TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Efficient 68000
Volume Number:8
Issue Number:2
Column Tag:Assembly workshop

Efficient 68000 Programming

If a new CPU speeds up inefficient code, what do you think it will do to efficient code?

By Mike Scanlin, MacTutor Regular Contributing Author

The dew is cold. It is quiet. I hear nothing except for crackling sounds coming from the little fire burning two inches to the left of my keyboard. It wasn’t there a minute ago. Seems that Doo-Dah, the god of efficient programming, is upset with me for typing “Adda.W #10,A0” and just sent me a warning in the form of a lightning bolt. I hate it when he does that. You’d think that after three years in his service, researching which 68000 assembly language instructions are the most efficient ones for any given job, that he would lighten up a little. I guess that’s what makes him a god and me a mere mortal striving for enlightenment through the use of optimal instructions. As I extinguish the fire with a little Mountain Dew, I reflect upon the last three years.

My first lesson in the service of Doo-Dah was that proficiency in assembly language is a desirable skill in programmers so long as performance is a desirable attribute of software. The nay-sayers who depend upon faster and faster CPUs to make their sluggish software run at acceptable speeds don’t realize the underlying relativeness of the universe. If a new CPU will speed up a set of non-optimal instructions by 10%, then it will also speed up a set of optimal instructions by 10%. One should strive to be right on the edge of absolute maximum performance all the time. Users may not notice the difference in a 2K document but when they start working with 20MB documents they will soon be able to separate the optimal software from the non-optimal.

In the months following that lesson, I was given the task of compiling a list of instructions that should only very rarely appear in any program executing on a 68000 (and only then because you’re dealing with either self-modifying code or special hardware that depends on certain types of reads and writes from the processor). They are:

Don't Use Use Save

Move.B #0,Dx Clr.B Dx 8 cycles, 2 bytes

Move.W #0,Dx Clr.W Dx 8 cycles, 2 bytes

Clr.L Dx Moveq #0,Dx 2 cycles

Move.L #0,Dx Moveq #0,Dx 8 cycles, 4 bytes

Move.L #0,Ax Suba.L Ax,Ax 4 cycles, 4 bytes

Move.L #[-128..127],Dx Moveq #[-128..127],Dx 8 cycles, 4 bytes

Move.L #[-128..127],ea Moveq #[-128..127],Dx 4 cycles, 2 bytes

Move.L Dx,ea

Move.L #[128..254],Dx Moveq #[64..127],Dx 4 cycles, 2 bytes

Add Dx,Dx

Move.L #[-256..-130],Dx Moveq #[-128..-65],Dx 0 cycles, 2 bytes

Add.L Dx,Dx

Lea [1..8](Ax),Ax Addq #[1..8],Ax 0 cycles, 2 bytes

Add.W #[9..32767],Ax Lea [9..32767](Ax),Ax 4 cycles

Lea [-8..-1](Ax),Ax Subq #[1..8],Ax 0 cycles, 2 bytes

Sub.W #[9..32767],Ax Lea [-32767..-9](Ax),Ax 4 cycles

Asl.W #1,Dx Add.W Dx,Dx 4 cycles

Asl.L #1,Dx Add.L Dx,Dx 2 cycles

Cmp.x #0,ea Tst.x ea 4-10 cycles, 2 bytes

And.L #$0000FFFF,Dx Swap Dx 4 cycles

Clr.W Dx

Swap Dx

In addition, if you don’t care about the values of the condition codes then the following may be optimized:

Don't Use Use Save

Move.W #nnnn,-(SP) Move.L #ppppnnnn,-(SP) 4 cycles, 2 bytes

Move.W #pppp,-(SP)

Move.L #$0000nnnn,-(SP) Pea $nnnn 4 cycles, 2 bytes

Move.B #255,Dx St Dx 2 cycles, 2 bytes

Move.L #$00nn0000,Dx Moveq #[0..127],Dx 4 cycles, 2 bytes

Swap Dx

Movem (SP)+,Dx Move (SP)+,Dx 4 cycles

Ext.L Dx

Movem.L Dx,-(SP) Move.L Dx,-(SP) 4 cycles, 2 bytes

Movem.L (SP)+,Dx Move.L (SP)+,Dx 8 cycles, 2 bytes

Movem.L (SP)+,<2 regs> Move.L (SP)+,<reg 1> 4 cycles

Move.L (SP)+,<reg 2>

Note that pushing 2 regs or popping 3 with Movem.L is equivalent in cycles to doing it with multiple Move.L’s, but popping 3 regs with Move.L’s costs you two extra bytes. An easy rule to remember is to always use Movem.L whenever you’re dealing with 3 or more registers.

There are other optimizations you can make with minimal assumptions. For instance, if you are making room for a function result then don’t use Clr:

Don't UseUseSave
Clr.W -(SP)Subq #2,SP6 cycles
_Random _Random
Clr.L -(SP)Subq #4,SP14 cycles
_FrontWindow _FrontWindow

If you’re trying to set, clear, or change one of the low 16 bits of a data register and you don’t need to test it first, then don’t use these:

Don't UseUseSave
Bset #n,DxOr.W #mask,Dx4 cycles
Bclr #n,DxAnd.W #mask,Dx4 cycles
Bchg #n,DxEor.W #mask,Dx4 cycles

You should use registers wherever possible, not memory (because memory is much slower to access). If you need to test for a NIL handle or pointer, for instance, do this:

Don't UseUseSave
Move.L A0,-(SP)Move.L A0,D016 cycles, 2 bytes
Addq #4,SPBeq.S ItsNil
Beq.S ItsNil

Use the “quick” operations wherever you can. Many times you can reverse the order of two instructions to use a Moveq (since Moveq handles bigger numbers than Addq/Subq):

Don't UseUseSave
Move.L D0,D1Moveq #10,D16 cycles, 4 bytes
Add.L #10,D1Add.L D0,D1

Also, use two Addq’s or Subq’s when dealing with longs in the range of 9..16:

Don't UseUseSave
Addi.L #10,D0Addq.L #2,D04 cycles, 2 bytes
Addq.L #8,D0

The following three optimizations will reduce the size of your program but at the expense of a few cycles. This is good for user interface code, but you probably don’t want to use these optimizations in tight loops where speed is important:

Don't UseUseSave
Move.B #0,-(SP)Clr.B -(SP)-2 cycles, 2 bytes
Move.W #0,-(SP)Clr.W -(SP)-2 cycles, 2 bytes
Move.L #0,-(SP)Clr.L -(SP)-2 cycles, 4 bytes

Most of the optimizations from here onward are only applicable in some cases. Many times you can use a slightly different version of the exact code given here to get an optimization that works well for your particular set of circumstances. These optimizations don’t always have the same set of side effects or overflow/underflow conditions that the original code has, so use them with caution.

Shifting left by 2 bits (to multiply by 4) should be avoided if you’re coding for speed:

Don't UseUseSave
Asl.W #2,DxAdd.W Dx,Dx2 cycles, -2 bytes
Add.W Dx,Dx

Use bytes for booleans instead of bits. They’re faster to access (and less code in some cases). If you have many booleans, though, bits may be the way to go because of reduced memory requirements (of the data, that is, not the code).

Don't UseUseSave
Btst #1,myBools(A6)Tst.B aBool(A6)4 cycles, 2 bytes
Btst #1,D0Tst.B D06 cycles, 2 bytes

Avoid the use of multiply and divide instructions like the plague. Use shifts and adds for immediate operands or loops of adds and subtracts for variable operands. For instance, to multiply by 14 you could do this:

Don't UseUseSave
Mulu #14,D0Add D0,D0many cycles, -4 bytes
Move D0,D1
Lsl #3,D0
Sub D1,D0

If you have a variable source operand, but you know that it is typically small (and positive, for this example), then use a loop instead of a multiply instruction. This works really well in the case of a call to FixMul if you know one of the operands is a small integer -- you can avoid the trap overhead and the routine itself by using a loop similar to this one (in fact, the FixMul routine itself checks if either parameter is 1.0 before doing any real work):

Don't UseUseSave
Mulu D1,D0Move D0,D2many cycles, -8 bytes
Neg D2
@1 Add D0,D2
Subq #1,D1
Bne.S @1

Likewise, for division, use a subtract loop if you know that the quotient isn’t going to be huge (and if the destination fits in 16 bits):

Don't UseUseSave
Divu D1,D0Moveq #0,D2many cycles, -10 bytes
Cmp D1,D0
Bra.S @2
@1 Addq #1,D2
Sub D1,D0
@2 Bhi.S @1

Don’t use Bsr/Rts in tight loops where speed is important. Put the return address in an unused address register instead.

Don't UseUseSave
Bsr MyProcLea @1,A08 cycles, -4 bytes
;<blah>Bra MyProc
@1 ;<blah>
MyProc:MyProc:
;<blah blah>;<blah blah>
RtsJmp (A0)

You can eliminate a complete Bsr/Rts pair (or equivalent above) if the Bsr is the last instruction before an Rts by changing the Bsr to a Bra:

Don't UseUseSave
Bsr MyProcBra MyProc24 cycles, 2 bytes
Rts

Don’t use BlockMove for moves of 80 bytes or less where you know the source and destination don’t overlap. The trap overhead and preflighting that BlockMove does make it inefficient for such small moves. Use this loop instead (assuming Dx > 0 on entry):

Don't UseUseSave
_BlockMoveSubq #1,Dxmany cycles, -6 bytes
@1 Move.B (A0)+,(A1)+
Dbra Dx,@1

I base this conclusion on time trials done on a Mac IIci with a cache card. The actual results were (for several thousand iterations):

Figure 1: How fast do blocks move?

I did the same tests on a Mac SE and found that it was only beneficial to call BlockMove on that machine for moves of 130 bytes or more. However, since you should optimize for the lowest common denominator across all machines, you should only use the Dbra loop for non-overlapping moves of 80 bytes or less.

Be warned, though: on the Quadras, BlockMove has been modified to flush the 040 caches because of the possibility that you (or the memory manager) are BlockMoving executable code. So don’t use the above loop for moving small amounts of code (like you might do in some INIT installation code). Apple did this for compatibility reasons with existing non-040 aware applications running in 040 copy-back mode (high performance mode). However, because of this, your non-code BlockMoves are unnecessarily clearing the caches, too. I don’t know if it’s worth it to write a dedicated BlockMove for non-code moves, but it seems like it’s worth doing and then timing to see if there’s a difference.

Unroll loops. At the expense of a few extra bytes you can make any tight loop run faster. This is because short branch instructions that are not taken are faster than those that are taken. Here’s an even faster version of the above loop:

;1

 Subq #1,Dx
 @1 Move.B (A0)+,(A1)+
 Subq #1,Dx
 Bcs.S @2
 Move.B (A0)+,(A1)+
 Subq #1,Dx
 Bcs.S @2
 Move.B (A0)+,(A1)+
 Dbra Dx,@1
 @2

Beware when using the above trick, though, because it doesn’t work for long branches. In that case, a taken branch is faster than a branch not taken.

Preserving pointers into relocatable blocks across code that moves memory: If you need to lock a handle because you’re going to call a routine that moves memory but the handle (and the dereferenced handle) isn’t a parameter to that routine, then you can usually avoid locking the handle with a trick (which has the desirable side effect of reducing memory fragmentation). Assume the handle is in A3 and the pointer into the middle of the block is in A2. All you really have to do is save/restore the offset into the block; you don’t care if the block moves or not:

Don't UseUseSave
Move.L A3,A0Sub.L (A3),A2many cycles, 4 bytes
_HLock
;<move memory> ;<move memory>
Move.L A3,A0Add.L (A3),A2
_HUnlock

If the end of a routine is executing the same set of instructions two or more times, then you may be able to use this trick to save some bytes (at the expense of a few cycles). If the end of the routine looks like a subroutine, then have it Bsr to itself, like this (this example is drawing a BCD byte in D3):

Don't UseUseSave
Ror #4,D3Ror #4,D3many bytes
Move.B D3,D0Bsr @1
And #$000F,D0Rol #4,D3
Add #'0',D0
Move D0,-(SP)
_DrawChar
Rol #4,D3
Move.B D3,D0@1 Move D3,D0
And #$000F,D0And #$000F,D0
Add #'0',D0Add #'0',D0
Move D0,-(SP)Move D0,-(SP)
_DrawChar _DrawChar
Rts Rts

Use multiple entry points to set common parameters. Suppose you have a routine that takes a boolean value in D0 as an input and suppose you call this routine 20 times with the value of True and 30 times with the value of False. It would save code if you made two entry points that each set D0, and then branched to common code. For instance:

Don't UseUseSave
St D0Bsr MyProcTruemany bytes
Bsr MyProc
Sf D0Bsr MyProcFalse
Bsr MyProc
MyProcTrue:
St D0
Bra.S MyProc
MyProcFalse:
Sf D0
MyProc:MyProc:
;<blah>;<blah>
RtsRts

Clean up the stack with Unlk. If your routine already has a stack frame and you create some temporary data on the stack (in addition to the stack frame) then you don’t always need to remove it when you’re done with it -- the Unlk will clean it up for you. For instance, suppose you make a temporary Rect on the stack. You would normally remove it with Addq #8,SP but if it’s near the end of a function that does an Unlk, then leave the Rect there; it’ll be gone when the Unlk executes.

Well, hopefully Doo-Dah has many more learned disciples now. Don’t forget to sacrifice a copy of FullWrite in his honor at least once a year. That makes him happy.

P.S. If you want even more 68000 optimizations there is an excellent article by Mike Morton in the September, 1986, issue of Byte magazine called “68000 Tricks and Traps” (pgs. 163-172). There are more than half a dozen or so tricks in that article not covered in this article (sorry for not listing them here but I didn’t want to get sued for plagiarism).

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Adium 1.5.10.3 - Popular instant messagi...
Adium is a fast and free instant messaging client which supports AIM, ICQ, Jabber, MSN, Yahoo!, Google Talk, Yahoo! Japan, Bonjour, Gadu-Gadu, Novell Groupwise, SIP/SIMPLE (Text), and Lotus Sametime... Read more
CleanMyMac 3.8.1 - $39.95
CleanMyMac makes space for the things you love. Sporting a range of ingenious new features, CleanMyMac lets you safely and intelligently scan and clean your entire system, delete large, unused files... Read more
BusyCal 3.1.7 - Powerful calendar app wi...
BusyCal is an award-winning desktop calendar that combines personal productivity features for individuals with powerful calendar sharing capabilities for families and workgroups. Its unique features... Read more
Lyn 1.8.9 - Lightweight image browser an...
Lyn is a fast, lightweight image browser and viewer designed for photographers, graphic artists, and Web designers. Featuring an extremely versatile and aesthetically pleasing interface, it delivers... Read more
Tweetbot 2.5 - Popular Twitter client.
Tweetbot is a full-featured OS X Twitter client with a lot of personality. Whether it's the meticulously-crafted interface, sounds and animation, or features like multiple timelines and column views... Read more
Monolingual 1.7.8 - Remove unwanted OS X...
Monolingual is a program for removing unnecesary language resources from OS X, in order to reclaim several hundred megabytes of disk space. If you use your computer in only one (human) language, you... Read more
Dash 4.0.3 - Instant search and offline...
Dash is an API documentation browser and code snippet manager. Dash helps you store snippets of code, as well as instantly search and browse documentation for almost any API you might use (for a full... Read more
Posterino 3.3.6 - Create posters, collag...
Posterino offers enhanced customization and flexibility including a variety of new, stylish templates featuring grids of identical or odd-sized image boxes. You can customize the size and shape of... Read more
Apple Numbers 4.1.1 - Apple's sprea...
With Apple Numbers, sophisticated spreadsheets are just the start. The whole sheet is your canvas. Just add dramatic interactive charts, tables, and images that paint a revealing picture of your data... Read more
Apple Pages 6.1.1 - Apple's word pr...
Apple Pages is a powerful word processor that gives you everything you need to create documents that look beautiful. And read beautifully. It lets you work seamlessly between Mac and iOS devices, and... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Get up to speed with everything you need...
In case you haven’t heard, MU Origin just got a colossal new update with new all-server events, battle modes, and systems making their way to the land of MU. Here’s a handy guide to everything you need to know about the latest content. [Read... | Read more »
Minimalist puzzle game, Cuts, free on iO...
If you're looking for a gorgeous puzzle experience on iOS devices, developer Gamebra.in's aesthetically interesting puzzler, Cuts, is discounted to free on the iOS App Store right now. [Read more] | Read more »
Anime tactical RPG, War of Crown, comes...
If you're looking for another tactical RPG fix to go alongside your Fire Emblem Heroes campaigns check out Gamevil's newest, anime-inspired tactics RPG, War of Crown, which comes out tomorrow. [Read more] | Read more »
Fantasy MMORPG MU Origin adds new modes,...
MU Origin, Webzen’s highly popular fantasy MMORPG is getting ready to shake things up for the second time this year, as a new update makes its way to the Google Play and App Store from today. Introducing new systems, modes, and events, the land of... | Read more »
Blizzard is looking to hire a mobile dev...
A new thread on the popular video game rumor forum, NeoGAF, uncovered an interesting job listing over at Blizzard Entertainment. It appears the studio behindStarCraft, World of WarCraft, Hearthstone,andOverwatch is looking to bring on a new hire... | Read more »
Legend of Zelda meets Cooking Mama in ne...
Dungeon Chef is what happens when you mix the RPG elements (and style) of a Legend of Zelda game, with cooking elements. Although, now that The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild also has cookingelements, so maybe the gameplay is not so novel.... | Read more »
ChordFlow (Music)
ChordFlow 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Music Price: $6.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: ChordFlow is a chord sequencer with a unique 4-track polyphonic arpeggiator, extensive chord library, MIDI out and Ableton Link... | Read more »
The Walking Dead: A New Frontier is out...
The newest season of Telltale Games'The Walking Dead is well underway. After the release of the third episode, "Above the Law" about a month ago, episode four, "Thicker Than Water" is hot and ready for more zombies and gut-wrenching emotional... | Read more »
Best games we played this week
Another week, another new wave of mobile games do dive into. We've dug through the list of apps that came out this week to tell you which apps are worth your sweet time. And while there weren't too many games this week, there were some big ones.... | Read more »
Vignettes (Games)
Vignettes 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: Vignettes is a casual but unique exploration game without text or characters, where objects shapeshift as you spin them around... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Digital Paper Tablet Offers Distraction Free...
I typically spend 8-10 hours a day gazing at the screens in my laptops and iPad, as tools of my livelihood, I don’t as a rule use electronic devices for pleasure reading. I subscribe to a daily... Read more
“Today at Apple” Bringing New Educational Ses...
Apple has announced plans to launch dozens of new educational sessions next month in all 495 Apple Stores ranging in topics from photo and video to music, coding, art and design, and more. The hands-... Read more
Smart Finance Free Comprehensive Personal Fin...
Moscow-based indie developer, Alexander Survillo has announced the release and immediate availability of Smart Finance: Personal Finance, Budget & Money 1.1.4, an update to his comprehensive... Read more
12-inch 1.1GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for $1...
B&H has 12″ 1.1GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY & NJ sales tax only: - 12″ 1.1GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook: $1199.99 $100 off MSRP - 12... Read more
13-inch 2.7GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.7GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $130 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY & NJ tax only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro (MF839LL/A): $1169 $... Read more
15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pros available...
B&H Photo has the 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro available for $200 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro (MJLQ2LL/A): $1799.99 $200 off... Read more
13-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sale for up...
B&H Photo has the 2016 Apple 13″ Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock today for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY & NJ sales tax only: - 13″ 2.9GHz/512GB Touch Bar... Read more
Apple refurbished Apple TVs available for up...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 32GB and 64GB Apple TVs available for up to $30 off the cost of new models. Apple’s standard one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: -... Read more
12-inch 1.2GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for up...
B&H has 12″ 1.2GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for up to $160 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 12″ 1.2GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook: $1439.99 $160 off MSRP - 12″ 1... Read more
HyperX Ships Pulsefire FPS Gaming Mouse, Winn...
Your reporter is a longtime fan of gaming mice for general purpose coomnputing use, finding them typically superior in comfort and performance. HyperX, a division of Kingston Technology Company, Inc... Read more

Jobs Board

Product Manager, *Apple* Platforms - Viacom...
…Product Manager to drive the execution of its iOS and AppleTV experiences. The Apple Platform Product Manager will be a leader in our Agile/Scrum environment and Read more
Geek Squad *Apple* Master Consultation Agen...
**500662BR** **Job Title:** Geek Squad Apple Master Consultation Agent **Location Number:** 000286-Canton-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Geek Squad Read more
*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
**500710BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobile Master **Location Number:** 000279-North Olmsted-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Best Buy Apple Mobile Master Read more
*Apple* Engineering Specialist - CSRA (Unite...
Apple Engineering Specialist All times are in Eastern Daylight Time Requisition ID Job Locations US DC Washington DC Posted Date Category Engineering Sciences Read more
*Apple* Mac Computer Technician - GeekHampto...
…complex computer issues over the phone and in person? GeekHampton, Long Island's Apple Premium Service Provider, is looking for you! Come work with our crew Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.