes the Toolbox. This month, we’ll dig a little deeper into the relationship between windows and QuickDraw.

TextBoxer: Still Life With Text and QuickDraw

This months application, TextBoxer, gives you a vehicle to experiment with QuickDraw’s text and shape-drawing routines. In its initial incarnation, TextBoxer creates the window shown in Figure 1. Notice that the content region of the window contains two rectangle (one inside the other), as well as a text string.

Figure 1. TextBoxer in action.

Creating the TextBoxer Project

Launch THINK C, creating a new project called TextBoxer.Π (The Π character is created by typing option-p). THINK C will create a project window with the title TextBoxer.Π. Select New from the File menu to create a new source code window. Type the following source code into the window:

/* 1*/

#define kVisible false
#define kMoveToFront (WindowPtr)-1L
#define kNoGoAwayfalse
#define kNilRefCon 0L
#define kPascalString“\pAll applaud the strongly-jawed”
#define kFontSize12
#define kBottomOffset7
#define kLeftOffset7

void    ToolBoxInit( void );
WindowPtr WindowInit( void );

/****************** main ************/
main()
{
 Rect   shapeRect;
 WindowPtrwindow;
 
 ToolBoxInit();
 window = WindowInit();
 
 shapeRect = window->portRect;
 
 InsetRect( &shapeRect, 5, 5 );
 FrameRect( &shapeRect );
 
 InsetRect( &shapeRect, 2, 2 );
 FrameRect( &shapeRect );
 
 TextFont( monaco );
 TextSize( kFontSize );
 MoveTo( shapeRect.left + kLeftOffset,
 shapeRect.bottom - kBottomOffset );
 DrawString( kPascalString );
 
 while ( ! Button() ) ;
}

/****************** ToolBoxInit ***********/
void  ToolBoxInit( void )
{
 InitGraf( &thePort );
 InitFonts();
 InitWindows();
 InitMenus();
 TEInit();
 InitDialogs( nil );
 InitCursor();
}
/****************** WindowInit *************/
WindowPtr WindowInit( void )
{
 WindowPtrwindow;
 Rect   windowRect;
 
 SetRect( &windowRect, 20, 40, 260, 74 );

 window = NewWindow( nil, &windowRect, “\pBox o’ Text”,
 kVisible, documentProc, kMoveToFront,
 kNoGoAway, kNilRefCon );
 
 if ( window == nil )
 {
 SysBeep( 10 );  /*  Couldn’t create a window!!!  */
 ExitToShell();
 }
 
 ShowWindow( window );
 SetPort( window );
 
 return( window );
}

Select Save from the File menu and save the source code under the name TextBoxer.c. Next, select Add (not Add...) from the Source menu to add TextBoxer.c to the project. Finally, select Add... from the Source menu and add the MacTraps library to the project. You’ll find MacTraps inside your Development folder, inside the THINK C Folder, inside the Mac Libraries folder. As mentioned last month, MacTraps contains the interfaces to the routines that make up the Macintosh Toolbox.

Once MacTraps has been added to the project, the project window should look like the one shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. The TextBoxer project window, before compilation.

Running TextBoxer.Π

Select Run from the Project menu, asking THINK C to compile and run your project. If you run into any compile or link errors, check the code over carefully. Once your project runs, you should see something similar to Figure 3. To exit TextBoxer, just click the mouse button.

Figure 3. Running TextBoxer.

Walking Through the Source Code

TextBoxer.c consists of three routines, main(), ToolBoxInit(), and WindowInit(). As usual, we start off by defining some useful constants. I’ll explain each of these as they occur in context.

/* 2 */

#define kVisible false
#define kMoveToFront (WindowPtr)-1L
#define kNoGoAwayfalse
#define kNilRefCon 0L

#define kPascalString“\pAll applaud the strongly-jawed”
#define kFontSize12
#define kBottomOffset7
#define kLeftOffset7

Next come the function prototypes. Be sure to prototype all your functions. This practice will go a long way towards catching compile errors.

/* 3 */

void    ToolBoxInit( void );
WindowPtr WindowInit( void );

main() starts off with a couple of local variable declarations. shapeRect is declared to be of type Rect. Rect is a widely used Toolbox type and is defined in Inside Macintosh. A Rect has four fields: left, top, right, and bottom. Typically, you’ll fill a Rect’s fields so they define the position and size of a rectangle.

You can set the fields of a Rect individually, like this:

/* 4 */

Rect  myRect;

myRect.left = 20;
myRect.top = 30;
myRect.right = 40;
myRect.bottom = 50;

or you can use a Toolbox routine like SetRect(). SetRect() is defined in IM(I:174):

/* 5 */

SetRect( Rect *myRect, int left, int top, int right, int bottom );

The second local variable in main() is window, used to store a pointer to the TextBoxer window.

/* 6 */

/****************** main ************/

main()
{
 Rect   shapeRect;
 WindowPtrwindow;

Next, main() calls ToolBoxInit() to initialize the Macintosh Toolbox. As mentioned last month, with few exceptions, every Mac program you write will start off this way. Once the Toolbox is initialized, you can call the Toolbox as much as you like.

/* 7 */

 ToolBoxInit();

Once the Toolbox is initialized, we’ll call WindowInit() to create our window. WindowInit() returns a WindowPtr, an extremely important Toolbox data type. A WindowPtr is a pointer to a GrafPort, QuickDraw’s basic data structure:

/* 8 */

struct GrafPort {
    short device;
    BitMap portBits;
    Rect portRect;
    RgnHandle visRgn;
    RgnHandle clipRgn;
    Pattern bkPat;
    Pattern fillPat;
    Point pnLoc;
    Point pnSize;
    short pnMode;
    Pattern pnPat;
    short pnVis;
    short txFont;
    Style txFace;
    char filler;
    short txMode;
    short txSize;
    Fixed spExtra;
    long fgColor;
    long bkColor;
    short colrBit;
    short patStretch;
    Handle picSave;
    Handle rgnSave;
    Handle polySave;
    QDProcsPtr grafProcs;
};
typedef GrafPort *GrafPtr;
typedef GrafPtr WindowPtr;

Typically, you’ll create a GrafPort, customize it, draw in it, and eventually dispose of it. When you create a new window, a GrafPort is automatically created for you. For example, the Toolbox function NewWindow() creates a WindowRecord:

/* 9 */

struct WindowRecord {
    GrafPort port;
    short windowKind;
    Boolean visible;
    Boolean hilited;
    Boolean goAwayFlag;
    Boolean spareFlag;
    RgnHandle strucRgn;
    RgnHandle contRgn;
    RgnHandle updateRgn;
    Handle windowDefProc;
    Handle dataHandle;
    StringHandle titleHandle;
    short titleWidth;
    ControlHandle controlList;
    struct WindowRecord *nextWindow;
    PicHandle windowPic;
    long refCon;
};

typedef struct WindowRecord WindowRecord;
typedef WindowRecord *WindowPeek;

Notice that the first field in the WindowRecord is a GrafPort. The WindowPtr returned by NewWindow() is actually a pointer to this GrafPort. You can cast the WindowPtr to the type WindowPeek when you want to access the rest of the fields in the WindowRecord.

Though this may seem confusing, it’s actually quite easy, once you get used to it. As we go over more and more examples, you’ll learn how to create and manage your own windows and GrafPorts. Let’s get back to the TextBoxer code.

As we said earlier, WindowInit() creates a new WindowRecord (and, therefore, a GrafPort as well). The WindowPtr returned by WindowInit() is a pointer to the GrafPort embedded in the WindowRecord.

/* 10 */

 window = WindowInit();

The window’s portRect field is a Rect that defines the boundary of the window in screen pixels. On a typical Macintosh, the upper left corner of the screen corresponds to the (x,y) coordinate 0, 0. As you move to the right, the x coordinate increases. As you move down the screen, the y coordinate increases. The coordinates of the main screen serve as a reference point to all the GrafPorts on the screen and are known as global coordinates. Each GrafPort you create has its own coordinate system, known as local coordinates.

Figure 4 shows the point (0,0) in global coordinates. It also shows the point (0,0) in a window’s local coordinate system. Typically, a window’s local coordinates start in the upper left corner of the window’s content region. The content region starts just below the window’s title bar, if it has one.

The window’s portRect field is copied into a local variable, shapeRect. We’ll inset the Rect (make it uniformally smaller) by 5 pixels in each direction, then call the drawing routine FrameRect() to draw a one pixel rectangle using this inset Rect as a guide. This rectangle will appear 5 pixels inside the border of the window’s content region.

/* 11 */

 shapeRect = window->portRect;
 
 InsetRect( &shapeRect, 5, 5 );
 FrameRect( &shapeRect );

Figure 4. The point (0,0) in both global and local coordinates.

Next, we’ll inset the Rect 2 more pixels and frame another rectangle inside the first. InsetRect() is described in IM(I:175). FrameRect() is described in IM(I:176). Later in the column, we’ll discuss some of the other functions that relate to drawing.

/* 12 */

 InsetRect( &shapeRect, 2, 2 );
 FrameRect( &shapeRect );

Once the rectangles are drawn, we’re ready to tackle the text. First, we’ll set the current font to monaco, then we’ll set the font size to kFontSize. It’s important to note that we’ve only made this change to the current port. If we had two windows set up, we could set one window to use 18 point Geneva, and the other to 24 point Times. You’ll see how to set the current port when we discuss WindowInit()

/* 13 */

 TextFont( monaco );
 TextSize( kFontSize );

Every GrafPort has a pen associated with it. The location of the pen determines where the next drawing operation will take place. Several of the QuickDraw drawing routines produce results based strictly on the location of this pen. One of these routines is DrawString(), a routine that draws a pascal string in the current port, at the current pen location. The function MoveTo() sets the pen location using the local coordinates of the current GrafPort.

/* 14 */

 MoveTo( shapeRect.left + kLeftOffset, shapeRect.bottom - kBottomOffset 
);

DrawString() draws the text using the current pen location as the left side of the baseline of the first character in the specified string. Remember, pascal strings start with a length byte, followed by that number of characters (up to 255). In THINK C, you can specify a pascal string by starting your string with the characters \p (look at the #define for kPascalString above).

/* 15 */

 DrawString( kPascalString );

Finally, leave the window up there till the mouse button is clicked.

/* 16 */

 while ( ! Button() ) ;
}

ToolBoxInit() is the same as it was in last month’s column.

/* 17 */


/****************** ToolBoxInit ***********/

void  ToolBoxInit( void )
{
 InitGraf( &thePort );
 InitFonts();
 InitWindows();
 InitMenus();
 TEInit();
 InitDialogs( nil );
 InitCursor();
}

WindowInit() will create a new window and return a pointer to it.

/* 18 */

/****************** WindowInit *************/

WindowPtr WindowInit( void )
{
 WindowPtrwindow;
 Rect   windowRect;

For starters, SetRect() is used to set windowRect to the global coordinates we’d like our window to appear at.

/* 19 */

 SetRect( &windowRect, 20, 40, 260, 74 );

Next, NewWindow() is called to create the new window. Check out last months column for more info on NewWindow() and its parameters.

/* 20 */

 window = NewWindow( nil, &windowRect, "\pBox o’ Text",
 kVisible, documentProc, kMoveToFront,
 kNoGoAway, kNilRefCon );

If the window could not be created, NewWindow() will return nil. In that case, we beep once and exit.

/* 21 */

 if ( window == nil )
 {
 SysBeep( 10 );  /*  Couldn't create a window!!!  */
 ExitToShell();
 }

Since the constant kVisible (passed as a parameter to NewWindow()) was set to false, the window is not visible upon creation. That’s ShowWindow()’s job! ShowWindow() makes the specified window visible and HideWindow() makes the window invisible.

Try commenting out the call to ShowWindow() to find out what an invisible window looks like.

/* 22 */

 ShowWindow( window );

SetPort() makes the specified window the current port. Use SetPort() to switch between multiple GrafPorts.

/* 23 */

 SetPort( window );

Finally, we return the pointer to our newly created window.

/* 24 */

 return( window );
}

More Routines to Play With

QuickDraw allows you to do a lot more than frame rectangles. On one hand, you can use routines such as FrameOval(), FrameRoundRect(), and FrameArc() to frame each of the different QuickDraw shapes. On the other hand, for each shape you can perform paint, erase, invert, and fill operations in addition to the framing already discussed. For example, check out the QuickDraw routines PaintRect(), EraseRect(), InvertRect(), and FillRect().

These routines are completely described in Inside Macintosh, Volume I, Chapter 6. Be sure to check the parameters for each routine. Different shapes require different parameters.

I would strongly recommend that you read the aforementioned QuickDraw chapter from cover to cover. Play around with TextBoxer. Try different fonts and font sizes. Take a look at the file Quickdraw.h found in the THINK C Folder, in the Mac #includes folder, inside the Apple #includes folder. You’ll find constants for the basic Mac fonts and a list of the different QuickDraw Toolbox routines.

Next Month...

In next month’s column, we’ll poke around some of QuickDraw’s nooks and crannies. We’ll also learn about resources, the Mac’s mechanism for separating data from code. For those of you on baby-watch, there are only eight more weeks to go!!! Got any suggestions for the best type of car seat, crib, swing, diapers, bottles, etc. to buy? Let me know. I could sure use the help!

As always, you can reach me on CompuServe in MACDEV, Section 11 (Learn Programming).

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

ExpanDrive 5.4.4 - Access cloud storage...
ExpanDrive builds cloud storage in every application, acts just like a USB drive plugged into your Mac. With ExpanDrive, you can securely access any remote file server directly from the Finder or... Read more
Dash 3.4.3 - Instant search and offline...
Dash is an API documentation browser and code snippet manager. Dash helps you store snippets of code, as well as instantly search and browse documentation for almost any API you might use (for a full... Read more
Civilization VI 1.0.2 - Next iteration o...
Sid Meier’s Civilization VI is the next entry in the popular Civilization franchise. Originally created by legendary game designer Sid Meier, Civilization is a strategy game in which you attempt to... Read more
TurboTax 2016 - Manage your 2016 U.S. ta...
TurboTax guides you through your tax return step by step, does all the calculations, and checks your return for errors and overlooked deductions. It lets you file your return electronically to get... Read more
Microsoft Office 2016 15.30 - Popular pr...
Microsoft Office 2016 - Unmistakably Office, designed for Mac. The new versions of Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook and OneNote provide the best of both worlds for Mac users - the familiar Office... Read more
FotoMagico 5.3 - Powerful slideshow crea...
FotoMagico lets you create professional slideshows from your photos and music with just a few, simple mouse clicks. It sports a very clean and intuitive yet powerful user interface. High image... Read more
Acorn 5.6.1 - Bitmap image editor.
Acorn is a new image editor built with one goal in mind - simplicity. Fast, easy, and fluid, Acorn provides the options you'll need without any overhead. Acorn feels right, and won't drain your bank... Read more
iMazing 2.1.8 - Complete iOS device mana...
iMazing (was DiskAid) is the ultimate iOS device manager with capabilities far beyond what iTunes offers. With iMazing and your iOS device (iPhone, iPad, or iPod), you can: Copy music to and from... Read more
Logic Pro X 10.3 - Music creation and au...
Logic Pro X is the most advanced version of Logic ever. Sophisticated new tools for professional songwriting, editing, and mixing are built around a modern interface that's designed to get creative... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.37 - Connec...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more

Red's Kingdom (Games)
Red's Kingdom 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Mad King Mac has kidnapped your father and stolen your golden nut! Solve puzzles and battle goons as you explore and battle your... | Read more »
Turbo League Guide: How to tame the cont...
| Read more »
Fire Emblem: Heroes coming to Google Pla...
Nintendo gave us our first look at Fire Emblem: Heroes, the upcoming mobile Fire Emblem game the company hinted at last year. Revealed at the Fire Emblem Direct event held today, the game will condense the series' tactical RPG combat into bite-... | Read more »
ReSlice (Music)
ReSlice 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Music Price: $9.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Audio Slice Machine Slice your audio samples with ReSlice and create flexible musical atoms which can be triggered by MIDI notes or... | Read more »
Stickman Surfer rides in with the tide t...
Stickson is back and this time he's taken up yet another extreme sport - surfing. Stickman Surfer is out this Thursday on both iOS and Android, so if you've been following the other Stickman adventures, you might be interested in picking this one... | Read more »
Z-Exemplar (Games)
Z-Exemplar 1.4 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.4 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
5 dastardly difficult roguelikes like th...
Edmund McMillen's popular roguelike creation The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth has finally crawled onto mobile devices. It's a grotesque dual-stick shooter that tosses you into an endless, procedurally generated basement as you, the pitiable Isaac,... | Read more »
Last week on PocketGamer
Welcome to a weekly feature looking back on the past seven days of coverage on our sister website, PocketGamer. It’s taken a while for 2017 to really get going, at least when it comes to the world of portable gaming. Thank goodness, then, for... | Read more »
ROME: Total War - Barbarian Invasion set...
To the delight of mobile strategy fans, Feral Interactive released ROME: Total War just a few months ago. Now the game's expansion, Barbarian Invasion is marching onto iPads as a standalone release. [Read more] | Read more »
Yuri (Games)
Yuri 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: It's night. Yuri opens his eyes. He wakes up in a strange forest.The small, courageous explorer rides on his bed on casters in this... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Laptop Market – Flight To Quality? – The ‘Boo...
Preliminary quarterly PC shipments data released by Gartner Inc. last week reveal an interesting disparity between sales performance of major name PC vendors as opposed to that of less well-known... Read more
IBM and Bell Transform Canadian Enterprise Mo...
IBM and Bell Canada have announced they are joining forces to offer IBM MobileFirst for iOS market-ready enterprise applications for iPad, iPhone or Apple Watch. Bell, Canada’s largest communications... Read more
Otter Products is Closing… For a Day of Givin...
On Thursday, Feb. 9, Otter Products is closing doors to open hearts. In partnership with the OtterCares Foundation, the company is pausing operations for a day so all employees can volunteer with... Read more
15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
Amazon has 2015 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pros (MJLQ2LL/A) available for $1799.99 including free shipping. Apple charges $1999 for this model, so Amazon’s price is represents a $200 savings. Read more
Back in stock: Apple refurbished 13-inch Reti...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 13″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $360 off original MSRP, starting at $1099. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is... Read more
CalcTape for macOS 1.2 Adding Machine App for...
schoettler Software has announced CalcTape 1.2, an update to their desktop calculator for macOS. When it comes to adding long columns of numbers, doing complex calculations or playing around with... Read more
New MacBooks And MacBook Pros WIth Kaby Lake...
Digitimes’ Joseph Tsai cites a Chinese-language Economic Daily News (EDN) report that unnamed market watchers are predicting Apple MacBook shipments to grow 10 percent in 2017, and projecting 15... Read more
New 2016 13-inch MacBook Pros on sale for up...
B&H Photo has the new 2016 13″ MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.9GHz/512GB Touch Bar MacBook Pro... Read more
New 15-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock a...
B&H Photo has the new 2016 15″ Apple Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.7GHz Touch Bar... Read more
Opera Announces Neon Concept Browser For Mac
Opera is inviting users to get a glimpse of what Opera for computers could become with its Opera Neon browser concept. Each Opera Neon feature is described as “an alternate reality” for the Opera... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* & PC Desktop Support Technician...
Apple & PC Desktop Support Technician job in Los Angeles, CA Introduction: We have immediate job openings for several Desktop Support Technicians with one of our Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (Multi-L...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* & PC Desktop Support Technician...
Apple & PC Desktop Support Technician job in Stamford, CT We have immediate job openings for several Desktop Support Technicians with one of our most well-known Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.