TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Real-Time 3D
Volume Number:8
Issue Number:1
Column Tag:C Workshop

Real-Time 3D Animation

Using simple vector calculations to draw objects that move and spin in a 3-D environment

By Lincoln Lydick, Littleton, Colorado

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

Ever felt that real-time 3d animation was meant only for the “computer gods” to create? That mere mortal programmers are destined only to marvel at the feats of greatness? That finding example code on how to accomplish some of these tricks is impossible? Well it turns out not to be difficult at all. This example uses simple vector calculations to draw 6 objects which move and spin in a 3 dimensional environment. The viewer is also free to move, look at, and even follow any of the objects. To optimize the calculations, we’ll do all of this without SANE. This may sound difficult, but stick with me - it’s very simple

The Plan

In order to draw cubes and pyramids (henceforth called objects), we’ll use a single pipeline that translates, rotates and projects each in perspective. But first we need to develop a plan. Our plan will be a Cartesian coordinate system where all objects (including the viewer) will occupy an x, y, & z position. The objects themselves will be further defined by vertices and each vertex is also defined by an x, y, & z coordinate. For instance, cubes will be defined by eight vertices and pyramids by five - with lines drawn between.

Figure 1: Vertex assignment

Changing any value of a vertex represents movement within space. Therefore we can move the viewer or an object by simply changing an x, y, or z. If either the viewer or an object is required to move in the direction of some angle, then we provide a variable called velocity and apply these simple vector equations:

[EQ.1]  Xnew = Xold + sin(angle) * velocity
[EQ.2]  Ynew = Yold + cos(angle) * velocity

Translation

Objects will first be translated (moved) relative to the viewer’s position. This is required because rotation calculations (coming up next) require points to be rotated around a principal axis. Therefore, since the viewer may not be at the origin (Figure 2), we must move the object the same amount we would need to move the viewer to be at the origin (Figure 3). Note: I adopt the convention where the x and y axis are parallel to the plane, and the z axis depicts altitude.

So to perform this “relative” translation, we just subtract the components of the two points:

[EQ.3]  Xnew = Xold - ViewerX
[EQ.4]  Ynew = Yold - ViewerY
[EQ.5]  Znew = ViewerZ - Zold

Now this is all well and good, but what if the viewer is looking at the object? Wouldn’t the object then be directly in front of the viewer - and subsequently drawn at the center of the window? Yes, and this leads us to

Figure 2: Before & Figure 3: After Translation

Rotation

Since we’re providing the viewer with the ability to “look around”, we need to rotate each object by the viewer’s angle. This rotation will occur around the Z axis and is accomplished by applying these calculations to each vertex:

[EQ.6]  Xnew = Xold * cos(angle) - Yold * sin(angle)
[EQ.7]  Ynew = Xold * sin(angle) + Yold * cos(angle)

Figure 4: Before & Figure 5: After Rotation

Figure 4 shows the viewer looking at the object by some angle. Rotating the object by that angle indeed moves it centered on the y axis (Figure 5) and will be drawn centered in the window. Of course if the viewer and the object are at different heights, (it could be above or below us), we might not see it at all - but we’ll deal with that later.

Now if an object is allowed to rotate itself (i.e., spin), then we use the same calculations, although the angle will be unique to the object and not the viewers. Note, this rotation must occur with the object at the origin, and before it is translated relative to the viewer or rotated by the viewer’s angle. Therefore, we’ll first build the object around the origin, spin it, move it to its correct location, then translate and rotate as shown earlier. This may sound costly (and it is a little) but we’ll compute the net movement once and add it in one quick swoop.

Perspective Drawing

After translation and rotation, the final step is to plot each vertex on the window and connect them with lines. This requires describing a 3d scene on a 2d medium (the screen) and is accomplished by perspective projection. Therefore to plot a 3d point, we’ll use the following calculations:

[EQ.8]  H = X * kProjDistance / Y + origin.h
[EQ.9]  V = Z * kProjDistance / Y + origin.v

where origin.h and origin.v are the center of the window. Note: y must not be negative or zero - if it is, let it equal 1 before using the formula. kProjDistance is a constant that describes the distance of the conceptual projection plane from the viewer (see below).

Figure 6: Object being projected onto a projection plane.

This plane is the “window” to which all points get plotted. Points outside this plane are not visible. Experiment with this constant and you’ll notice smaller values (like 100) create a “fish-eye” lens effect. This is due, in part, to the ability of the projection plane to display more than we would normally see. A value between 400 to 500 approximates a 60 degree cone of vision.

Optimizations

1. All of our calculations are ultimately manipulated into integer values (in order to draw to a window) so calculations involving extended variables (decimal accuracy) are not required. However, we do need to find the sine and cosine of angles, which are fractional values, and requires the use of SANE. But SANE is notoriously slow and further requires all angles to be specified by radians - yuk! Our solution to this dilemma is simple, and very accurate: a Sine Table.

What we’ll do is calculate 91 values of sine (angles 0 to 90) once at initialization, multiply each by 1000, and save them in an indexed array of integers (multiplying by 1000 converts them into rounded integer values which are quite suitable). Finally, when we need to multiply by sine or cosine, we just remember to divide the answer back by 1000. If we desire finer rotations, we can break the angles down into minutes (which is provided by the constant kMinutes) having no effect on execution speed. Note: the cosine of an angle is found from the inverse index of the sine index (see procedure GetTrigValues()).

2. Due to object symmetry (and the fact we only rotate on one axis), redundant calculations can be avoided for the top plane of cubes. By calculating only the vertices of the base, we’ll be able to assign them to the top directly (except for the z component) - see the code.

3. Matrices might be employed but the concept of matrix multiplication tends to confuse an otherwise simple explanation, and is well covered in previous MacTutor articles (see references).

4. Finally, avoiding all traps entirely (esp. _LineTo, _CopyBits and _FillRect) and writing the bottleneck routines in assembly. This was done in the assembly version (except for _LineTo).

The Code

The interface code and error checking are minimal - in the interest of clarity. The only surprise might be the offscreen bit map: since double buffering (_CopyBits) is explored in many other articles, I decided to add the bit map.

After initialization, we check the mouse position to see if the viewer has moved. This is done by conceptually dividing the window into a grid and subtracting a couple of points. Once the velocity and angle of the viewer are determined, the sine and cosine values are also calculated. We also check the keyboard to see if either the “q” key or “w” key might be pressed (“q” = move up, “w” = move down). Armed with these values, we start translating and rotating all the points. If an object can spin, it is first built around the origin and rotated. Once all the rotations are complete and the vertices are found, we decide if the object is visible; if it’s not, we skip it and go on to the next. Otherwise, we connect the dots with lines. This continues until all the points and lines are drawn - then we transfer the bit image to the window and start the process all over (or until the mouse button is pressed - then we quit).

Of course more objects can be easily added (or even joined to create a single complex object) but at the expense of the frame rate. Frame rate refers to how many times the screen can be erased and redrawn per second (fps) and is always a major obstacle for real time simulations (usually sacrificing detail for faster animation). This example runs at 30 fps when written in assembly on a Macintosh II. This was clocked when looking at all the objects - and over 108 fps when looking away. This discrepancy is due to the line drawing, since all of the other calculations take place regardless of whether we see the objects or not. Therefore, speeds averaging 60+ fps (instead of 30) might be obtained if we wrote our own line drawing routines as well! Of course this C version runs somewhat slower but for the purpose of this article is much easier to understand.

One final thing worth mentioning - our lines are not mathematically clipped to the window (where the endpoint is recalculated to the intersection of the line and window). This will present a problem if we calculate an end greater than 32767 or less than -32767 (the maximum allowed by QuickDraw). Our solution is to not draw the object if it is too close.

The Future

If interest is shown, perhaps we’ll discuss a technique for real-time hidden line removal. There are a couple of methods that could be incorporated into this example. We might also look at adding rotations around the other two axis and linking them to the same control. This could be the first step to developing a flight simulator. Who knows, terrain mapping using octree intersections, other aircraft and airports, sound... the skies the limit (pun intended). Have fun.

References

Foley, vanDam, Feiner, Hughes. Computer Graphics, (2nd ed.) Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Good (but very general) explanation of geometrical transformations, rotations and perspective generation using matrix algebra. Also includes line clipping, hidden line removal, solid modeling, etc

Burger & Gillies. Interactive Computer Graphics. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Very similar to above and less expensive.

Martin, Jeffrey J. “Line Art Rotation.” MacTutor Vol.6 No.5. Explains some of the concepts presented here, plus rotations around 2 axis, matrix multiplication, and illustrates why we avoid SANE in the event loop.

Listing

/*---------------------------
#
#Program: Tutor3D™
#
#Copyright © 1991 Lincoln Lydick
#All Rights Reserved.
#
#
Include these libraries (for THINK C):
 MacTraps
 SANE

Note:   
 The procedures “RotateObject()” and “Point2Screen()”
 significantly slow this program because THINK C creates a
 JSR to some extra glue code in order to multiply and divide
 long words. Therefore both procs are written in assembly,
 however the C equivalent is provided in comments above.
 Simply replace the asm {} statement with the C code if you
 prefer.

---------------------------*/

#include  “SANE.h”
#include“ColorToolbox.h”

#define kMaxObjects6 /*num. objects*/
#define kMinutes 4 /*minutes per deqree*/
#define kProjDistance450  /*distance to proj. plane*/
#define kWidth   500 /*width of window*/
#define kHeight  280 /*height of window*/
#define kMoveUpKey 0x100000 /*’q’ key = move up*/
#define kMoveDnKey 0x200000 /*’w’ key = move down*/
#define kOriginH (kWidth/2) /*center of window */
#define kOriginV (kHeight/2)/*ditto*/
#define kMapRowBytes (((kWidth+15)/16)*2)

/* Define macros so MoveTo() & LineTo() accept Points.*/
#define QuickMoveTo(pt) asm{move.l pt, gOffPort.pnLoc}
#define QuickLineTo(pt) asm{move.l pt, -(sp)}asm {_LineTo}

enum  ObjectType {cube, pyramid};
typedef struct {shortx, y, z;
} Point3D;/*struct for a 3 dimensional point.*/

typedef struct {
 Point3Dpt3D;
 short  angle, sine, cosine;
} ViewerInfo;  /*struct for viewer’s position.*/

typedef struct { 
 enum   ObjectType objType;
 Point3Dpt3D;
 short  angle, halfWidth, height;
 Booleanrotates, moves;
} ObjectInfo;    /*struct for an object.*/

ViewerInfogViewer;
Point3D gDelta;
Point   gMouse, gVertex[8];
WindowPtr gWindow;
BitMap  gBitMap;
GrafPortgOffPort;
Rect    gVisRect, gWindowRect;
ObjectInfogObject[kMaxObjects];
short   gVelocity, gSineTable[(90*kMinutes)+1];
KeyMap  gKeys;

/****************************************************/
/* 
/* Assign parameters to a new object (a cube or pyramid).
/* 
/****************************************************/
static void NewObject(short index, enum ObjectType theType, short width, 
short height,
 Boolean rotates, Boolean moves, short positionX, short positionY, short 
positionZ)
{
 register ObjectInfo *obj;
 
 obj = &gObject[index];
 obj->angle = 0;
 obj->objType = theType;
 obj->halfWidth = width/2;
 obj->height = height;
 obj->rotates = rotates;
 obj->moves = moves;
 obj->pt3D.x = positionX;
 obj->pt3D.y = positionY;
 obj->pt3D.z = positionZ;
}

/****************************************************/
/* 
/* Initialize all our globals, build the trig table, set up an
/* offscreen buffer, create a new window, and initialize all
/* the objects to be drawn.
/****************************************************/
static void Initialize(void)
{
 extended angle;
 short  i;

 InitGraf(&thePort);
 InitFonts();
 InitWindows();
 InitMenus();
 TEInit();
 InitDialogs(0L);
 InitCursor();
 FlushEvents(everyEvent, 0);
 SetCursor(*GetCursor(crossCursor));

 if ((*(*GetMainDevice())->gdPMap)->pixelSize > 1)
 ExitToShell();  /*should tell user to switch to B&W.*/

 /*create a table w/ the values of sine from 0-90.*/
 for (i=0, angle=0.0; i<=90*kMinutes; i++, angle+=0.017453292/kMinutes)
 
 gSineTable[i] = sin(angle)*1000;

   /* give the viewer an initial direction and position */
 gViewer.angle = gViewer.sine = gViewer.pt3D.x = gViewer.pt3D.y = 0;
 
 gViewer.cosine = 999;
 gViewer.pt3D.z = 130;

 /*create some objects (0 to kMaxObjects-1).*/
 NewObject(0, cube, 120, 120, false, false, -150, 600, 0);     
 NewObject(1, cube, 300, 300, true, false, -40, 1100, 60);
 NewObject(2, cube, 40, 10, true, true, 0, 500, 0);
 NewObject(3, pyramid, 160, 160, false, false, 200, 700, 0);
 NewObject(4, pyramid, 80, -80, true, false, 200, 700, 240);
 NewObject(5, pyramid, 60, 60, false, false, -40, 1100, 0);

 SetRect(&gBitMap.bounds, 0, 0, kWidth, kHeight);
 SetRect(&gWindowRect, 6, 45, kWidth+6, kHeight+45);
 SetRect(&gVisRect, -150, -150, 650, 450);
 gWindow = NewWindow(0L, &gWindowRect, “\pTutor3D™”, true, 0, (Ptr)-1, 
false, 0);

 /*make an offscreen bitmap and port */
 gBitMap.rowBytes = kMapRowBytes;
 gBitMap.baseAddr = NewPtr(kHeight*kMapRowBytes);
 OpenPort(&gOffPort);
 SetPort(&gOffPort);
 SetPortBits(&gBitMap);
 PenPat(white);
}

/****************************************************/
/* Return the sine and cosine values for an angle.
/****************************************************/
static void GetTrigValues(register short *angle, register short *sine, 
register short *cosine)
{
 if (*angle >= 360*kMinutes)
 *angle -= 360*kMinutes;
 else if (*angle < 0)
 *angle += 360*kMinutes;

 if (*angle <= 90*kMinutes)
 { *sine = gSineTable[*angle];
 *cosine = gSineTable[90*kMinutes - *angle];
 }
 else if (*angle <= 180*kMinutes)
 { *sine = gSineTable[180*kMinutes - *angle];
 *cosine = -gSineTable[*angle - 90*kMinutes];
 }
 else if (*angle <= 270*kMinutes)
 { *sine = -gSineTable[*angle - 180*kMinutes];
 *cosine = -gSineTable[270*kMinutes - *angle];
 }
 else
 { *sine = -gSineTable[360*kMinutes - *angle];
 *cosine = gSineTable[*angle - 270*kMinutes];
}}

/****************************************************/
/* Increment an objects angle and find the sine and cosine
/* values. If the object moves, assign a new x,y position for
/* it as well. Finally, rotate the object’s base around the z
/* axis and translate it to correct position based on delta.
/* 
/* register Point*vertex; short i;
/* 
/* for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
/* {  vertex = &gVertex[i]; savedH = vertex->h;          
/* vertex->h=((long)savedH*cosine/1000 -
/* (long)vertex->v*sine/1000)+gDelta.x;
/* vertex->v=((long)savedH*sine/1000 +
/* (long)vertex->v*cosine/1000)+gDelta.y;
/* }
/****************************************************/
static void RotateObject(register ObjectInfo       *object)
{
 Point  tempPt;
 short  sine, cosine;

 object->angle += (object->objType == pyramid) ? -8*kMinutes : 2*kMinutes;
 GetTrigValues(&object->angle, &sine, &cosine);
 if (object->moves)
 { object->pt3D.x += sine*20/1000; /*[EQ.1]*/
 object->pt3D.y += cosine*-20/1000;/*[EQ.2]*/
 }

 asm  { moveq    #3, d2   ; loop counter
 lea    gVertex, a0; our array of points
 loop:  move.l   (a0), tempPt ;  ie., tempPt = gVertex[i];
 move.w cosine, d0
 muls   tempPt.h, d0 ;  tempPt.h * cosine
 divs   #1000, d0; divide by 1000
 move.w sine, d1
 muls   tempPt.v, d1 ;  tempPt.v * sine
 divs   #1000, d1; divide by 1000
 sub.w  d1, d0   ; subtract the two
 add.w  gDelta.x, d0 ;  now translate x
 move.w d0, OFFSET(Point, h)(a0);  save new h

 move.w sine, d0
 muls   tempPt.h, d0 ;  tempPt.h * sine
 divs   #1000, d0; divide by 1000
 move.w cosine, d1
 muls   tempPt.v, d1 ;  tempPt.v * cosine
 divs   #1000, d1; divide by 1000
 add.w  d1, d0   ; add em up
 add.w  gDelta.y, d0 ;  now translate y
 move.w d0, OFFSET(Point, v)(a0);  save new v
 addq.l #4, a0   ; next vertex address
 dbra   d2, @loop; loop
 }
}

/****************************************************/
/* Rotate a point around z axis and find it’s location in 2d
/* space using 2pt perspective.
/*
/* saved = pt->h;/*saved is defined as a short.*/
/* pt->h = (long)saved*gViewer.cosine/1000 -
/* (long)pt->v*gViewer.sine/1000;  /*[EQ.6]*/
/* pt->v = (long)saved*gViewer.sine/1000 +
/* (long)pt->v*gViewer.cosine/1000;/*[EQ.7]*/
/* /*[EQ.8 & 9]*/
/* if ((saved = pt->v) <= 0)saved = 1;/*never <= 0*/
/* pt->h = (long)pt->h*kProjDistance/saved+kOriginH;
/* pt->v = (long)gDelta.z*kProjDistance/saved+kOriginV;
/****************************************************/
static void Point2Screen(register Point *pt)
{asm  { 
 move.w gViewer.cosine, d0; [EQ.6]
 muls   OFFSET(Point, h)(pt), d0;  pt.h * cosine
 divs   #1000, d0; divide by 1000
 move.w gViewer.sine, d1
 muls   OFFSET(Point, v)(pt), d1;  pt.v * sine
 divs   #1000, d1; divide by 1000
 sub.w  d1, d0   ; subtract, yields horizontal
 move.w gViewer.sine, d1  ; [EQ.7]
 muls   OFFSET(Point, h)(pt), d1;  pt.h * sine
 divs   #1000, d1; divide by 1000
 move.w gViewer.cosine, d2
 muls   OFFSET(Point, v)(pt), d2;  pt.v * cosine
 divs   #1000, d2; divide by 1000
 add.w  d2, d1   ; add, yields vertical
 bgt    @project ; if (vertical<=0) 
 moveq  #1, d1   ; then vertical=1

project:muls#kProjDistance, d0;  [EQ.8]. horiz*kProjDist
 divs   d1, d0   ; divide by the vertical
 addi.w #kOriginH, d0;  add origin.h
 move.w d0, OFFSET(Point, h)(pt);  save the new hor
 move.w #kProjDistance, d0; [EQ.9]
 muls   gDelta.z, d0 ;  height * kProjDistance
 divs   d1, d0   ; divide by the vertical
 addi.w #kOriginV, d0;  add origin.v
 move.w d0, OFFSET(Point, v)(pt);  save the new vert
 }
}

/****************************************************/
/* For all of our cubes and pyramids, index thru each -
/* calculate sizes, translate, rotate, check for visibility,
/* and finally draw them.
/****************************************************/
static void DrawObjects(void)
{
 register ObjectInfo *obj;
 short  i;

 for (i = 0; i < kMaxObjects; i++)
 { obj = &gObject[i];
 gDelta.x = obj->pt3D.x - gViewer.pt3D.x; /*[EQ.3]*/
 gDelta.y = obj->pt3D.y - gViewer.pt3D.y; /*[EQ.4]*/
 gDelta.z = gViewer.pt3D.z - obj->pt3D.z ; /*[EQ.5]*/

 if (obj->rotates) /*does this one rotate?*/
 { gVertex[0].h=gVertex[0].v=gVertex[1].v=gVertex[3].h = -obj->halfWidth;
 gVertex[1].h=gVertex[2].h=gVertex[2].v=gVertex[3].v = obj->halfWidth;
 RotateObject(obj);
 }
 else   /*translate*/
 { gVertex[0].h = gVertex[3].h = -obj->halfWidth + gDelta.x;
 gVertex[0].v = gVertex[1].v = -obj->halfWidth + gDelta.y;
 gVertex[1].h = gVertex[2].h = obj->halfWidth + gDelta.x;
 gVertex[2].v = gVertex[3].v = obj->halfWidth + gDelta.y;
 }

 if (obj->objType == pyramid) /* a pyramid?*/
 { gVertex[4].h = gDelta.x; /*assign apex*/
 gVertex[4].v = gDelta.y;
 }
 else
 { gVertex[4] = gVertex[0]; /*top of cube.*/
 gVertex[5] = gVertex[1];
 gVertex[6] = gVertex[2];
 gVertex[7] = gVertex[3];
 }

 Point2Screen(&gVertex[0]); /*rotate & plot base*/
 Point2Screen(&gVertex[1]);
 Point2Screen(&gVertex[2]);
 Point2Screen(&gVertex[3]);
 gDelta.z -= obj->height;
 Point2Screen(&gVertex[4]);

 if (! PtInRect(gVertex[4], &gVisRect)) /* visible?*/
 continue;

 QuickMoveTo(gVertex[0]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[1]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[2]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[3]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[0]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[4]);

 if (obj->objType == pyramid)
 { QuickLineTo(gVertex[1]); /*Finish pyramid.*/
 QuickMoveTo(gVertex[2]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[4]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[3]);
 } else {
 Point2Screen(&gVertex[5]); /*Finish cube.*/
 Point2Screen(&gVertex[6]);
 Point2Screen(&gVertex[7]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[5]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[6]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[7]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[4]);
 QuickMoveTo(gVertex[1]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[5]);
 QuickMoveTo(gVertex[2]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[6]);
 QuickMoveTo(gVertex[3]);
 QuickLineTo(gVertex[7]);
}} }

/****************************************************/
/* Check mouse position (velocity is vertical movement,
/* rotation is horiz.), calculate the sine and cosine values of
/* the angle, and update the viewer’s position. Finally, check
/* the keyboard to see if we should move up or down.
/****************************************************/
static void GetViewerPosition(void)
{
 GetMouse(&gMouse);
 if (! PtInRect(gMouse, &gWindowRect))
 return;
 gVelocity = -(gMouse.v-(kOriginV+45))/5;
 gViewer.angle += (gMouse.h-(kOriginH+6))/14;
 GetTrigValues(&gViewer.angle, &gViewer.sine, &gViewer.cosine);

 gViewer.pt3D.x += gViewer.sine*gVelocity/1000; /*[EQ.1]*/
 gViewer.pt3D.y += gViewer.cosine*gVelocity/1000; /*[EQ.2]*/

 GetKeys(&gKeys);
 if (gKeys.Key[0] == kMoveUpKey)
 gViewer.pt3D.z += 5;
 if (gKeys.Key[0] == kMoveDnKey)
 gViewer.pt3D.z -= 5;
}

/****************************************************/
/* Draw a simple crosshair at the center of the window.
/****************************************************/
static void DrawCrossHair(void)
{
 QuickMoveTo(#0x008200fa);/*ie., MoveTo(250, 130)*/
 QuickLineTo(#0x009600fa);/*ie., LineTo(250, 150)*/
 QuickMoveTo(#0x008c00f0);/*ie., MoveTo(240, 140)*/
 QuickLineTo(#0x008c0104);/*ie., LineTo(260, 140)*/
}

/****************************************************/
/* Main event loop - initialize & cycle until the mouse
/* button is pressed.
/****************************************************/
void main(void)
{
 Initialize();
 while (! Button())
 { FillRect(&gBitMap.bounds, black);
 GetViewerPosition();
 DrawObjects();  /*main pipeline*/
 DrawCrossHair();
 CopyBits(&gBitMap, &gWindow->portBits, &gBitMap.bounds, &gBitMap.bounds, 
0, 0L);
 }
 FlushEvents(mDownMask+keyDownMask, 0);
}







  
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Duplicate Annihilator 5.7.5 - Find and d...
Duplicate Annihilator takes on the time-consuming task of comparing the images in your iPhoto library using effective algorithms to make sure that no duplicate escapes. Duplicate Annihilator... Read more
BusyContacts 1.0.2 - Fast, efficient con...
BusyContacts is a contact manager for OS X that makes creating, finding, and managing contacts faster and more efficient. It brings to contact management the same power, flexibility, and sharing... Read more
Capture One Pro 8.2.0.82 - RAW workflow...
Capture One Pro 8 is a professional RAW converter offering you ultimate image quality with accurate colors and incredible detail from more than 300 high-end cameras -- straight out of the box. It... Read more
Backblaze 4.0.0.872 - Online backup serv...
Backblaze is an online backup service designed from the ground-up for the Mac.With unlimited storage available for $5 per month, as well as a free 15-day trial, peace of mind is within reach with... Read more
Little Snitch 3.5.2 - Alerts you about o...
Little Snitch gives you control over your private outgoing data. Track background activity As soon as your computer connects to the Internet, applications often have permission to send any... Read more
Monolingual 1.6.4 - Remove unwanted OS X...
Monolingual is a program for removing unnecesary language resources from OS X, in order to reclaim several hundred megabytes of disk space. If you use your computer in only one (human) language, you... Read more
CleanApp 5.0 - Application deinstaller a...
CleanApp is an application deinstaller and archiver.... Your hard drive gets fuller day by day, but do you know why? CleanApp 5 provides you with insights how to reclaim disk space. There are... Read more
Fantastical 2.0 - Create calendar events...
Fantastical is the Mac calendar you'll actually enjoy using. Creating an event with Fantastical is quick, easy, and fun: Open Fantastical with a single click or keystroke Type in your event details... Read more
Cocktail 8.2 - General maintenance and o...
Cocktail is a general purpose utility for OS X that lets you clean, repair and optimize your Mac. It is a powerful digital toolset that helps hundreds of thousands of Mac users around the world get... Read more
Direct Mail 4.0.4 - Create and send grea...
Direct Mail is an easy-to-use, fully-featured email marketing app purpose-built for OS X. It lets you create and send great looking email campaigns. Start your newsletter by selecting from a gallery... Read more

Fast & Furious: Legacy's Creati...
| Read more »
N-Fusion and 505's Ember is Totally...
| Read more »
These are All the Apple Watch Apps and G...
The Apple Watch is less than a month from hitting store shelves, and once you get your hands on it you're probably going to want some apps and games to install. Fear not! We've compiled a list of all the Apple Watch apps and games we've been able to... | Read more »
Appy to Have Known You - Lee Hamlet Look...
Being at 148Apps these past 2 years has been an awesome experience that has taught me a great deal, and working with such a great team has been a privilege. Thank you to Rob Rich, and to both Rob LeFebvre and Jeff Scott before him, for helping me... | Read more »
Hands-On With Allstar Heroes - A Promisi...
Let’s get this out of the way quickly. Allstar Heroes looks a lot like a certain other recent action RPG release, but it turns out that while it’s not yet available here, Allstar Heroes has been around for much longer than that other title. Now that... | Read more »
Macho Man and Steve Austin Join the Rank...
WWE Immortals, by Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment and WWE, has gotten a superstar update. You'll now have access to Macho Man Randy Savage and Steve Austin. Both characters have two different versions: Macho Man Randy Savage Renegade or Macho... | Read more »
Fearless Fantasy is Fantastic for the iF...
I actually had my first look at Fearless Fantasy last year at E3, but it was on a PC so there wasn't much for me to talk about. But now that I've been able to play with a pre-release version of the iOS build, there's quite a bit for me to talk... | Read more »
MLB Manager 2015 (Games)
MLB Manager 2015 5.0.14 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 5.0.14 (iTunes) Description: Guide your favorite MLB franchise to glory! MLB Manager 2015, officially licensed by MLB.com and based on the award-... | Read more »
Breath of Light (Games)
Breath of Light 1.0.1421 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.1421 (iTunes) Description: Hold a quiet moment. Breath of Light is a meditative and beautiful puzzle game with a hypnotic soundtrack by... | Read more »
WWE WrestleMania Tags into the App Store
Are You ready to rumble? The official WWE WrestleMania app, by World Wrestling Entertainment, is now available. Now you can get all your WrestleMania info in one place before anyone else. The app offers details on superstar signings, interactive... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro (refurbished) avai...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pros available for $829, or $270 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.... Read more
Save up to $80 on iPad Air 2s, NY tax only, f...
 B&H Photo has iPad Air 2s on sale for $80 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $469.99 $30 off - 64GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $549.99 $50 off - 128GB iPad... Read more
iMacs on sale for up to $205 off MSRP
B&H Photo has 21″ and 27″ iMacs on sale for up to $205 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 21″ 1.4GHz iMac: $1019 $80 off - 21″ 2.7GHz iMac: $1189 $110 off - 21″ 2.9GHz... Read more
Färbe Technik Offers iPhone Battery Charge LI...
Färbe Technik, which manufactures and markets of mobile accessories for Apple, Blackberry and Samsung mobile devices, is offering tips on how to keep your iPhone charged while in the field: •... Read more
Electronic Recyclers International CEO Urges...
Citing a recent story on CNBC about concerns some security professionals have about the forthcoming Apple Watch, John Shegerian, Chairman and CEO of Electronic Recyclers International (ERI), the... Read more
Save up to $380 with Apple refurbished iMacs
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished iMacs available for up to $380 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac – $2119 $... Read more
Mac minis on sale for up to $75 off, starting...
MacMall has Mac minis on sale for up to $75 off MSRP including free shipping. Their prices are the lowest available for these models from any reseller: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $459.99 $40 off - 2.6GHz Mac... Read more
College Student Deals: Additional $50 off Mac...
Take an additional $50 off all MacBooks and iMacs at Best Buy Online with their College Students Deals Savings, valid through April 11, 2015. Anyone with a valid .EDU email address can take advantage... Read more
Mac Pros on sale for up to $260 off MSRP
B&H Photo has Mac Pros on sale for up to $260 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 3.7GHz 4-core Mac Pro: $2799, $200 off MSRP - 3.5GHz 6-core Mac Pro: $3719.99... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $100 o...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $999 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Read more

Jobs Board

DevOps Software Engineer - *Apple* Pay, iOS...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Sr. Technical Services Consultant, *Apple*...
**Job Summary** Apple Professional Services (APS) has an opening for a senior technical position that contributes to Apple 's efforts for strategic and transactional Read more
Lead *Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail...
**Job Summary** Job Summary The Lead ASC is an Apple employee who serves as the Apple business manager and influencer in a hyper-business critical Reseller's store Read more
*Apple* Pay - Site Reliability Engineer - Ap...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.