TweetFollow Us on Twitter

LS FORTRAN 3.0, Pt 1
Volume Number:8
Issue Number:1
Column Tag:Jörg's Folder

Language Systems FORTRAN 3.0

By Jörg Langowski, MacTutor Regular Contributing Author; Neil Ticktin, Editor, MacTutor Magazine

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

Language Systems FORTRAN 3.0

FORTRAN 2.1 was already very robust, generated good, fast code, and all in all, allowed programs that ran on mainframes to be ported very quickly to the Macintosh. Also, subroutines could be assigned to menu items, and the runtime system would handle the menu selections automatically for you, files could be OPENed using the standard file dialogs, and many more goodies.

A Multi-dialect FORTRAN

When I opened the 3.0b2 version of the LS FORTRAN (LSF) compiler, amazingly enough I discovered that one could still make substantial improvements to this development system. First of all, Language Systems proved that one can actually make several existing FORTRAN dialects live happily together in one system. Although I have only VAX programs to test here, I believe their claim that Cray, Microsoft, Data General, and of course standard ANSI 77 FORTRAN programs mostly compile without modifications and produce the expected results. There is a whole section of the manual (20 pages, to be precise) devoted to describing the compatibility with other systems, and the changes that may still be necessary for porting the programs. The manual - or rather Karen Rall, who wrote it - “thinks for you”; the Mac user who has never before transferred a FORTRAN program from a mainframe will even get instructions about file-transfer protocols, Macintosh file attributes and VAX record types. There are -vax and -cray compiler switches for porting programs from those respective machines. Even the VAX pre-connected filenames SYS$INPUT, SYS$OUTPUT, SYS$PRINT and SYS$ERROR are supported. Also, all Microsoft compiler directives are recognized and respected, if possible

But porting programs is not the whole story. You’ll want to develop new programs, test out those bugs, and for that part LSF now adds new debugging options. Of course, the trace and dump options always existed which would trace subroutine entry and exit, and allow to dump variable values to the output screen. Now there is the new -debug compiler switch with four levels: debug=1 adds code that displays the file name and source line number where a runtime error occurred; and when you press the caps lock key during execution, a window pops up where the source line numbers that are being executed flash by. At debug=2, in addition, the heap is checked at the end of each subroutine, and at level 3, after each line of source code.

Of course, you can generate symbol tables for use with SADE, to have source code level debugging.

Toolbox Calling Conventions

The Mac toolbox interface has been improved even further. Now, when you declare functions as PEXTERNAL or CEXTERNAL, character constants passed as arguments are automatically converted to the Pascal (length byte followed by text) or C format (zero-terminated string). The names of PEXTERNAL routines are always passed to the linker in upper case, regardless of the case sensitivity of the FORTRAN compiler chosen (ignore case or case-sensitive), and CEXTERNAL names are always passed in case-sensitive format. These are the formats that the linker expects for C and Pascal. You can declare variables GLOBAL, which means they are application globals referenced from A5; again, to match the Pascal and C naming conventions, you can use the PGLOBAL and CGLOBAL declarations.

System 7

As promised, the new LS FORTRAN supports AppleEvents. The runtime library includes code that automatically recognizes the four required AppleEvents, ‘oapp’, ‘odoc’, ‘pdoc’, and ‘quit’ (see this column in V7#11). If you compile a FORTRAN program with the background processing option, it will react when another program sends it an AppleEvent. As an example, I have listed two programs provided on the LSF disks: the main program opens a second application, sends it some data via an intermediate file, and the second application transfers the processed data back to the main program and quits.

The inclusion of AppleEvents in LSF opens up a whole range of perspectives: for instance, one could imagine a ‘compute server’, a Quadra for example, sitting somewhere on the network with a math library, comprising lots of tiny applications, and programs on other Macintoshes that use this library. Or a way of distributed processing on the network, where a CPU-intensive program can ‘steal’ time from other machines when they are not being used. The routine F_OpenDocWaiting() is used to synchronize such parallel processes; it will continue only when the program has received an ‘odoc’ event. A very rudimentary but effective way of parallel processing.

Although (up to now) only the four required AppleEvents are recognized automatically by the FORTRAN runtime library, you can send any event you like, as shown in the third example. HyperCard 2.1 understands the event ‘dosc’ which will make it execute a HyperTalk script contained in the event’s data. The program sets up such a script and sends it to HyperCard; if you don’t have HyperCard opened, it will issue an error message. When you have HyperCard running and start the program, you’ll hear one beep and see the card window disappear and reappear. Very impressive.

The edition manager of System 7 is also supported in a way; you can publish a FORTRAN-created file by executing CLOSE(UNIT=iunit, STATUS=’PUBLISH’). ‘Subscribing’ to such a ‘published’ document from another program that supports the edition manager means that changes made by the publisher to the document are automatically reflected in the version of the document opened by the other program (I’ll give an introduction to the Edition manager in a later column, haven’t fully under-stood it myself yet).

The last System 7 feature that has been included into LSF 3.0 is alias support. If you open an alias to a file from within a FORTRAN program, the original file will be accessed, just as you would expect.

New Compiler Options

The compiler includes support for generating 68040-specific code, and the optimizer has been improved. As far as I could tell from some limited comparisons (comparing the assembly output generated for the Linpack and Matmult benchmarks, see V7#1), the code generated for the 68040 looks extremely similar to the 68030 code, except for some floating point FMOVE instructions, which are different. I’ll check whether there is a large speed difference on a 68040 between code compiled with the -mc68030 and the -mc68040 options as soon as I have access to a Quadra.

The quality of the code has improved from version 2.1. The Linpack and matrix multiplication benchmarks (V7#1) now run at the same speed as the Absoft MacFortranII compiled versions, although the Whetstone benchmark is still 20% slower. Note, however, that Absoft is much slower if you insist on full Pascal calling conventions, which is standard in LSF.

The most striking difference between the code created by the LSF and the Absoft compiler occurred when I ran a program called “Paranoia” which tests the accuracy and consistency of math operations. While LSF at opt=3 passed all the tests with no problems reported, Absoft’s code (with the basic optimizations) reported a lot of errors and got stuck halfway through. I include the two compiled versions on the source code disk so you can see for yourself.

At this moment, LSF seems to be superior to Absoft FORTRAN in almost all aspects, from the quality of the code to the Macintosh environment, to System 7 support; there may still be a slight disadvantage for integer-computation intensive programs (not for floating point). The new Absoft FORTRAN should be out by now, so we’ll soon see what that brings. From the information they gave in their ad, especially the 68040 support looks very interesting; however, the AppleEvents support is unique to LSF.

Other Features

There are many other improvements made in LSF 3.0 that you notice browsing through the manual, most often printed in boldface text because they are nonstandard extensions. The chapter about optimization was missing from my beta manual; it would have been interesting to see what they actually changed to get the better performance, but I’ll have to wait for the final version. There is a long appendix on how to use HyperCard as a front end to FORTRAN applications, which should be especially interesting under System 7, where both HyperCard and FORTRAN programs can pass AppleEvents to each other. Of course, you can still write XCMDs in FORTRAN, as was always possible. Also, 4th Dimension external commands are supported. All in all, there is almost no reason anymore why seasoned FORTRAN programmers should learn Pascal or C (although I like C++ :->).

Next time, some C++ again.

Listing 1
c
cMAIN
c
cPart of an AppleEvents example in the 
cFORTRAN manual.
c
cInvokes program Transform and passes it an 
carray for processing.
c
cCompile this demo with -bkg=4.
c
 PROGRAM MAIN
 REAL*4 Pressure(50)
 INTEGER*4NumPts/50/
 INTEGER*2ERROR,F_SendEvent
 LOGICAL*4F_OpenDocWaiting
 EXTERNAL F_SendEvent,F_OpenDocWaiting
 
 ! initialize an array
 DO J = 1,NumPts
 Pressure(J) = J
 END DO
 
 ! open TRANSFORM
 ERROR = F_SendEvent(‘oapp’,’TRANSFORM’,’’)
 IF (ERROR <> 0) CALL AlertBox(‘AppleEvent Error reported!’)
 
 ! send the data as binary file
 OPEN(10,FILE=’Main.Data’,form=’unformatted’)
 WRITE(10) NumPts,Pressure
 CLOSE(10)
 ERROR = F_SendEvent(‘odoc’,’TRANSFORM’,’Main.Data’)
 IF (ERROR <> 0) 
 1 CALL AlertBox(‘AppleEvent Error reported!’)
 
 ! wait for the data to return
 DO WHILE (.TRUE.)
 IF (F_OpenDocWaiting()) LEAVE
 END DO

 ! close TRANSFORM
 ERROR = F_SendEvent(‘quit’,’TRANSFORM’,’’)
 IF (ERROR <> 0) 
 1 CALL AlertBox(‘AppleEvent Error reported!’)
 
 ! print the data
 OPEN(10,FILE=*,form=’unformatted’)
 READ(10) NumPts,Pressure
 CLOSE(10,status=’delete’)
 WRITE(*,100) (Pressure(i),i=1,NumPts)
100FORMAT(5(x,f10.4)/)
 END

c
cTRANSFORM
c
cPart of an AppleEvents example in the FORTRAN manual.
c
cIs called by MAIN, processes an array and returns it.
c
cCompile this demo with -bkg=4.
c
 PROGRAM TRANSFORM ! a utility program to be
 REAL*4 DataSet(500) ! called by many other processes
 INTEGER*4NumPts
 INTEGER*2ERROR,F_SendEvent
 LOGICAL*4F_OpenDocWaiting
 EXTERNAL F_SendEvent,F_OpenDocWaiting

 ! loop until quit event comes
 DO WHILE (.TRUE.)
 IF (F_OpenDocWaiting()) THEN
 
 ! read in data
 OPEN(10,FILE=*,form=’unformatted’)
 READ(10) NumPts,(DataSet(J),J=1,NumPts)
 CLOSE(10,status=’delete’)
 
 ! transform it
 DO J = 1,NumPts
 DataSet(J) = DataSet(J) * 2.0
 END DO
 
 ! send the data back
 OPEN(10,FILE=’Transform.out’,form=’unformatted’)
 WRITE(10) NumPts,(DataSet(J),J=1,NumPts)
 CLOSE(10)
 ERROR =
 1  F_SendEvent(‘odoc’,’*sender’,’Transform.out’)
 IF (ERROR <> 0) 
 1 CALL AlertBox(‘AppleEvent Error reported!’)
 ELSE
 ! do nothing
 END IF
 END DO
 END

c
cSendScript
c
cSends a script to HyperCard 2.1 via the ‘dosc’ event.
c
cHyperCard v2.1 must be currently executing
c befor running this demo.
c
cCompile this demo with -bkg=4.
c
 program SendScript

 integer*2 err, F_SendScript
 external F_SendScript
 character*20  ch(3)
 character*5ch5
 
 ch(1) = ‘beep’
 ch(2) = ‘hide card window’
 ch(3) = ‘show card window’

 err = F_SendScript(‘HyperCard’,ch,3)
 
 if (err <> 0) then
 write(ch5,’(i5)’) err
 call alertbox
 1 (‘Error ‘//ch5//’ occurred during SendScript.’)
 write(*,*) 
 1 ‘Error ‘//ch5//’ occurred during SendScript.’
 end if
 end
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

calibre 2.17 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
OmniGraffle Pro 6.1.2 - Create diagrams,...
OmniGraffle Pro helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use... Read more
OmniGraffle 6.1.2 - Create diagrams, flo...
OmniGraffle helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use Graffle to... Read more
RoboForm 2.0.2 - Password manager; syncs...
RoboForm is a password manager that offers one-click login, mobile syncing, easy form filling, and reliable security. Password Manager. RoboForm remembers your passwords so you don't have to! Just... Read more
Apple MainStage 3.1 - Live performance t...
Love the sound you got on your recording? MainStage 3 makes it easy to bring all the same instruments and effects to the stage. Everything from the Sound Library and Smart Controls you're familiar... Read more
Freeway Pro 7.0.2 - Drag-and-drop Web de...
Freeway Pro lets you build websites with speed and precision... without writing a line of code! With its user-oriented drag-and-drop interface, Freeway Pro helps you piece together the website of... Read more
A Better Finder Rename 9.44 - File, phot...
A Better Finder Rename is the most complete renaming solution available on the market today. That's why, since 1996, tens of thousands of hobbyists, professionals and businesses depend on A Better... Read more
Stacks 2.6.9 - New way to create pages i...
Stacks is a new way to create pages in RapidWeaver. It's a plugin designed to combine drag-and-drop simplicity with the power of fluid layout. Features: Fluid Layout: Stacks lets you build pages... Read more
Sid Meier's Civilization: Beyond Ea...
Sid Meier's Civilization: Beyond Earth is a new science-fiction-themed entry into the award-winning Civilization series. Set in the future, global events have destabilized the world leading to a... Read more
Logic Pro X 10.1 - Music creation and au...
Apple Logic Pro X is the most advanced version of Logic ever. Sophisticated new tools for professional songwriting, editing, and mixing are built around a modern interface that's designed to get... Read more

Choice Provisions is Set to Launch Destr...
Choice Provisions is Set to Launch Destructamundo on iOS This Month Posted by Tre Lawrence on January 23rd, 2015 [ permalink ] Choice Provisions – home stable to | Read more »
King of Thieves – An Interview With Zept...
Ahead of the release of ZeptoLab’s King of Thieves, we were able to ask ZeptoLab’s co-founder, Semyon Voinov, a few questions about the inspiration behind the game and what that means for the Cut the Rope franchise. | Read more »
Handle Review
Handle Review By Jennifer Allen on January 23rd, 2015 Our Rating: :: SPEEDY ORGANIZINGUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Handle is a very convenient way of juggling your emails, To Do list, and Calendar all through one... | Read more »
The New Disney Inquizitive App Offers a...
The New Disney Inquizitive App Offers a Place for Fans to Take Disney Quizzes Posted by Tre Lawrence on January 23rd, 2015 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Hands-On With Cut the Rope Developer Zep...
Marking quite a departure from ZeptoLab’s past successes, namely the Cut The Rope series, King of Thieves is shaping up to be quite promising. Due for release in February, we were lucky enough to have some time with a preview build to see exactly... | Read more »
Fast Fishing Review
Fast Fishing Review By Jennifer Allen on January 23rd, 2015 Our Rating: :: LIVES UP TO ITS NAMEUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Fishing is far from relaxing in Fast Fishing, but it is fun.   | Read more »
The LEGO Movie Video Game is Available N...
The LEGO Movie Video Game is Available Now for iOS Posted by Ellis Spice on January 23rd, 2015 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Satellina Review
Satellina Review By Jennifer Allen on January 23rd, 2015 Our Rating: :: TWITCHY BUT TACTICALUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Satellina requires quick thinking and twitchy fingers, and it’s pretty fun.   | Read more »
Tail Drift, the Crazy 360 Degree Flyer,...
Tail Drift, the Crazy 360 Degree Flyer, Has Gone Free-to-Play in a New Update Posted by Jessica Fisher on January 22nd, 2015 [ permalink ] | Read more »
PureSkate 2 Review
PureSkate 2 Review By Tre Lawrence on January 22nd, 2015 Our Rating: :: ALMOST ALL AIRUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad PureSkate 2 lets one’s fingers do the skateboarding.   | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

College Student Deals are back, additional $5...
Take an additional $50 off all MacBooks and iMacs at Best Buy Online with their College Students Deals Savings, valid through April 11, 2015. Anyone with a valid .EDU email address can take advantage... Read more
iPhone 6 and 6 Plus GIve Apple Half Of US Mob...
Chicago-based Consumer Intelligence Research Partners, LLC (CIRP) have released analysis of the results of its research on mobile phone manufacturers for the calendar quarter that ended December 31,... Read more
Save $100 on MacBook Airs with 256GB of stora...
B&H Photo has 256GB MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 11″ 1.4GHz/256GB MacBook Air: $999 $100 off MSRP - 13″ 1.4GHz/256GB MacBook... Read more
21-inch 2.7GHz iMac on sale for $1179, save $...
B&H Photo has the 21″ 2.7GHz iMac on sale for $1179 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $120 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model from any... Read more
iPhone Usage Rates by State Correlate With Ed...
Chitika Insights notes that despite iPhones being the largest source of smartphone Internet traffic in North America, their latest study finds a relatively high degree of variation of iPhone usage... Read more
ProGearX Extendable Pole “Pov/Selfie Stick” M...
There’s something inescapably narcissistic about the concept of selfies as they’ve developed as a smartphone-driven social (particularly social media) phenomenon that rubs me the wrong way. However,... Read more
iPad Air 2 on sale for up to $100 off MSRP, 2...
 Best Buy has iPad Air 2s on sale for up to $100 off MSRP on their online store for the next two days. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale prices available for online... Read more
Roundup of Apple refurbished MacBook Pros and...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 MacBook Pros and MacBook Airs available for up to $400 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and... Read more
Sale! 13-inch 2.8GHz Retina MacBook Pro for $...
 B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.8GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1599 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model... Read more
Next OS X/iOS Version Upgrades Should Concent...
On stage at Apple’s World Wide Developers’ Conference in June 2009, Bertrand Serlet, the company’s Senior Vice President of Software Engineering at the time, announced that the forthcoming OS X... Read more

Jobs Board

Business Development Manager - *Apple* Pay...
**Job Summary** Apple Pay is seeking an experienced business development manager to support the identification, recruitment, negotiation and ongoing management of Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC)- Retail S...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
*Apple* Lead Operator, GSOC - Apple (United...
**Job Summary** Apple is seeking an exceptional, customer service oriented and experienced persons to fulfill the role of Apple Lead Operator (ALO) as part of the Read more
Order Support Supervisor- *Apple* Online Sto...
**Job Summary** The Apple Online Store (AOS) Order Administration team is looking for an Order Support Supervisor to manage and lead a team of Specialists through the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.