TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Think C 5.0
Volume Number:7
Issue Number:9
Column Tag:Tools of the Trade

THINK C 5.0

By Chris Faigle, Richmond, VA

Think C 5.0 is here! This new version of Symantec’s compiler and environment has an incredible number of new features. I have had a few months to use it (since I was a beta tester), and I feel it is so far superior to 4.0, that they are not in the same class. This article is too short to describe all of the new features, but I will try to hit all of the major changes, and a lot of the minor ones. Just to whet you appetite, I’ll mention a few now: Completely rewritten compiler, new disassembler, new code optimizer, new preprocessor, fuller object implementation, class browser, and supports MPW header files!

The Compiler

The compiler has been completely rewritten. The folks at Symantec decided that in order to support all of the features that they wanted, they needed to almost start over. This cost them a lot of time and effort, but the results were worth it: A C compiler so flexible, that it can become ANSI conformant, down to even recognizing trigraphs, or change to accept Objects and Think C Extensions, use the native 68000 floating point structure, change how it decides a function’s prototype, generate MacsBugs labels in both short and long format, and even run a global Optimizer over the code. I will try to elaborate briefly on all of these areas and more.

Figure 1: Options Dialog (Language Settings Shown)

Compiler Options

The Options dialog (Figure 1) is your main control over the compiler. It has now been expanded to have six areas of options: Preferences, Language Settings, Compiler Settings, Code Optimization, Debugging and Prefix. Each option, when selected will bring up a help message in the dialog. The Factory Settings button will change the settings in each area, not just the area that you are in, to the settings that THINK C comes with. All of the settings are saved in the project, and you can also change the settings that Think C will open a new project with. Further, most of the options can also be changed by using #pragma options preprocessor directive in your source. Two other options for applications are located in the Set Project Type dialog, and they are Far Code: jump tables (but not segments) >32k and Far Data: global data up to 256k.

  File:   0 “Hello World.c”
  File:   1 “MacTraps”
  File:   2 “ANSI”

Segment “%GlobalData” size=$000622
 _abnormal_exit  -$000610(A5)    file=”ANSI”
 __console_options -$000536(A5)
 __log_stdout    -$0004E2(A5)
 __ctype-$000424(A5)
 errno  -$000324(A5)
 _ftype -$0002F0(A5)
 _fcreator-$0002EC(A5)
 __file -$0002E8(A5)
 __copyright-$00003A(A5)

Segment “Seg2” size=$000010 rsrcid=2
 main   $000004 JT=$000072(A5)  file=”Hello World.c”

Segment “Seg3” size=$00479A rsrcid=3
 malloc $000004     file=”ANSI”
 calloc $000040
 realloc$0000C0
 free   $0001C6
 atexit $000290
    etc

Figure 2: Link Map (Abbreviated)

Language Settings

Three main areas occupy the language settings (Figure 1). The ANSI conformance section has options that when on are ANSI conformant. These are things like #define _STDC_. The easiest way to provide complete ANSI conformance is to click the ANSI Conformance button that is added to the dialog, however, you must read this section of the manual. You can get burned if you do not understand all of the ramifications of being totally ANSI conformant. For example, if you are completely ANSI conformant, the compiler will think ‘????’ is a trigraph and not a long (as used in File and Creator types).

The Language extensions section allows you to choose to support the ThinkC extensions (like asm{}, pascal keyword, and // comments), ThinkC and Object extensions, or no extensions. The prototype section selects whether Think C strictly enforces prototypes, and if it does, whether it requires an explicit prototype, or whether it will infer what the prototypes is from either the function, or a call to that function, whichever comes first.

Compiler Settings

This area let’s you change some of the ways that Think C generates code, like whether to generate 68020 & 68881 instructions, instead of plain 68000. It also lets you change several of the default characteristics of Think’s Objects. In addition, it will let you use ‘Native Floating Point’ format. The manual has a long discussion of all of the ramifications of this, but suffice it to say that floating point calls are faster with this option on (1:10 vs 1:14 for 32000 sin’s & no SANE), but the ANSI library (and any that you have that use floating point variables) must be recompiled with this option on, and you should probably not distribute libraries with this feature on, unless the recipient is also going to use it.

Code Optimization

Think C now provides six different types of optimization that the user can select. You can use all of them, or choose only the ones you want, plus automatic register assignment. Unfortunately, almost all can interfere to some extent with the Source Debugger, since they change calls and variables, and can make the code look somewhat different than what the Debugger expects. I have not really had any serious problems when source debugging, but it is generally a good idea to save the optimization for your builds.

Defer and Combine Stack Adjusts (Figure 3) accumulates adjustments to the stack until they are necessary. In the example, without DCSA on, two stack modifications are made [ADDQ.L #$2,A7], but with it on, they are removed. The compiler is even smart enough to recognize that instead of accumulating them into [ADDQ.L #$4,A7] they can be removed altogether, since [UNLK A6] is the next instruction!

Supress Redundant Loads (Figure 4) will not load variables into registers if they are already in a register. Furthermore, it will also perform moves from registers [0014MOVE.W D0,$FFFA(A6)] rather than from memory [0014 MOVE.W $FFFC(A6),$FFFA(A6)] if the variable is already in a register. This instruction is faster to both load (2 less bytes) and faster to execute.

Induction Variable Elimination will optimize loops that access arrays by remembering the address of the last accessed element of the array and adding the size of the element to access the next one, rather than making the Mac perform 32-bit multiplication every time. An example of the code that would be optimized by this is:

/* 1 */

Example source code:
main()
{
 short  x;
 short  y;

 func1(x);
 func2(y);
}
Defer and Combine Stack Adjusts OFF:
main:
00000000        LINK      A6,#$FFFC
00000004        MOVE.W    $FFFE(A6),-(A7)
00000008        JSR       $0000(A5)
0000000C        ADDQ.L    #$2,A7
0000000E        MOVE.W    $FFFC(A6),-(A7)
00000012        JSR       $0000(A5)
00000016        ADDQ.L    #$2,A7
00000018        UNLK      A6
0000001A        RTS
Defer and Combine Stack Adjusts ON:
main:
00000000        LINK      A6,#$FFFC
00000004        MOVE.W    $FFFE(A6),-(A7)
00000008        JSR       $0000(A5)
0000000C        MOVE.W    $FFFC(A6),(A7)
00000010        JSR       $0000(A5)
00000014        UNLK      A6
00000016        RTS

Figure 3: Sample Code Optimization (Defer and Combine Stack Adjusts)

/* 2 */

Example Source Code:
main()
{
 short  i=1;
 short  j;
 short  k;

 j=i+1;
 k=j;
}
Supress Redundant Loads OFF:
main:
00000000        LINK      A6,#$FFFA
00000004        MOVE.W    #$0001,$FFFE(A6)
0000000A        MOVEQ     #$01,D0
0000000C        ADD.W     $FFFE(A6),D0
00000010        MOVE.W    D0,$FFFC(A6)
00000014        MOVE.W    $FFFC(A6),$FFFA(A6)
0000001A        UNLK      A6
0000001C        RTS
Supress Redundant Loads ON:
main:
00000000        LINK      A6,#$FFFA
00000004        MOVE.W    #$0001,$FFFE(A6)
0000000A        MOVEQ     #$01,D0
0000000C        ADD.W     $FFFE(A6),D0
00000010        MOVE.W    D0,$FFFC(A6)
00000014        MOVE.W    D0,$FFFA(A6)
00000018        UNLK      A6
0000001A        RTS

Figure 4: Sample Code Optimization (Supress Redundant Loads)

/* 3 */

int a[ARRAY_SIZE], i;

 for(i=0;i<ARRAY_SIZE;++i)
 a[i]=GetNextElement();

Code Motion will remove expressions from a loop that are not changed or accessed within that loop:

/* 4 */
            
while(!feop(fp)) {
 i=x*5;
 DoSomething(fp,i);
 }

would be recast as:

/* 5 */

 i=x*5;
 while(!feop(fp))
 DoeSomething(fp,i);

CSE Elimination reduces common expressions by assigning them to a temporary variable:

/* 6 */

 a=i*2+3;
 b=sqrt(i*2);

would be treated as:

/* 7 */

 temp=i*2;
 a=temp+3;
 b=sqrt(temp)

Register Coloring will search your code for variables that are never used at the same time and assign them to the same variable or register if it is available:

/* 8 */

 int  i,j;
 for(i=0;i<10;++i) {
 DoSomething(fp,i)
 }
 for(j=0;j<10;++j) {
 DoSomethingElse(fp,i)
 }

would be treated as:

/* 9 */

 int  i;
 for(i=0;i<10;++i) {
 DoSomething(fp,i)
 }
 for(i=0;i<10;++i) {
 DoSomethingElse(fp,i)
 }

Debugging

In this area are all the previous options for control over the debugger, plus some directives to the compiler about MacsBug names (both short and long format are now supported), and whether the compiler should try to always generate a stack frame, which is helpful when debugging.

Prefix

Instead of only allowing the inclusion of <MacHeaders> as in 4.0, 5.0 allows you, on a project-wide basis, to specify preprocessor directives in this dialog. The default is #include <MacHeaders>, but you could add for example:

/* 10 */

 #define_DEBUG_  1

then _DEBUG_ will be defined for every source file. When you are finished with your debugging and want to build the final, simply remove the line from the prefix dialog. (I love this feature!) However, you can still only #include one precompiled header file.

Preprocessor directives

Think C now has an expanded set of preprocessor directives, including __option to test compiler option settings:

/* 11 */

 #if __option(native_fp) && !__option(mc68881)
 (Do I have native floating point and non-68881?)

and also the #pragma options to change compiler settings on the fly, some even within functions:

/* 12 */

 #pragma options (macsbug_names,!long_macsbug_names)
 (Change macsbug labels to short format)

Think C’s Objects

Think C 5.0 is not a C++ implementation, although it is based upon it. 5.0 has a much fuller object implementation than 4.0 and also seems to be cleaner in general. There have been quite a few changes, some of which would have been tough to implement without a complete rewrite, but because Symantec bit the bullet and did it, Think C’s objects will now move back and forth from C++ with relative ease. If you use Think C’s objects, you definitely should take the time to read 5.0’s manual because this and ANSI conformance are the two most affected area of the compiler!

Some of the changes from 4.0 are:

new and delete are now keywords instead of functions

class functions

class variables

private, protected and public variables

virtual and non-virtual methods

constructors and destructors

allocators and deallocators

sizeof(classname) no longer allowed

member() to test class membership

__class operator returns a pointer to the class information record

Differences from C++:

Every class must have at least one method

no operator overloading

public, protected and private are not keywords

constructors cannot create an object

friends are not allowed

no multiple inheritance

inline methods not supported

member() and __class are extensions to Think C

Think C’s manual provides a good explanation of Think C’s

implementation of Objects and also provides some good examples of some of the subleties that you should be aware of.

Inline Assembler

Think C’s inline assembler also has changes of note. The asm cpu {} construct will now recognize 68000, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68881, and 68882, and has more stringent error reporting if you are using addressing modes or instructions that are not supported. Note, however, that using the inline assembler disables the global optimizer for that function. Therefore it may be advisable to do your assembly in separate functions that could not be optimized anyway.

The Editor

The Think C editor has been criticized in the past as being the weakest part of the environment. Symantec has made a number of changes to it including:

home, end, page up & page down keys on an extended keyboard now work

del (not Delete) on an extended keyboard is a right-wise delete

Command-left arrow and Command-right arrow skip to previous and next word

The editor also supports markers, and they are even compatible with MPW. Markers are added by moving the cursor to the desired line, choosing Mark and entering the name of the marker. To access a marker, click on the title bar of the source window with the command key pressed. A pop-up menu, like the header file list, will appear. Selecting one will jump the editor directly to the source line containing that marker.

The Debugger

At first glance, the Debugger seems the same as in 4.0, and basically the interface is, but the underlying code has changed substantially. First, the debugger can save it’s session so the next time that you debug all of your expressions and breakpoints will already be entered. Second, the debugger is faster to load and run, than 4.0.

The Disassembler

That’s right, now you can dissassemble on the fly! While the output is not of TMON quality, it can be (and has been) very helpful. Note that all the optimizer assembly examples (Figures 3 & 4) were generated by Think C itself! (Pretty neat, huh?) This is another one of my favorite features.

The Preprocessor

Another handy feature is the addition of a preprocessor. This will output to an untitled window the contents of a source file after the preprocessor has worked it’s magic on it. This can be useful in cases where you want to see what your source really looks like or you have code that needs different #includes or #defines under different compiler options, and you need to verify that your preprocessor directives are correct.

The Class Browser

Again, another great feature! The class browser (Figure 5) displays graphically the dependence of your objects (as long as they have been compiled). Each box is also a pop-up menu which displays the methods defined in each class. Selecting a method opens that source file, and jumps to where that method is defined.

Figure 5: Class Browser (For NewDemoClass.Π)

Think Class Library 1.1

The Think Class Library has changed a fair amount. 1.1 containss quite a few new classes (including a dialog class, several text classes, and classes for pop-up menu), and has changes to some of the existing classes. Several classes, CPane for instance, can now use an optional 32-bit coordinate system. Symantec has tried to make changes that will not affect existing applications, but the price of progress is incompatibility. Really though, the changes to the TCL are beyond the scope of the article, and any developer that has a serious project under TCL will have to spend some time reading before he can even try to compile his classes. Symantec does provide a complete list of TCL changes, documentation for all the classes, and each file that has been changed has comments in the source denoting the changes.

System 7.0, header files and MacTraps

Think C 5.0 is, of course, completely compatible with System 7.0. Further, it includes all of the needed 7.0 libraries and headers. The really nice thing is that now all the header files are compatible with MPW, so you will no longer need extremely complicated #IF THINK_C directives to determine whether you are compiling under MPW or THINK C. Also THINK_C is defined to be 5 and not 1, so you can tell by using #if THINK_C<5 whether you have an older version or not.

MacTraps has now been split into two files: MacTraps which has most of the same toolbox traps, and MacTraps2, which has the Inside Mac VI traps, and some of the more arcane traps that developers rarely use.

Demos/Sample Source

The original demos (MiniEdit, Bullseye, and HexDump DA) are still shipped, but Think C now includes Object Bullseye, and LearnOOP. Neither of these object oriented demos require the Think Class Library, and both are excellent tutorials. The TCL Demos still include TinyEdit, Starter, and ArtClass, but now also includes NewClassDemo (Figure 5). New ClassDemo demos the use of almost every class imaginable. If you are interested to see one of the new features implemented, here is the best place to look.

Little Things

Sometimes the little things make all of the difference, and one of the nicest little changes is the Add File dialog box. It has been changed to allow the addition of multiple files at the same time, and can even add all the files in a folder with one button press. Another little feature is an application included with Think C 5.0 called Prototype Helper, that will both produce prototypes from existing source, and also change the source to ‘new-style’ C function declarations.

In Summary

Think C 5.0 has really impressed me. Not only has it addressed many of it’s former failings, it has an incredible number of new features. Even though Think C 4.0 was an extremely popuplar compiler, Symantec decided to completely rewrite it. This is the sort of product dedication that produces the kind of fantastic software that Think C 5.0 is.

Special thanks to Michael Rockhold of Symantec Corp. for his time and effort in answering my questions for this article.

 
AAPL
$112.65
Apple Inc.
+3.24
MSFT
$47.52
Microsoft Corpora
+1.78
GOOG
$511.10
Google Inc.
+6.21

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

BBEdit 11.0.2 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more
ExpanDrive 4.2.1 - Access cloud storage...
ExpanDrive builds cloud storage in every application, acts just like a USB drive plugged into your Mac. With ExpanDrive, you can securely access any remote file server directly from the Finder or... Read more
Adobe After Effects CC 2014 13.2 - Creat...
After Effects CC 2014 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous After Effects customer). After Effects CS6 is still available... Read more
Command-C 1.1.7 - Clipboard sharing tool...
Command-C is a revolutionary app which makes easy to share your clipboard between iOS and OS X using your local WiFi network, even if the app is not currently opened. Copy anything (text, pictures,... Read more
Tidy Up 4.0.2 - Find duplicate files and...
Tidy Up is a complete duplicate finder and disk-tidiness utility. With Tidy Up you can search for duplicate files and packages by the owner application, content, type, creator, extension, time... Read more
Typinator 6.3 - Speedy and reliable text...
Typinator turbo-charges your typing productivity. Type a little. Typinator does the rest. We've all faced projects that require repetitive typing tasks. With Typinator, you can store commonly used... Read more
GraphicConverter 9.5 - Graphics editor w...
GraphicConverter is an all-purpose image-editing program that can import 200 different graphic-based formats, edit the image, and export it to any of 80 available file formats. The high-end editing... Read more
Toast Titanium 12.0.1 - The ultimate med...
Toast Titanium goes way beyond the very basic burning in the Mac OS and iLife software, and sets the standard for burning CDs, DVDs, and now Blu-ray discs on the Mac. Create superior sounding audio... Read more
QuickBooks 2015 16.0.2.1422 R3 - Financi...
Save 20% on QuickBooks Pro for Mac today through this special discount link QuickBooks Pro 2013 helps you manage your business easily and efficiently. Organize your finances all in one place, track... Read more
Remotix 3.0.6 - Access all your computer...
Remotix is a fast and powerful application to easily access multiple Macs (and PCs) from your own Mac. Features: Complete Apple Screen Sharing support - including Mac OS X login, clipboard... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

The Hit List — Simply Powerful Tasks, To...
The Hit List — Simply Powerful Tasks, To-Dos, Projects, & Reminders 2.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Productivity Price: $9.99, Version: 2.0 (iTunes) Description: >> LAUNCH SPECIAL: The Hit List 2 for iPhone is ONLY $9.99... | Read more »
Mahjong Journey Review
Mahjong Journey Review By Jennifer Allen on December 18th, 2014 Our Rating: :: STEADY MATCHINGiPad Only App - Designed for the iPad Aimed at the more laid back gamer, Mahjong Journey isn’t for everyone, but those looking for some... | Read more »
Emoji Type - custom keyboard with predic...
Emoji Type - custom keyboard with predictive emojis 0.4.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Utilities Price: $.99, Version: 0.4.0 (iTunes) Description: Emoji Type is custom keyboard for iOS 8 that auto suggests emojis as you type. ABOUT... | Read more »
Game of the Year 2014 – 148Apps Staff Pi...
The end of 2014 is almost here, which can only mean one thing. Okay it can mean a lot of things, but in this specific context it means Game of the Year lists! Which is why the 148Apps staff have all picked their favorites from the past year. And why... | Read more »
UponPixels Review
UponPixels Review By Jennifer Allen on December 18th, 2014 Our Rating: :: CREATIVE TYPOGRAPHYUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Add cool typography and objects to your photos with the easy to use UponPixels.   | Read more »
The Vikings are Coming! CastleStorm’s Ne...
The Vikings are Coming! CastleStorm’s New Update Adds a Survival Mode Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 18th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Duet Display (Productivity)
Duet Display 0.3.3 Device: iOS Universal Category: Productivity Price: $9.99, Version: 0.3.3 (iTunes) Description: Duet Display allows you to use your iPad or iPhone as an extra display. Developed by a team of ex-Apple engineers,... | Read more »
Dragon Quest III Review
Dragon Quest III Review By Jennifer Allen on December 18th, 2014 Our Rating: :: DATED BUT NOT WITHOUT MERITUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad A walk down memory lane isn’t foolproof for Dragon Quest III, but it has its... | Read more »
8 KEMCO JRPGs Are Just $0.99 in Celebrat...
8 KEMCO JRPGs Are Just $0.99 in Celebration of the Holidays Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 18th, 2014 [ permalink ] KEMCO has announc | Read more »
Brothers in Arms 3: Sons of War Review
Brothers in Arms 3: Sons of War Review By Jennifer Allen on December 18th, 2014 Our Rating: :: FUN BUT PUSHYUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Brothers in Arms 3: Sons of War could be great fun, but its plethora of... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Save up to $400 on MacBooks with Apple Certif...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 MacBook Pros and MacBook Airs available for up to $400 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and... Read more
Save up to $300 on Macs, $30 on iPads with Ap...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad at The Apple Store for Education and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free,... Read more
iOS and Android OS Targeted by Man-in-the-Mid...
Cloud services security provider Akamai Technologies, Inc. has released, through the company’s Prolexic Security Engineering & Research Team (PLXsert), a new cybersecurity threat advisory. The... Read more
KMI MIDI K-Board Great Gift for Amateur &...
The K-Board is a MIDI Nano keyboard for music creation for iPad, Android, And computers; the easiest way to make music with iPads & Android tablets, and Mac, Windows, or Linux computers. Ultra-... Read more
Amazon offers 15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook P...
 Amazon.com has the 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1699 including free shipping. Their price is $300 off MSRP. Stock is limited, so act now if you’re interested. Read more
Holiday sales continue: MacBook Pros for up t...
 B&H Photo has new MacBook Pros on sale for up to $300 off MSRP as part of their Holiday pricing. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1699... Read more
Holiday sale: Mac minis available for up to $...
 B&H Photo has new 2014 Mac minis on sale for up to $80 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $459 $40 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac mini: $629 $70 off... Read more
Google Search App For iOS Gets A Major Makeov...
Google has given iOS users an early Christmas present with a substantial update of it’s not-very-often-upgraded Google Search app. Google Search has been my go-to tool for Web searches since it was... Read more
ShopKeep Apple Pay And Chip Card Reader Avail...
ShopKeep, a cloud-based technology provider to more than 10,000 small business owners to manage retail shops and restaurants with iPads, has released its new Apple Pay and chip card reader. This... Read more
Holiday sale! 27-inch 5K iMac for $2299, save...
 B&H Photo has the 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac in stock today and on sale for $2299 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Project Manager / Business Analyst, WW *Appl...
…a senior project manager / business analyst to work within our Worldwide Apple Fulfillment Operations and the Business Process Re-engineering team. This role will work Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.